|Publication number||US7543156 B2|
|Application number||US 10/844,262|
|Publication date||Jun 2, 2009|
|Filing date||May 12, 2004|
|Priority date||Jun 25, 2002|
|Also published as||US7917769, US20070220273, US20090201128|
|Publication number||10844262, 844262, US 7543156 B2, US 7543156B2, US-B2-7543156, US7543156 B2, US7543156B2|
|Inventors||Steven E. Campisi|
|Original Assignee||Resilent, Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (56), Non-Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (46), Classifications (38), Legal Events (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present application is a continuation-in-part application claiming priority under 35 U.S.C. §120 to the U.S. Non-Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 10/603,887, filed on Jun. 25, 2003, which claimed priority under 35 U.S.C. 119(e) to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. Nos. 60/463,297, filed Apr. 16, 2003, 60/417,607, filed Oct. 10, 2002, and 60/391,532, filed Jun. 25, 2002. The U.S. Non-Provisional patent application Ser. No. 10/603,887 and the U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. Nos. 60/463,297, 60/417,607, and 60/391,532 are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.
The present invention generally relates to transaction authentication cards, and particularly to transaction authentication cards having a biometric sensor for authentication.
Security is of concern to businesses and individuals for a plethora of reasons, including the prevention of identity theft, property theft, industrial espionage, invasion of privacy, and terrorism. Accordingly, transaction authentication cards have been developed that allow an individual to access a room or building or to access sensitive information. The current security provided by a transaction authentication card is inadequate for secure operations such as physical access control, logical access control, and financial transaction authentication because unauthorized users may now use transaction authentication cards. There is a need for a reliable way to authenticate a user.
Therefore, it would be desirable to provide a transaction authentication card that uses biometrics to verify that the person in possession of the card is in fact the authorized and authenticated user.
Accordingly, the present invention is directed to a transaction authentication card incorporating biometric verification technologies and methods.
In a first aspect of the present invention, a transaction authentication card, comprises a biometric sensor for sensing a biometric feature of a user; a memory; a processor and a keypad for enabling the user to selectively interface with the processor and memory. Wherein the transaction authentication card is enabled to retrieve stored biometric data from the card's memory, the processor having a fingerprint matching algorithm for comparing a biometric feature of a user with the stored biometric data in the card. The transaction authentication card further includes a wireless transmitter for transmitting a wireless transaction protocol signal.
In a second aspect of the present invention, a method for providing limited access comprises the steps of determining the functional mode of the transaction authentication card, placing the transaction authentication card within proximity of a limited access control device; and entering biometric input through a sensor located on the transaction authentication card, wherein the transaction authentication card communicates with a limited access control device through wireless communications. The wireless signal transmits a protocol only and not the biometric data.
The present invention provides an identification card that does not require external equipment for identity verification, physical access control, logical access control, financial transaction authentication, and terminal login authentication. A major advantage of the present invention is that the user does not have to provide his or her biometrics to a database that is not controlled by him or her. The transaction authentication card allows biometric data collection on the transaction authentication card's database that is controlled by the user. Authentication is accomplished on the card for a one to one verification.
It is to be understood that both the forgoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are not restrictive of the invention as claimed. The accompanying drawings, which are incorporated in and constitute a part of the specification, illustrate an embodiment of the invention and together with the general description, serve to explain the principles of the invention.
