|Publication number||US7564081 B2|
|Application number||US 11/164,621|
|Publication date||Jul 21, 2009|
|Priority date||Nov 30, 2005|
|Also published as||CN1976059A, US8058157, US20070120154, US20090280626|
|Publication number||11164621, 164621, US 7564081 B2, US 7564081B2, US-B2-7564081, US7564081 B2, US7564081B2|
|Inventors||Huilong Zhu, Zhijiong Luo|
|Original Assignee||International Business Machines Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (103), Non-Patent Citations (14), Referenced by (23), Classifications (13), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates generally to semiconductor structures. More particularly, the invention relates to enhanced semiconductor device performance through the use of mechanical stress effects and/or dopant redistribution effects within semiconductor structures.
As semiconductor technology has advanced and semiconductor device density requirements have increased, there has been an increased need to fabricate semiconductor devices (e.g., MOSFET devices) with reduced dimensions, such as reduced gate electrode lengths of the devices. A novel semiconductor structure that accommodates increased density due to its considerably decreased dimensions is a double gate device that uses a finFET structure. A finFET structure provides a vertical channel device that includes a semiconductor fin set sideways upon a substrate. In order to obtain desirable control of short channel effects (SCEs), the semiconductor fin is thin enough in a device channel region to ensure forming fully depleted semiconductor devices. A pair of gate dielectric layers is typically located upon a pair of opposite semiconductor fin sidewalls. A gate electrode of an inverted U shape is typically located upon the semiconductor fin and covering the pair of gate dielectric layers. In some other instances, the gate electrode is not located atop the fin and thus it is restricted to the sidewalls of the fin.
Beyond finFET structures that provide space efficient transistor structures with desirable SCE control, semiconductor devices are now commonly designed to use a mechanical stress effect (MSE) and/or a dopant redistribution or mobility effect to enhance transistor performance. The MSE is generally engineered to provide enhanced charge carrier mobility within a semiconductor device. The enhanced charge carrier mobility typically leads to enhanced semiconductor device performance.
finFET structures may be fabricated with stressed components to improve performance of the finFET structures. For example, each of: (1) Rim, in U.S. Pat. No. 6,815,738; and (2) Lee et al., in Pub. No. 2004/0256647, teaches stressed semiconductor fin structures within finFETs. Each provides the stressed semiconductor fin structures by utilizing a lattice mismatch for layered components when forming the stressed semiconductor fin structures.
Since desirable SCE control and space efficiency advantages of finFET devices are likely to continue to be of considerable significance within semiconductor device technology, and since stressed structures similarly also continue to provide semiconductor devices with enhanced performance, the utilization of stressed structures within finFETs is likely to continue.
The invention provides a pair of finFET structures and a method for fabricating a finFET structure.
The first of the pair of finFET structures includes a semiconductor fin located over a substrate. The structure also includes a gate electrode located over the semiconductor fin. Within the first structure, the gate electrode has a first stress in a first region located nearer the semiconductor fin and a second stress, which is different than the first stress, in a second region located further from the semiconductor fin.
The second of the pair of finFET structures includes a semiconductor fin located over a pedestal within a substrate. Preferably, the semiconductor fin is located aligned over the pedestal within the substrate.
The method derives from the first of the finFET structures. The method provides for forming a semiconductor fin over a substrate. It also provides for forming a gate electrode over the semiconductor fin, where the gate electrode has a first stress in a first region located nearer the semiconductor fin and a second stress, which is different than the first stress, in a second region located further from the semiconductor fin.
The objects, features and advantages of the invention are understood within the context of the Description of the Preferred Embodiment, as set forth below. The Description of the Preferred Embodiment is understood within the context of the accompanying drawings, which form a material part of this disclosure, wherein:
The invention provides a finFET structure with enhanced performance, and a method for fabricating the finFET structure.
The substrate 10 may comprise any of several materials, including but not limited to: a conductor material, a semiconductor material or a dielectric material. Typically, the substrate 10 comprises a semiconductor material. The semiconductor material may be selected from the group including, but not limited to: silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloy, silicon carbide (SiC), silicon-germanium alloy carbide (SiGeC) and compound semiconductor materials, such as (III-VI) and (II-VI) semiconductor materials. Non-limiting examples of compound semiconductor materials include gallium arsenide, indium arsenide and indium phosphide materials. Typically, the substrate 10 has a thickness from about 1 to about 3 mils.
The buried dielectric layer 12 typically comprises an oxide of a semiconductor material from which comprises the substrate 10, when the substrate 10 comprises a semiconductor material. Alternatively, the buried dielectric layer 12 may comprise a nitride, an oxynitride or an alternative dielectric material. The buried dielectric layer 12 may be formed utilizing methods as are conventional in the semiconductor fabrication art. Non-limiting examples of the methods include thermal annealing methods, chemical vapor deposition methods and physical vapor deposition methods. Typically, the buried dielectric layer 12 has a thickness from about 200 to about 10000 angstroms.
