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Publication numberUS7523462 B1
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 10/446,336
Publication dateApr 21, 2009
Filing dateMay 27, 2003
Priority dateMay 27, 2003
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS8539510, US20090171927, US20140039952
Publication number10446336, 446336, US 7523462 B1, US 7523462B1, US-B1-7523462, US7523462 B1, US7523462B1
InventorsDiaz H. Nesamoney, Weipeng Paul Yan, Jameison Bear Martin, Maurice Mate Radalj, Fayyaz Ahmad Younas
Original AssigneeInternational Business Machines Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method for providing a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data
US 7523462 B1
Abstract
A method for providing a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data of operational systems includes capturing streams of operational events in real time, combining the events with contextual data, and materializing a resulting view. The resulting view includes a dynamically defined view of the stream of events and provides visibility into a current state of the operational system. A view snapshot is continuously incrementally updated by a view maintenance engine as a stream of rows. The views are used to evaluate a business rule. An alert is fired when a business rule holds true. To enable the view in a view engine, a SQL string characterizing the view is parsed into a parse tree, which is normalized to form a query graph. The query graph is then optimized to obtain a query plan, which is compiled into an operator graph. Queries are executed based upon the operator graph.
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Claims(8)
1. In a view engine comprising a business activity monitoring system, a method for determining a content of a snapshot of a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data of an operational system, comprising:
capturing a stream of operational events in real time;
materializing a resulting view, wherein said resulting view comprises a dynamically defined view of said stream of events; and wherein said resulting view provides visibility into a current state of said operational system from a plurality of views, wherein said materializing of said resulting view comprises:
receiving a view query in a structured query language (SQL);
executing a “from” clause within said view query, wherein said “from” clause joins across said plurality of views, wherein one of said plurality of views comprises an event view, and wherein a remainder of said plurality of views comprises a context view;
modeling an event associated with said event view as a data stream;
modeling said context view as a relation;
retrieving a row corresponding to said context view;
constructing a compound row comprising a row from said data stream joined with said retrieved row from said context view; and
depicting said compound row as a snapshot.
2. In a business activity monitoring system, a method for enabling a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data of an operational system in a view engine, comprising:
capturing a stream of operational events in real time;
materializing a resulting views wherein said resulting view comprises a dynamically defined view of said stream of events, and wherein said resulting view provides visibility into a current state of said operational system from a plurality of views, wherein said materializing of said resulting view comprises:
receiving a structured query language (SQL) string;
parsing said SQL string into a parse tree;
normalizing said parse tree to form a query graph;
optimizing said query graph to obtain a query plan;
compiling said query plan into an operator graph; and
executing a query based upon said operator graph, wherein said query defines said view.
3. The method as recited in claim 2 wherein said operator graph comprises a query execution plan comprising an operator selected from a group consisting of:
event scan, wherein said event scan operator subscribes to said stream of events and gets rows corresponding to said events;
view exchange, wherein said view exchange operator maintains a snapshot of said view;
remote scan, wherein said remote scan operator scans a context table;
nested loop join, wherein said nested loop join operator performs a nested loop joining operation;
group by, wherein said group by operator performs a group by and a set function evaluation operation; and
projection, wherein said projection operator performs an operation wherein wanted columns are projected.
4. The method as recited in claim 2 wherein said operator graph is executed in a view maintenance engine comprising a business activity monitoring system by a method for continuously and incrementally updating a view snapshot of a view comprising, comprising:
determining a processing plan for continually maintaining said view;
subscribing said view to a stream publisher wherein said stream publisher publishes a stream of data corresponding to said view; and
continuously maintaining said view corresponding to said stream, wherein said continuously maintaining of said view comprises:
forming a row for at least one event in said stream of events; and
joining retrieved contextual data with said row to form a compound row within said view, wherein said contextual data comprises data relevant to said at least one event.
5. The method as recited in claim 4 wherein said view comprises a joinder selected from a group consisting of a first event view and a second event view, and said input stream with a context view for said contextual data.
6. The method as recited in claim 4 wherein said view snapshot comprises an input stream for a subsequent view.
7. The method as recited in claim 4 wherein said contextual data comprises data selected from a group consisting of static data and slowly changing data.
8. The method as recited in claim 7 wherein said contextual data comprises said slowly changing data and wherein a change in said contextual data is reflected upon joining said change in said contextual data with a subsequent event row.
Description
FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The present invention relates to the field of business intelligence. More specifically, embodiments of the present invention relates to a method for providing a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data.