The numerous advantages of the present invention may be better understood by those skilled in the art by reference to the accompanying figures in which:
Reference will now be made in detail to the presently preferred embodiments of the invention, examples of which are illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
The present invention relates to a transaction authentication card having an antenna that emits radio frequencies compliant with FCC standards and formats for access control market place (e.g., HID Mifare). The transaction authentication card does not contain an operating system and does not contain a desktop application. The transaction authentication card is not a personal digital assistant (PDA), a palmtop computer, or a palm pilot, although the method of the present invention may be used with these devices. The card may be a proximity card or an access card for access control to buildings (ingress/egress control), financial transactions, security transactions, government control, airline security, passport ID, drivers' license/driver authentication, toll road payment and automated teller machine transactions. The transaction authentication card provides a portable database and does not require an outside source for biometric enrollment. As shown in
The enrollment and verification technology may functionally enable the use of the transaction authentication card within various systems employing a variety of technologies. In a preferred embodiment, the LSI processor 110 in operational concert with the biometric processor provides for the use of the transaction authentication card within a system enabled via a public-key infrastructure (PKI) standard. It is understood that the PKI may be an open PKI system or closed PKI system. Various enterprises may desire to protect the security of their communications and transactions over networks, such as the Internet, an Intranet, a Wide Area Network (WAN), a Local Area Network (LAN), and the like. Combining software, encryption technologies, and services, PKI assists and enables the securing of these communications and transactions over a diverse array of networks. PKIs integrate digital certificates, public-key cryptography, and certificate authorities into a total, enterprise-wide network security architecture. PKIs provide numerous benefits, such as assisting in ensuring privacy, support for non-repudiation, authentication and verification of user identity, and authorization of access and transactions.
Thus, the transaction authentication card of the present invention, in essence provides a platform upon which a software application, encryption technology, and services of an individual PKI system may be enabled. In operation with a PKI system, the transaction authentication card of the present invention provides a digital signature (certificate) which embeds with a private key. The digital certificate may be variously configured to provide a server certificate or a personal certificate. The private key, based on the authentication of the user's biometric information, corresponds to a public key. The public key which corresponds to the private key may be stored in a memory communicatively coupled with the LSI processor 110. It is understood that numerous public keys may be stored within the transaction authentication card. The public key is transmitted to a receiving unit and may be authenticated by the digital certificate. The digital certificate is from a third party certification authority (CA). The digital certificate, which embeds information into the public key and binds the identity of the user to the digital certificate, may have its information stored in various locations upon the transaction authentication card. The digital certificate embedded with the transaction authentication card may have its information of the stored in the memory of the transaction authentication card. The embedded information of the digital certificate from the CA verifies the public key as corresponding to the appropriate private key. This example illustrates one standard currently being developed and employed. It is understood that the present invention may be employed to operate within various other standards.
The LSI processor 110 may act as a central processing unit (CPU). Enrollment is defined as the process used to collect, build and store in memory the biometric “signature” or “template” of the enrollee or “owner”. It is against this “signature” or “template” that the cardholders' biometric data collected at the time of attempted authentication/verification will be matched. When the present invention is being employed within a PKI enabled system, the enrollment (biometric signature) generates a private key which corresponds to a public key that may be used for certification by a certification authority within the PKI system. In this document, authentication and verification should be used interchangeably. Authentication/verification is the process of comparing the cardholders collected biometric data against the stored biometric “signature” or “template” (collected at enrollment) in order to achieve a match, thereby “authenticating” the cardholder as the card owner. As to the device, this authentication is of course necessary prior to the device sending its signal (either through an RF interface, through the “smart card” interface, or through a “wired” (Serial, USB, etc) connection or interface).
Biometrics encompassed by the present invention include retinal scans and iris scans, voiceprints, handprints, footprints, fingerprints, palmprints, and handwriting. Preferably, the biometric processor verifies the cardholder's fingerprint against the stored template and sends a wireless signal to an access control device such as one that conforms to the proximity systems that are on the open market. The biometrics matching algorithm may be customized or may be a commercially available algorithm such as through Verifinger (e.g., the Touch Chip sensor), Fujitsu (e.g., the MBF300 SweepSensor), DigitalPersona, or the like which uses industry standard minutia points (i.e., local ridge characteristics at a ridge split or termination) for validation/authentication. The transaction authentication card processing software may also have the capability of having a settable resolution threshold for biometric matching. For example, fingerprint matching may be accomplished by the matching of a settable number of points, such as six points or sixteen points. Setting of the number of points is preferably done by the manufacturer, but may be specified by the user. The transaction authentication card incorporates memory that stores fingerprint information about the transaction authentication card owner. The memory includes read only memory (ROM), such as electrically erasable programmable read only memory (EEPROM) or flash memory, to store card identification information for communications with external enrollment or access devices. The ROM preferably also stores the biometric data. In the preferred embodiment, volatile memory (e.g., random access memory or RAM) temporarily stores the data to be transmitted through the wireless transmitter. The card serial number may be hardwired on the card by tying certain signals as highs and lows to represent a bit pattern that identifies the card. Alternatively, the memory may include static random access memory (static RAM) such that when the power source is dead or disconnected, all biometric data is erased.
