US 751385 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
UNITED STATES Patented February 2, i904.
SPECIFICATIGN forming part of Letters Patent No. 751,385.
dated February 2, 1904.
Application led June 6;1901. vItenewed September 3, 1902. Serial No. 1ZZ,GIL. (No model.)
[o all whom, it may concern:
Be it known that I, CLELAND DAvIs, lieutenant in the United States Navy, statioed at Washington, in the District of Columbia, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Powder Charges; and I do hereby-'declare the following to be a seription of the invention, such as will `enable others skilled in the art to whichit appertairis to make and use the same.
My invention relates to improvements in powder chargesfor use in guns, and itrelates more especially to smokeless powder which is made of a tough colloid. l
My invention will be understood by refer'- ence to the accompanying drawings, in which the same parts are indicated by the same letters throughout the several views.
l Figure l represents the powder 'charge'rnade up of a single' grain, which nearly or quite fills the powder-chamber of the gun. Fig. 2 is an end view of the single grain shown inFig. 1. Fig. 3 represents the powder charge built up of a plurality of single grains similar to that shown in Figs. l and 2, but held together by strips of the colloid; and Fig. section along the line 4 4 ofFig. 3 and looking in the direction ofthefarrows.
rIhe grain,it will be noted, is made up of a plurality of fiat cakes of colloid joined together by ribs a, leaving axial passages a bounded by the cakes and ribs, which axial passages indent the outer surface ofthe grain, causing this surface have an irregular contour. It will be seen that each one of these passagesa isentirely independent of all of the other passagesand that the number and position of the ribs a9 may be varied at will, thus increasing or decreasing the density of, loading. The ribs a should preferably be of the same thicknessv as the fiat cakes which they hold together.
In the form of device shown in Figs. 3 and 4 a plurality of the grains A4, similar generally to those shown in Figs'l and 2, are bound together by longitudinal strips A5 of the same colloid material of which the grains are composed. The position of these strips A5 may be varied, and the number may be increased or decreased to meetv -the special conditions required.V Again, the strips may be dovetailed .-cnarge. full, clear, and exact de` 4 represents a 'ralty of pieces which constitute Ithe'rate of combustion of the charge will be gun along with the charge,
or otherwise secured in the grains. These strips should preferably be of the same thickness as the cakes and ribs, so that between the grains they may be completely consumed simultaneously with the rest of the powder It will be seen that these strips not only hold the powder grains together, but also serve to increase the density of loading.
Itis obviously desirable to have the ties for the, various grains of thesame material as the material is introduced into the charge, and the-denslty of loading is therefore increased.
It will also be obvious that the cakes-and rios l neednot form an integral mass, but may be built up and held together in any suitable way.
The function of the ribs a is primarily to` hold the cakes of powder apart and to form passages throughout the entire length of the charge, sothat instantaneous ignition may take place, and to prevent the cakes from falling together before thel combustion has been completed. By having the powder cakes fiat and supported by ribs the burning surface of the intelior cells vof the charge will uniformly in.
crease as the combustion proceeds, while the .decrease of the burning surface, due to the burning ofi' of the outer contour of the charge, will be lessened, by having this outer contour of indented or irregular form, as shown.
Among the advantages of this invention arethat thecharge is introduced into the powderf-chamber in a single piece, or in a plua single unit;
substantially uniform, preventing irregularities ofpressure in the boreof the gun; there will be no inert matter introduced into the taking up important space in the powder-chamber and lessening the density of loading, and, most important of all, each particle of the powder will maintain its relative positionlwithregard to the other particles until the entire lcharge is Moreover, in `modern guns the powder-chamber is ordinarily larger than the bore proper of the gulr, and by making the powder charge in a single unit of approxivpowder charge itself, for in this .case no inert from the moment of ignition until the charge is nearly consumed;
of iiat plates separated from each other by thin longitudinal ribs, the said plates and ribs forming an integral mass, thus forming a cellular structure Ahaving shallow broad perforations therethrough,'substantially as described.v
'3. A powder chargev composed ofone orv more grains each formed of a plurality of plates of colloid material separated by thin ribs of the same material, hus forming a cellulafstucture having shallow broad perforathat -it has been proposed to wind up a ribbed tionstherethrough, substantially asdescribed. sheetof colloidmaterial intoapowder charge, 4. A powder charge composed of one or the ribs separating the adjacent portions 'of more grains each consisting of a 'series of the sheet into passages; but in these cases the plates of colloid material separated by thin rate of combustion increases progressively longitudinal ribs,the said ribs and plates formuntil the charge is nearly consumed and the evolution of gas is not uniform, but increases mately the diameter'o` the powder-chamber the powder chargel will not be driven] down the bore of the gun.
The vouter edges of the at cakes may be flat, but are preferably rounded, .as shown in the drawings, so 'as to enable the charge to lit more snugly in the powder-chamber.
I am aware that it. has been proposed to make powder charges of an integral mass having axial and radial ,perforationa and also ing an integral mass, thus forming a cellular structure lhaving shallowtherethrough, substantially as described. I By having a series of liat plates separated by a few ribs, as shown, the rate of combustion is substantially uniform, and the consequent evolution of :the gases is substantially uniform until the entire charge is practically consumed. The ribs merely serve as spacers, and the number of these used should be merely suiiicient to lenablethe charge to lnaintainits original shape until consumed.
Having thus described my inven tion, what I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the rUnited States, is-
l. A powder-grain consisting of a plurality of lat plates separated from each other by tif 'in longitudinal ribs. thus forming a cellular sfu-.':turchaving shallow broad perforations tlwfothi'ough, substantially as described.
A pomler-grain composed of a plurality of grains held togetherby longitudinal strips recesses in said grains, scribed.
6. In apowder charge, the combination with a plurality of grains each rovided with axial passages, of a plurality `o jstrips of the pow- -severalcakes or grains and binding the same irmly together, substantially as and 'for the purposes described.
presence of two witnesses.
CLELAND DAVIS'. l
GUs'rAvE R. 'i'ioivufsoin FRED ENGLERT.
of similar material, said strips projecting intosubstantially as deder materiall projecting into recesses in the broad perforations 5. A powder charge consisting of aplurality In testimony whereof I aix my signatu'rcin