BACKGROUND ART

Business intelligence and data warehousing software enable information from disparate parts of an enterprise to be obtained with relative ease. Great decision-making benefits are generated by business intelligence (BI). BI software integrates querying, reporting, on-line analytic processing (OLAP), data mining, and data warehousing functionality.

Such decision-making benefits are provided by BI software because they enable a user to process information from as many databases as comprise a business (or other) organization's data storage resources. Further, BI software allows analysis of needed transactions and summaries, without having to know which databases, servers, and/or other information sources from which the information underpinning such transactions and summaries were derived.

By way of background with respect to the applications to business and other enterprises, an ‘event’ represents a business event, which is a business activity, transaction, or a change in the state of a business entity, for instance, in a large business. Implicitly, events comprise a time of occurrence and an identity. Examples of events include, but are not limited to, issuing a purchase order, taking a customer service call, replenishing supplies, issuing a forecast, and posting an expense item.

A ‘context’ represents data associated with an event. Typically, contexts are data that are descriptive of the events. A context can also comprise historic summary data, which can be available in a data warehouse or operational data store (ODS). Context data may also be obtained from other systems of record. Context data provides additional information that may be required for adding meaning to an event. Context data, in so far as it can be conventionally utilized, can be evaluated to ascertain whether or not a given event should trigger a heightened state of scrutiny and observation by analysts of the business environment in which a business or other enterprise is immersed.

Modern businesses face significant and increasing needs to obtain real time access to key business events. This need, for instance, can be expressed as a requirement from a business person that indicates that the certain business metrics need to be monitored in real-time or that when certain changes in these metrics caused by various business events imply adverse conditions or an opportunity, this is cause for an ‘alert’, e.g., notation of event occurrence, and heightened monitoring of associated data thereafter.

The event, for example could be an increase in call volume into a call center, inventory falling below a certain threshold level, a drop in a demand forecast, increase in the number of returns of a certain product, or that defect rates from a test system exceeded pre-specified limits, etc. At the occurrence of such an event, the business person may want a corresponding alert to attract and guide her/his attention.

Conventional reporting and analysis software (variously called Business Intelligence, Query and reporting tools, Data warehouses etc.) (“BI software”) all provide reporting and analysis of business data. They do so by either executing queries directly against operational systems or by extracting and transforming in batches, operational data to an independent data store (sometimes called a data warehouse or data mart).

The above method by conventional reporting software results in the usage of a fixed (or static) data model from which data is analyzed. As a result of that, alert conditions cannot be detected without repeatedly running the reports on the data model, often resulting in poor performance of reports or an impact on the operational system itself, if reports are being run directly on it. In addition since the data is often extracted in batches, the resulting metrics are often hours to days old and therefore unsuitable for real-time analytics.

Some conventional reporting products contain alerting technology, however the alerting is based on repeated processing of batch data and on a fixed data model that is inflexible to the needs of real-time analytics.

Other mechanisms, also called event management software provides for alert conditions to be detected and alerts sent, however, it similarly uses fixed data models and batch updates to the data model and suffers the associated drawbacks described above.

Without event processing capabilities, the ability to combine events with context, and powerful business rules processing capability, the ability of a business organization or a similar organization utilizing BI software to engage in real time data analysis is limited. Lacking ability to engage in real time data analysis, a business organization or a similar organization utilizing BI software has only a limited capability at best to react instantaneously to changes in its business and to the business environment in which it operates.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

A method for providing a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data of operational systems is disclosed. The method comprises capturing a stream of operational events in real time and materializing a resulting view. The resulting view comprises a dynamically defined view of the stream of events and provides visibility into a current state of the operational system.