Preferably, smart chip technology is used. Smart Chip Technology (SCT) refers to an embedded chip common in new style “smart card” credit/debit cards where account information is contained on the chip. The device would require authentication prior to releasing data contained on the “smart chip.” The device may use SCT simply as a storage medium for the enrollee's biometric signature or as an actual interface to a commercially available “smart card” reader, thus enabling “smart card” transactions in a merchant—consumer, or other financial transaction environment. (Examples would be credit/debit cards, calling cards, stored value cards, ATM cards, etc.)
The preferred transaction authentication card communications gateways are PCMCIA, serial, universal serial bus (USB), and radio frequency (RF). In an embodiment, the smart chip itself may be used as a communications port. A transaction authentication card having a PCMCIA interface is preferably connected to a desktop computer via a USB serial data interchange. Biometric and other data for enrollment is registered on the transaction authentication card by enrollment software resident on the desktop computer or on another registration device. The enrollment data stored on the card is continuously available to a user with verifiable biometric input.
It is further contemplated that the present invention may be employed with mechanical systems, such as individual mechanical locks. For example, a combination lock may be enabled with a receiver which is capable of receiving a signal transmitted by the transaction authentication card. The user of the transaction authentication card may input their biometric feature, the card authenticates the feature and then transmits the appropriate signal. Upon receipt of the signal by the receiver on the combination lock, the mechanical lock is released and the user may open the lock.
A power source 105, shown in
In a preferred embodiment, shown in
The circuit board 1900 is constructed of multiple layers 1902, 1904, and 1906. It is understood that the number and configuration of the various layers may vary to accommodate the needs of the manufacturer and/or consumers. For example, the circuit board 1900 may be constructed with four or more layers including various functional component features and interconnect assemblies. With the coin cell batteries, the power supply may preferably enable ten transactions per day for a period of one year. It is understood that the coin cell batteries and/or the lithium ion batteries may supply power for longer or shorter periods of time depending on usage of the transaction authentication card. For example, if only five transactions per day occur then the batteries may be enabled to provide power for a period longer than one year. In the alternative, if fifteen transactions per day occur then the batteries may have a limited useful lifespan of less than one year.
In further alternative embodiments, the power source employed with the present invention may be at least partially determined by the aesthetic configuration of the transaction authentication card. For instance, the desired height of the transaction authentication card may be established as substantially similar to that of a standard credit card. In order to conform with this size limitation the power source technology employed may be limited. For instance, a standard 9V battery may provide a suitable power source, but may not be suitable for keeping the transaction authentication card profile in general accordance with the appearance of a credit card, as may be desired for the present invention. The coin cell batteries, described above, and other alternative power sources may be preferably employed to maintain a desired aesthetic configuration for the transaction authentication card.
On the card is a memory 115. Optionally, the card may have audio 125, a visual indicator 135, and/or a keypad 130. Each card has an RFID number as configured by the manufacturer as a default. The RFID may be active or passive. There are at least two types of transaction authentication cards of the present invention: a PCMCIA interface card and a completely enclosed factory default card for radio frequency transmission. The transaction authentication card serial ID may be encrypted at the point of manufacture. The transaction authentication card may transmit an encrypted radio frequency signal with encrypted data.
The transaction authentication card may have a ridged form factor for the PCMCIA interface. The transaction authentication card may store biometric data for one to one verification. The transaction authentication card may store data in multiple configurations. The transaction authentication card may have the ability to store biometrics with the use of a computer. The transaction authentication card may store user biometrics. The transaction authentication card may allow for more than one biometric for verification
A transaction authentication card 2100, is shown in
It is further contemplated that a biometric port may be established on the transaction authentication card. In a preferred embodiment, the biometric port may be established under or protected by a cover, similar to the cover 2106 shown in
Alternatively, the functional capabilities established by the biometric port may be enabled in various manners. For instance a security device may be included with the transaction authentication card to assist in the prevention of identity theft and fraud. In a preferred embodiment, the security device may be a light sensitive assembly integrated into the circuitry of the present invention and enclosed within the body of the transaction authentication card. The light sensitive assembly may clear or erase all information, including all biometric information, stored in the memory of the transaction authentication card if the body of the transaction authentication card is opened, thereby, exposing the light sensitive assembly to light. In a preferred embodiment, the light sensitive assembly is a light sensitive diode integrated within the circuitry of the transaction authentication card. It is understood that alternative light sensitive technologies may be employed without departing from the scope and spirit of the present invention.
It is contemplated that the security device may terminate the transaction authentication card as a useful device. Thus, when the body of the transaction authentication card is opened, exposing the light sensitive assembly to light and erasing all information stored on the transaction authentication card, the transaction authentication card may not be able to be re-initialized with new biometric information. Alternatively, the security device may be enabled to allow the transaction authentication card to be re-initialized and continue its useful lifespan. For example, the erasure of the information stored in transaction authentication card may be a partial erasure. A user determined encryption setting, such as a password, may be left stored in the memory and if re-entered may enable the transaction authentication card to accept new biometric information. After the new biometric data is entered the transaction authentication card may resume its operational capabilities.
An optional keypad 270 is shown in
In the field of financial transactions, for example, the selector may enable a user to select between establishing the transaction authentication card to function as a credit card or a debit card. In this exemplary example, the selector may be a switch, such as a two position switch which enables the user to select between the functional modes identified above, providing multiple functional capabilities to the user of the transaction authentication card. It is contemplated that an identifier may be included to provide an indicator to the user of which mode the transaction authentication card has been established in based on the engagement of the selector. The identifier may include a visually ascertainable indicator from which the user may determine the operational status of the transaction authentication card. Various alternative configurations of the identifier may be employed without departing from the scope and spirit of the present invention.
The keypad and/or the selector may be integral with the body of the transaction authentication card. This integration may accommodate various configurations of the body of the transaction authentication card. Further, the integration may contribute to a desired aesthetic appearance for the transaction authentication card. These and other concerns as contemplated by those of ordinary skill in the art may be addressed by the integration of the selector with the body of the transaction authentication card.
In an alternative embodiment, a transaction authentication card 2200, shown in
The transaction authentication card may further be enabled with two or more selectors established within the body. Each selector may provide separate functionality to the user. For example, a first selector may enable the user to determine an operational status or primary mode of operation of the transaction authentication card from among various choices. The first selector may enable selection between establishing the transaction authentication card in a financial transactions mode, a calling card mode, and an ingress/egress mode. It is understood that the transaction authentication card may be enabled to be established in various other primary modes as contemplated by those of ordinary skill in the art. After the first selector has established the transaction authentication card in a desired primary mode, a second selector may enable the user to determine a particular sub-mode of the primary mode. For instance, if the calling card mode is established as the primary mode, the second selector may enable the user to select between various types of calling cards identified as being selectable within the sub-mode. It is understood that the functional relationships established in and among the various selector embodiments, i.e., two or more selectors, may be varied to accommodate the needs of consumers and or manufacturers of the transaction authentication card of the present invention.
Alternatively, the first and second selectors may include a “no-mode” capability. The “no-mode” capability enables the user to establish the transaction authentication card with no functional capabilities. This may be enabled through each selector having two position capabilities. The first position may be a no-mode position and the second position may be a functional mode position. For instance, using the buttons, either the first or second button may be in the no-mode position when it is fully extended. The user may be required to depress the button into the functional mode position, which may include enabling the button with a mechanical fastening system to hold the position of the button in place. Other systems contemplated by those of ordinary skill in the art, may be employed.