A resultant view can be generated by a view defined by a query in a Structured Query Language (SQL), executing a “from” clause within the query wherein the “from” clause joins across several views where one view comprises an event view and the remainder comprises a context view, modeling the event as a data stream and the context view as a relation, retrieving a row corresponding to the context view, constructing a compound row comprising a row from the data stream joined with the retrieved row from the context view, and depicting the compound row as a snapshot.

To enable the view in a view engine, where the view is received as a SQL string, the SQL string is parsed into a parse tree, which is normalized to form a query graph. The query graph is then optimized to obtain a query plan, which is compiled into an operator graph. Queries are executed based upon the operator graph.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 depicts a system for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 2 depicts a view engine, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 3 depicts a view maintenance network, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 4 is a flowchart of a process for compiling and enabling a business view, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 5 is a flowchart of a process for determining the statefulness of a view, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 6 depicts a query engine view processor, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 7 is a flowchart of a process for processing a view, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 8 depicts a query iterator graph, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 9 depicts a left deep query tree, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 10 depicts a bushy query tree, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

FIG. 11 is a flowchart of a process for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data, according to one embodiment of the present invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

A method for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data is disclosed. In the following detailed description of an embodiment of the present invention, a method for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. However, it will be recognized by one skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced without these specific details or with equivalents thereof. In other instances, well-known methods, procedures, and components, have not been described in detail as not to unnecessarily obscure aspects of the present invention.

Embodiments of the present invention are directed to a method for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data that are both event-definitive and context-definitive and can provide a streaming view of dynamically changing data. In one embodiment, a computer-based system executes the method for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data. In one embodiment, a computer usable medium having a computer readable program code embodied therein causes a computer system to perform the method for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data.

Thus, an embodiment of the present invention overcomes the limitations of conventional BI software, which is neither sufficiently event-definitive nor context-definitive, and which assumes data is operated on in scheduled batches, not event driven, and not external to a particular database system. An embodiment of the present invention readily formulates and sustains a maintainable real time view of business events, such as transactions, and related occurrences, incidents, and circumstances. The view can be an asynchronous one. Further, an embodiment of the present invention has contextually interpretive and dynamically predictive capability.

Notation and Nomenclature

As the terms are used herein, the following terms can have meanings comprising the following definitions. An ‘event’ is any change in the value of a critical data element in a transactional system that must be captured for the purpose of monitoring its value.

A ‘context’ is additional information added to an event to make it easier and/or more profitable to analyze the event to determine whether action is needed. ‘Event context’ is the combination of an event view with a context. An event context can be an entity on which an end user alerting business rule is built. Event context appears in one embodiment as a simple view in Structured Query Language (SQL), for purposes of defining rules for alert generation. Context can comprise, for example, historical data.

Exemplary System

Basic System Overview

FIG. 1 depicts a system 100 for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data, according to one embodiment of the present invention. System 100 thus functions as a business activity monitoring (BAM) system.

System 100 provides a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data of an operational system, comprising capturing a stream of operational events in real time and materializing a resulting view. The resulting view comprises a dynamically defined view of the stream of events and provides visibility into a current state of the operational system.

There are two fundamental ways of entering data into system 100: push and pull. System 100 can subscribe to some events and the event data would then be pushed to the system. System 100 can also pull data for events and contexts using queries in the source system format.

Push of data into system 100 is done asynchronously. System 100 subscribes to event publishers, through asynchronous publishing mechanisms such as a Java messaging service (JMS) message bag. Pulling of data into system 100 is done through issuing synchronous (blocking) queries to the source systems.

System 100 models the event as an event view, and the context data as a context view. Events are captured by an event capturer 101, which outputs the captured event to a view maintenance engine 103. Contexts are captured by a context capturer 102, which outputs the captured context to the view maintenance engine 103.

View maintenance engine 103 materializes views as rows. View maintenance engine 103 outputs materialized view rows, along with any corresponding reportlets it generates, to a rule engine 104.

Rule engine 104 applies a business rule to each materialized view and outputs a alert where the rule holds true to an alert deliverer/tracker 105. The alert is sent along with any corresponding reportlets.