A transaction authentication card 2400, shown in
Alternatively, the selector may establish the transaction authentication card as a quick access transaction authentication card, with the selector as an extendable feature from the body of the transaction authentication card. Referring now to
In an alternative exemplary embodiment of a quick access transaction authentication card, a second quick access transaction authentication card 2700, is shown in
In an alternative embodiment, the selector may be a fold-out selector which may enable the selector to “open” from the body of the transaction authentication card in order to provide its functionality and then be “closed”. The closed position may enable the user to retract the selector, thereby, substantially encompassing the selector within the body of the transaction authentication card. In a still further alternative embodiment, the selector may be enabled as a roll-out selector. The roll-out capability may enable the selector to extend away from the body of the transaction authentication card during use and then be retracted within the body of the transaction authentication card when not being used. A tab or other member piece may be attached to the roll-out selector for engagement by the user when the roll-out selector is in the retracted position. The roll-out selector may be established using a flexible screen technology, commonly known as organic light emitting diode (OLED). This flexible screen technology may increase the brightness of the screen and use less current from the power source thereby, assisting in maximizing the life span of the power source for the transaction authentication card.
It is further contemplated that the selector may be enabled as a modular device, capable of being removed from the body of the transaction authentication card. The modular selector may be variously configured with one or more switches, buttons, and the like. The modular selector may further enable the use of secondary selector assemblies by the user. For example, a first modular selector, enabled as a two position switch, may be coupled with the transaction authentication card. The user may decide they prefer to have buttons to depress for determining the functionality of the card. A second modular selector, enabled with buttons may be selected by the user. The user may then remove the first modular selector and insert the second modular selector. It is understood that the transaction authentication card includes the functional capability to enable the removal and insertion of various modular selector assemblies. This functional capability may be enabled in various ways as contemplated by those of skill in the art.
In a still further embodiment, the selector provided by the transaction authentication card may be enabled as a scrolling member. The scrolling member may be a generally circular member pivotally connected with the body of the transaction authentication card. The location of the connection of the scrolling member may vary. In a preferred embodiment, the scrolling member may be located in a corner of the body of the transaction authentication card. A user may rotate the scrolling member which through a communicative and/or mechanical coupling with the processor of the transaction authentication card may enable the user selectable functionality, as previously described for the selector.
It is understood that the selector may provide various alternative capabilities to the transaction authentication card, such as entering personal identification information, in addition to the biometric data gathered. It is contemplated that the alphanumeric, modular, touchscreen, quick access, button, and scrolling member embodiments of the present invention, may operate in conjunction with the display 135 and 260, of
The processing circuitry 220 interfaces the biometric sensor 230 and RF transmitter 210. When the cardholder activates the authentication, the RF signal is sent to the transaction authentication card. The RF signal may be a direct sequence signal or a frequency-hopping signal. The transaction authentication card has a radio transmitter that transmits in the range from 1 kilohertz to 999 gigahertz and may have a receiver that receives in the range of 1 kilohertz to 999 gigahertz. RF transmission may be in accordance with Bluetooth or IEEE 802.11 standards. Radio frequency transmission is only accomplished when the biometric in the on-board database is authenticated with the biometric input from the user. The effective range of the RF signal may be zero to five feet or zero to four inches or another range. The card may be implemented to emit RF signals of two or more distinct frequencies. The RF signals may be implemented such that the frequency of a first signal is between two (2) and one billion (1000000000) times the frequency of a second signal. Optionally, a switch may be added to the card to switch to one of multiple transmission frequencies. Each transmission frequency may correspond to a unique encrypter.
The wireless output data format may be application specific or may adhere to a recognized access control system standard. The transaction authentication card preferably uses a standard PCMCIA interface to allow computer terminal authentication and has a PCMCIA form factor that permits charging of the battery and terminal authentication. An additional interface will be wireless to a computer terminal that uses the protocol compliant with or identical to HID/MIFARE. The transaction authentication card preferably has a proximity antenna built into the card and will support various communications standards. The transaction authentication card interfaces through a serial (e.g., USB) port on the computer terminal. Biometric data is enrolled at the card level without the need of a CPU.