Alert deliverer/tracker 105 delivers and tracks the alert, along with any reportlets, to users. The alert and any reportlets can be sent by any of a variety of media, such as email, a hypertext transfer page (HTTP) format, and/or a spreadsheet.

Exemplary View Engine

FIG. 2 depicts view maintenance engine 103, according to one embodiment of the present invention. The view engine 103 maintains (e.g., functions as) a main memory system that processes the event streams entering system 100, continuously maintains the views, and provides the materialized view rows to the rule engine and the reportlet engine. The view engine 103 also provides a limited query capability for a reportlet engine 206. Business users use the materialized views to define business rules online. Further, view engine 103 maintains a time dimension, allowing for temporal or time series analysis of events and data.

There are two kinds of views: business views and hidden views. The business views are the views defined by application developers and used by the business users to define business rules. The hidden views are defined by the rule engine 104 and reportlet engine 206 for the purpose of evaluating rules.

The hidden views are therefore generated by the system 100 and are not visible to the users. The hidden views are processed similarly as the business views. Therefore for clarity, brevity, and ease of explanation, reference to business views herein also includes reference to hidden views, unless otherwise noted explicitly.

An event stream thread 202 is asynchronously pushed or synchronously pulled from a source system 201. View engine 103 receives an event from event stream thread 202 of event capturer 101 (FIG. 1).

Context can include historical or other data meaningful to an event. Context can add significance to the event. The context, modeled as a relation, has a local cache 205 that can return cached context look up query result. Context can be synchronously pulled by context capturer 102 (FIG. 1) from a source system 203, such as a data warehouse.

Business view 1 is formed from Event 1. Event 1 is joined with Context 1 to form Business view 2. Hidden rule view Fire, hidden rule view Raise, and hidden rule view Lower arise from Business view 2. Hidden rule view Raise is joined with Context 2 to form Business view 3, which synchronously sends a reportlet query to reportlet engine 206. Business view 3 can also asynchronously form a Hidden Reportlet view 1 which can be sent to reportlet engine 206. Hidden reportlet view 1 can also synchronously form Hidden Reportlet view 2. Hidden Reportlet views 1 and 2 are asynchronously sent to reportlet engine 206. Hidden rule views Fire, Raise, and Lower are sent asynchronously to rule engine 104.

Exemplary View Maintenance Network

FIG. 3 depicts an exemplary such view maintenance network, according to one embodiment of the present invention. Each node in the network represents an operator. Views are expressed in the form of a query language such as SQL. The following shows an example of a business view ‘price_and_inventory_monitor’.

Select os_prod_id as pim_prod_id

    • Mov_avg(os.os_unit_price, month, 1) as pim_unit_price,
    • Mov_sum(pi.pi_inv_level,day,2) as pim_inventory_level

From order_status os, product_inventory pi

Where pi.pi_prod_id = os.os_prod_id

Group by os_prod_id

The above view captures, on a per product basis, the monthly moving average of the selling price of a product, and the 2-day moving total of its inventory levels across all warehouses. The order_status is an event stream and product_inventory is a context view. A view (e.g., views 1-5) comprises the result of the join of an event view (e.g., event views 1, 2) or a view (called input stream) with a number of context views (called relation; e.g., contexts 1-3). Each view would then publish stream data (called output stream; e.g., output streams 301, 302)) as the result of the view maintenance. The result of one view's output steam can be subscribed by another view (e.g., views 4, 5) as input steam, and the entire system thus becomes a view maintenance network 300.

View maintenance network 300 performs a process 400 which can be described by the flowchart of FIG. 4. Process 400 compiles and enables a business view beginning with step 401, wherein for each business view, the optimal query processing plan (which can be algorithmic) is determined for continuously maintaining the view. In step 402, the view maintenance is started by subscribing the views to the stream publisher. In step 403, it is determined whether the view is stateful.

If it is determined that the view is stateful, then in step 404, it is determined whether the view has temporal or event window specifications. If it is determined that the view has temporal or event window specifications, then in step 406 the view is continuously maintained based on a moving window corresponding to the temporal or event window specifications. If it is determined that the view has no temporal or event window specifications, then in step 407, the view is continuously maintained based on regular ANSI SQL semantics.

If it is determined that the view is not stateful (e.g., if the view is stateless), then in step 405, new rows are generated that represent the current view snapshot for the last (e.g., latest) event. It is next determined in step 408 whether the view has a temporal or event based moving window specification for the view snapshot. If not, then in step 409, the view snapshot is updated with new rows.

If it is determined that the view has a temporal or event based moving window specification for the view snapshot, then in step 410, new rows are added to the view snapshots and the view snapshots are adjusted. Process 400 can be complete upon executing steps 406, 407, 409, or 410.

Referring again to FIG. 3, the view can be continuously maintained (e.g., Step 403 of Process 400; FIG. 4) by a process as described next. The view result (called view snapshot) at a time T contains the result of the view evaluation from the time the system is started until time T, by taking all rows arriving by time T from the event view, and joins them with the rows in the context views. For instance, the rows comprising stream 303 are joined with the rows comprising context 1. Similarly, the rows comprising stream 304 are joined with the rows comprising context 2, as are the rows comprising stream 305.

The view snapshot is continuously maintained, e.g., it is created based on the first event, and then continuously updated based on subsequent events. The next event joins with the context rows and may or may not cause an update on the snapshot of the view. The view snapshot itself is a data stream that feeds into the next view. In one implementation, the view engine 103 (FIG. 1) effectively feeds change to a stream to views that defined on top of it, so that all views are continuously maintained.

Therefore, view maintenance in the present embodiment comprises continuous incremental view maintenance, as distinguished from incremental view maintenance. The data in the context views are static or slowly changing. A query engine (e.g., query engine 600; FIG. 6) does not update the view due to changes in the context tables. Changes in the context table rather would be reflected in the view when the context table is joined with the next event row.

For a SQL view query, the query engine first executes a FROM clause, which performs joins across multiple views. Exactly one of the views should be an event view, and the remaining should be context views. An event is modeled as a data stream, and a context view is modeled as a relation. The rows enter into the event view one event at a time (one event can contain multiple rows).

The rows for the context views are retrieved on demand during the join process, which can be exemplified as follows:

For each stream row Do

    • Fetch the event row
    • For each context view in the order determined by the optimizer Do
      • Formulate a context query for the context view
      • Issue the context query to the context source and retrieve the result
        At this stage, compound rows have been constructed, each row consisting of one row from the stream and each context view. The view snapshot is incrementally maintained based on the new row.

The result of the view maintenance produces the current view snapshot, which depicts the current state of the view. In one embodiment, an update to the view snapshot is done only when a new input stream row is produced. In the present embodiment, the process does not update the view snapshot due to changes to the context views. The view also maintains a time window of events and context. Such view maintenance is thus continuous incremental view maintenance, in contrast to incremental view maintenance.

A view is a stateless view if it is not stateful. An event view (e.g., event views 1, 2; FIG. 3) is stateless. A view is stateful is it contains a GROUP BY clause or any set function in the SELECT clause, or it is defined on top of a stateful view. Thus, a process 500 for determining whether a view is stateful or stateless is depicted in FIG. 5. Process 500 begins with a step 501, wherein a view is examined. In step 502, it is determined whether the view comprises a ‘group by’ clause or a ‘set’ function in a ‘select’ clause.

If so, then in step 504, the view state ‘STATEFUL’ is returned, at which point process 500 can be complete. If not, then in step 503, it is determined whether the view is defined on top of a business view that is itself stateful. If so, then in step 504, the view state ‘STATEFUL’ is returned. If not, then in step 505 the view state ‘STATELESS’ is returned, completing process 500. The system then sets the view state in a bottom up fashion: the views other views define on are marked for statefulness before those views defined on top of them.