In the preferred embodiment, the transaction authentication card supports embedded contact smart chip module access control. In the preferred embodiment, multiple wireless protocols are used such as the HID and MIFARE protocols. HID Corporation, based in Irvine, Calif., provides the combining of proximity and smart card contactless technologies using Wiegand format access control data. The combined HID MIFARE protocols operate at a frequency of 13.56 (or 15.76) MHz (i.e., MIFARE) and 125 (or 129) KHz Proximity (i.e., HID). In alternative embodiments, the transaction authentication card may use solely HID or MIFARE protocols. The encrypted RF signal using MIFARE is either 26 bits or 32 bits, as selected by the manufacturer. These embodiments preferably use the Philips MIFARE S50 module having an EEPROM memory. The MIFARE read range is 2.5 to 10 cm. A HID MIFARE reader may be used with the transaction authentication card to provide secure access to a building or machine through contactless operation that does not cause wear and tear on the reader.
In the initial use phase of
Further shown in
Various embodiments may be implemented for the transaction authentication card of the present invention. The biometric input need not be limited to fingerprint matching, but may include other forms of biometric identification. The transaction authentication card may allow multiple finger print registration. Patterns for each finger of the user may be entered into the transaction authentication card memory. Other parts of the user's anatomy, such as the retinal patterns of the eyes, may be used. The sensor pad may be adapted to require the placement of two or more digits and may function in an either/or mode. A temperature sensor may also be employed to verify that the finger is living. This may be a redundant feature in some embodiments since the sensor pad and processor may already be implemented to recognize not only a finger print pattern but also the blood flow through a given finger. In fact, the blood flow pattern through a finger may be used as an alternative to a fingerprint. Flexible circuit technology may be used. The transaction authentication card may store credit card numbers, social security numbers, employee identification numbers, and the like. Although radio frequency transmission is preferred, other wireless transmission formats may be implemented, such as infrared. Misalignment or other problems in entering the biometric input may be signaled by an audible alarm or visual indicator on the transaction authentication card and/or transaction authentication card reader. A speaker for sound and/or alarms may be incorporated in the card. A protective adhesive sheet may cover one or both sides of the card. If the biometric side of the card is covered with a protective adhesive sheet, the protective adhesive sheet over the biometric sensor may be cut out to promote effectiveness of the sensor operation. The protective adhesive sheet may allow the adhering of print images or text.
Manufacturing of the transaction authentication card may occur using various materials and manufacturing methods. For example, the body of the transaction authentication card may be comprised of two or more housings which are joined together to at least partially encompass the component features, such as the circuit board, biometric sensor, and the like. Alternatively, the housing may be formed by a method whereby the component features are integrated with the body as a single piece. It is understood that the wedge of the quick access transaction authentication card and other alternative selectors as contemplated by the present invention are capable of being included in the manufacturing process.
It is believed that the present invention and many of its attendant advantages will be understood by the forgoing description. It is also believed that it will be apparent that various changes may be made in the form, construction and arrangement of the components thereof without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention or without sacrificing all of its material advantages, the form hereinbefore described being merely an explanatory embodiment thereof. It is the intention of the following claims to encompass and include such changes.
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|U.S. Classification||713/186, 340/5.6, 705/65, 705/67, 705/51, 340/5.53, 713/169|
|International Classification||H04Q1/00, G08B29/00, G06F7/04, G06K9/00, H04L9/00, G06F7/00, H04K1/00, G06T7/00, G06T1/00, H04Q9/00, G05B19/00, G05B23/00, G08C19/00|
|Cooperative Classification||G07F7/1008, G07F7/086, G07C2009/00095, G07C9/00087, G06Q20/3674, G06Q20/367, G06Q20/341, G06K9/00006, G06Q20/40145, G06Q20/3574|
|European Classification||G06K9/00A, G06Q20/367, G06Q20/40145, G06Q20/3674, G06Q20/341, G07F7/08B, G07C9/00B6D4, G07F7/10D|
|Feb 18, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: RESILENT, LLC, NEBRASKA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:CAMPISI, STEVEN E.;REEL/FRAME:015745/0654
Effective date: 20050218
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