Exemplary Query Engine

FIG. 6 depicts a query engine 600, according to one embodiment of the present invention. A SQL parser 602 receives a SQL string 601 and parses it. SQL parser 602 outputs a parse tree 603 to a normalizer 604. Normalizer 604 normalizes the parse tree 603 and outputs a query graph 605 to a query optimizer 606. Query optimizer 606 outputs a query plan 607 to a plan compiler 608. Upon compiling the query plans 607, plan compiler 608 outputs an operator graph 609 to a query executor 610. Query executor 610 executes the queries. Common services 620 available comprise a type manager 621, an expression evaluator 622, and a row manager 623.

A view, defined in SQL string 601, is submitted to the query manager 600 for enabling in the view maintenance network. The query manager 600 calls the parser 602, normalizer 604, optimizer 606, and plan compiler 608, with the view definition SQL string 601, to come up with an Executable Plan 615, which is executed by query executor 610. The Executable Plan is a query iterator tree. The query manager 600 then asks the executor 610 to open the query iterator tree. The query executor 610 opens all the iterator nodes 611 in the tree, the open operation of the stream (event view or view) scan iterator 612 makes a subscription request 613 to the view subscription manager 614, which puts the current Executable Plan object as one of the subscribers of the view. The query manager 600 then submits the Executable Plan 615 to the system executor 630, which executes the view maintenance operations.

Query engine 600 operates by a process 700 depicted in FIG. 7. Process 700 begins with step 701, wherein a SQL string comprising a view is received. In step 702, the SQL string is parsed. In step 704, a parse tree is sent to a normalizer, where it is normalized in step 705. In step 706, the query is optimized. In step 707, a query plan is sent to a query compiler, which compiles it in step 708. In step 709, an operator graph is sent to a query executor, which in step 710, executes the query.

Each physical iterator operates on a number of rows and produces a number of rows. It may take two inputs (e.g., join) or one input (e.g., group by). All operators are independent of one another. The operators are linked together by the optimizer to form an operator DAG (query iterator graph) 609, which is an executable form to be executed by the query executor 610. An operator does not know the detail of another operator. They are linked together by the optimizer 606.

Referring again to FIG. 6, each operator performs one specific functionality: it contributes to one step in the process of continuously maintaining the view snapshot. All operators except the view exchange operator do not need to consider multi-threading issues. The query execution plan 607 is represented as an operator graph 609, and the operator graph 609 is invoked from the top to bottom using the open( ) call recursively. Each operator has an array of children operators.

Each operator implements methods as listed in Table 1 below.

TABLE 1
Create( ): instantiate the operator and all of its children.
Open ( ): open an iterator, and open all its children. This prepares the
operator for incremental view maintenance.
Next (QEDataContext): get next row from the operator. The new row
is stored at the QEDataContext. The QEDataContext object contains
information about the new row being assembled.
Return NEXT when there is a new row in the QEDataContext.
Return STREAMDONE if it reaches the end of the rows for the
current stream. Then the caller needs to call next( ) again to get the rows
for the next event. This only applies to iterators for stream. A stream
iterator is either a StreamScanIterator or any iterator above it.
Return DONE to indicate no more rows.
For relational source, this call either returns NEXT or DONE, it
would never return STREAMDONE. This only applies to
RemoveScanIterator or join iterator that do not have any stream
iterator below it
An iterator would return STREAMDONE if it gets STREAMDONE
from its child iterator.
Close ( ): free all operator states, close this iterator and close all
its children
Free ( ): free resources and destroy the iterator and its children
The entire query execution plan is a graph of query operators. An
operator is in the status of one of the following, at any point in time:
COMPILATION: plan compilation phase
CREATE: the iterator has just been instantiated
OPEN: the iterator has just been opened for processing the next event
NEXT: at least one RowList has been retrieved from this iterator.
DONE: end of the data stream has been reached for the last next call
STREAMDONE: end of the event stream has been reached for the
last next call
CLOSE: its input has been closed.
FREE: it is being destroyed and freed.

Table 2 below shows processes for the main operators.

TABLE 2
Operator Create Open Next Close Local state
EventScan: Create Subscribe Next event row Unsubscribe Unreturned
Subscribe the to stream. or return Done. rows
to steam. operator Apply filters
Get stream and
rows. all its
children
View Same Open input Input.next( ) Input.close( ) VCRow[ ]
exchange: as until hit which is
maintain above STREAMDONE, the
view then publish snapshot
snapshot new snapshot. of the
Then call query.
input.next( )
again
RemoteScan: Same Open a Extract the bind Close the Context
Scans a as source and values from source cache.
context above prepare a Rows. Prepared
table. statement call statement
Optionally for jdbc BindAndExecute( ). handle.
look up source. Apply filters. Unreturned
cache Initialize a Return one row. Rows
context Return the rest in
cache if set subsequent
next( ) calls.
Nested Same Input.open( ), Call input.next( ) Input.close( ) None
Loop Join as Input2.open( ) to populate the Input2.close( )
above left table row, if
success, then call
input2.next( ). If
success,
apply post join
filters. Join filters
are being
applied at the
input2 iterator.
Groupby: Same Input.open( ). Keep calling Input.close( ) Unreturned
groupby as Input.next( ) until rows.
and set above see Grouped
function STREAMDONE rows in
evaluation or DONE, then the hash
perform group table
by. Then
evaluate the
aggregation
expressions by
putting new row
in the right group.
Return one row at
a time to its caller.
Setting the
implicit column
values
Projection: Same Input.open( ) Input.next( ).Apply Input.close( )
project as post select
wanted above filters. Copy out
columns VcValue. Set
implicit VC
column values.

FIG. 8 depicts an exemplar of query operator graph 609. Each view contributes a number of operators in the entire view maintenance network, and the entire view maintenance network becomes a one directional operator graph. An exemplar of such an operator network is depicted in FIG. 3 as view maintenance network 300.

Stateful queries can exist, which differ from the view. The views are continuously incrementally maintained, each maintenance operation is triggered by a new stream event. The queries also have states, and its states are incrementally maintained. However, its maintenance is triggered based on a given set of input rows, passed in by the caller. The format of these rows are the same the as input stream rows.

Reportlets, alerts, and rules are converted into views and queries as depicted in FIG. 2, describing view engine 103. For a rule on a business view ‘bView’ in the form of

WHEN (<Boolean expression>)

FIRE ALERT <alert name>

the <Boolean expression> is evaluated for each row in the business view and the alert is fired once for each row for which the Boolean expression evaluates to true.

The business view can be converted into the following hidden view:

Select *

From bView

    • WHERE (<Boolean expression>)

For a rule on a business view bView in the form of

WHEN (<Boolean expression>)

FIRE CONSOLIDATED ALERT <alert name>

the <Boolean expression> is evaluated for each row in the business view and the alert is fired once if the Boolean expression evaluates to true for any of the rows. The bView can be converted it into the following hidden view:

Select 1

From dummyOneRowTable

Where EXISTS (Select 1

From bView

WHERE (<Boolean expression>))

DummyOneRowTable is a table containing one row.

For a rule on a business view bView in the form of

WHEN (<rule Boolean expression>)

RAISE ALERT <name of the alert>

bView can be converted it to the following view:

Select *

From bView

WHERE (<Boolean expression>) and vc_event_id = vc_latest_event_id

For a rule on a business view bView in the form of

WHEN (<rule Boolean expression>)

LOWER ALERT <name of the alert>

bView can be converted it to the following view:

Select *

From bView

WHERE (<Boolean expression>) and vc_event_id = vc_latest_event_id

For a rule on a business view bView in the form of

WHEN (<rule Boolean expression>)

HOLDS FOR <duration>

RAISE ALERT <name of the alert>

bView can be converts it to the following view:

Select bView.*, <duration> + currentTimeStamp( )

From bView

WHERE (<Boolean expression>) and vc_event_id = vc_latest_event_id

The function currentTimeStamp( ) returns the current timestamp.

For a rule on a business view bView in the form of

WHEN (<rule Boolean expression>)

HOLDS FOR <duration>

RAISE ALERT <name of the alert>

FOR A SPECIFIC <view_column_list>

bView can be converted it into the following view:

Select bView.*, <duration>+currentTimeStamp( ),

<view_column_list>

From bView

WHERE (<Boolean expression>) and vc_event_id = vc_latest_event_id.

The alert manager provides the reportlet message as the mechanism to add additional context to the business view that caused the alert. A reportlet attached to an alert is any view in the system that is derived from the same base event that caused the alert to be raised/fired.

There are three kinds of reportlets. One kind of reportlet is populated by using only the rows affected by the current event. For the first case, the reportlet is defined as a regular business view. A second kind of reportlet is populated by using all the rows in the business view. For the second case, the reportlet is defined as a business view, plus the following additional where clause condition:
vc_event_id=vc_latest_event_id.
The third kind of reportlet is populated by using only the rows for which the rule evaluates to true. For the third case, the reportlet is maintained by the stateful query mechanism as described above: the rows produced by the hidden associated rule view are passed to the query view and the reportlet is populated as the view snapshot.

A Java database connectivity (JDBC) context view is defined as a regular JDBC SQL query, say <context-query-definition>. A context lookup query for a two table joined view

select <select expression list>

from streamTable, contextTable

where <search-conditions>

is formulated based on the following algorithm-2-table-join-context-lookup:

convert the <search-condition> into conjunctive normal form

<new-search-condition>=true

For all conjunct in the normal form

    • construct a new <condition-expression> by replacing all references in the conjunct to non-context column in the query as bind value (represented as a ‘:’ symbol).
    • <new-search-condition>:=<new-search-condition> and <condition-expression>

Formulate the context lookup query as follows:

    • select *
    • from (<context-query-sql-definition>) a
      • where <new-search-condition>

In the case of multiple context table references, the process proceeds with the optimizer generating a join plan, each join node joining only two tables. A n-table join becomes n−1 join nodes of two table joins. The join takes the form of a left deep tree, which first joins the stream table with a context table, the join result then joins with the next context table, and so on. The following shows an example of the left-deep join plan:

for each two table join

    • invoke algorithm-2-table-join-context-lookup to construct the context look up query for the context table
      This is depicted in FIG. 9 as a left deep query tree 900. In one embodiment, the query comprises a context query in SQL, other than a JDBC query.

Query tree 900 is extended to cover the case when a bushy query plan is created by the optimizer:

for each two table join

    • if the left input of the join is a context table invoke algorithm-2-table-join-context-lookup to construct the context look up query for the context table
    • if the right input of the is a context table invoke algorithm-2-table-join-context-lookup to construct the context look up query for the context table
      Query tree 900 applies to the case when the join type is either an INNER join or a Left outer join. All right outer join has been converted into left outer join by exchanging the position of the inner and outer table, therefore the optimizer does not need to deal with right outer join. A bushy query plan 1000 is depicted in FIG. 10.
      Exemplary Process

FIG. 11 is a flowchart of a process 1100 for providing a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data of an operational system. Process 1100 begins with step 1101, wherein a stream of operational events is captured in real time. In step 1102, a resulting view is materialized within the defined time window. The resulting view comprises a dynamically defined view of the stream of events and provides visibility into a current state of the operational system. Thus, process 1100 comprises a method by which a system for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data (e.g., System 100; FIG. 1) operates. Process 1100 can be performed by a computer system or network of computer systems under the control of a computer readable program code embodied in a computer usable medium.

In summary, a method for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data is disclosed. Embodiments of the present invention are directed to a method for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data that is both event-definitive and context-definitive. An embodiment of the present invention readily formulates and sustains a maintainable real time view of business events, such as transactions, and related occurrences, incidents, and circumstances. Further, an embodiment of the present invention has contextually interpretive and dynamically predictive usefulness.

An embodiment of the present invention, a method for generating a real time view of heterogeneous enterprise data, is thus described. While the present invention has been described in particular embodiments, it should be appreciated that the present invention should not be construed as limited by such embodiments, but rather construed according to the below claims and their equivalents.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification719/318, 707/999.008
International ClassificationG06F17/30, G06F15/16, G06F9/46
Cooperative ClassificationY10S707/99938, G06F17/30592, G06Q10/063, G06F17/30533
European ClassificationG06F17/30S8M, G06F17/30S4P8
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