The semiconductor layer 14 may comprise any of several semiconductor materials as are also conventional in the art. The semiconductor materials may include, but are not limited to: silicon, germanium, silicon-germanium alloy, silicon carbide, silicon-germanium alloy carbide, GaAs, InAs, InP, as well as other compound (III-V) and (II-VI) semiconductor materials. The semiconductor layer 14 may also comprise an organic semiconductor material. Typically, the semiconductor layer 14 has a thickness from about 300 to about 1000 angstroms.
The substrate 10 (when comprising a semiconductor material), the buried dielectric layer 12 and the semiconductor layer 14 comprise in an aggregate a semiconductor-on-insulator substrate. Within the embodiment and the invention, the substrate 10 typically comprises a silicon or silicon-germanium alloy semiconductor material, the buried dielectric layer 12 typically comprises a corresponding silicon or silicon-germanium oxide material and the semiconductor layer 14 typically also comprises a corresponding silicon or silicon-germanium alloy semiconductor material. The semiconductor-on-insulator substrate may be formed utilizing any of several methods that are conventional in the semiconductor fabrication art. Non-limiting examples of such methods include layer transfer methods, laminating methods and, in particular, separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) methods.
The hard mask layer 16 comprises a hard mask material as is otherwise generally conventional in the art. Non-limiting examples of hard mask materials include oxides, nitrides and oxynitrides, typically of silicon and/or germanium, but oxides, nitrides and oxynitrides of other elements may also be utilized. The aforementioned hard mask materials may be deposited utilizing methods including, but not limited to: thermal annealing methods, chemical vapor deposition methods and physical vapor deposition sputtering methods. Typically, the hard mask layer 16 has a thickness from about 200 to about 400 angstroms, although such a thickness does not limit the embodiment or the invention.
The patterned photoresist layer 18 may comprise photoresist materials that are conventional in the art. Non-limiting examples include positive photoresist materials, negative photoresist materials and hybrid photoresist materials. The resists may be processed to provide the patterned photoresist layer 18 utilizing spin coating, photoexposure and development methods and materials as are conventional in the art. Typically, the patterned photoresist layer 18 has a thickness from about 5000 to about 15000 angstroms.
The foregoing layers are preferably etched anisotropically to thus provide substantially straight sidewalls. Such etching typically utilizes a reactive ion etch plasma etchant or another anisotropic etchant, such as an ion beam etchant. Wet chemical etchant materials, while typically less common, may under certain circumstances also be utilized, although they are generally isotropic etchants. When utilizing a reactive ion etch plasma etchant, a fluorine containing etchant gas composition is typically utilized when etching a silicon containing hard mask material or a silicon containing dielectric material. A chlorine containing etchant gas composition is typically utilized when etching a silicon or germanium containing semiconductor material.
Similarly, while the schematic plan-view diagram of
The contiguous spacer layer 16′ as illustrated in
The pad dielectric layer 24 typically comprises any of several dielectric materials as are conventionally utilized for a pad dielectric layer. Non-limiting examples include silicon oxide, silicon nitride and silicon oxynitride materials. Silicon oxide materials are particularly common. The pad dielectric layer 24 may be formed utilizing any of several methods as are convention in the art. Non-limiting examples include thermal oxidation methods, chemical vapor deposition methods and physical vapor deposition methods. Preferably, the pad dielectric layer 24 is formed utilizing a thermal oxidation method to yield a silicon oxide material. Typically, the pad dielectric layer 24 has a thickness from about 10 to about 100 angstroms.
The stress imparting layer 26 may comprise any of several stress imparting materials, but from a practical perspective the stress imparting material must have thermal resistance characteristics that allow for higher temperature annealing absent deterioration of the stress imparting layer or any layers therebeneath. Non-limiting examples of stress imparting materials include silicon nitride materials and silicon oxynitride materials. Silicon nitride materials are particularly preferred. The stress imparting layer 26 may have either a positive stress or a negative stress as appropriate for either an n-finFET or a p-finFET.
Also from a practical perspective, there are several process variables that may be utilized to influence stress when forming the stress imparting layer 26. Non-limiting examples include deposition temperature, starting materials, deposition rate and thickness. Typically, the stress imparting layer has a thickness from about 500 to about 2000 angstroms, although neither the embodiment nor the invention is so limited.
With respect to the recrystallized gate electrode 22′, the first stress therein may be less than the second stress or the first stress may be greater than the second stress. The first stress and the second stress may be both compressive or both tensile. Alternatively, one of the first stress and the second stress may be tensile and the other of the first stress and the second stress may be compressive.
Recrystallization of the partially amorphized gate electrode 22′ to form the recrystallized gate electrode 22″ may be undertaken utilizing any of several thermal annealing methods that are conventional in the semiconductor fabrication art. Non-limiting examples include furnace annealing methods and rapid thermal annealing methods. Typically, but not exclusively, the partially amorphized gate electrode 22′ is thermally annealed at a temperature from about 1000° to about 1200° C. for a time period from about 2 to about 6 hours. Typically, the thermal annealing is undertaken in an inert atmosphere, such as a helium, argon, krypton or nitrogen atmosphere, although this is not required. As is understood by a person skilled in the art, the foregoing thermal annealing conditions also provide for a recrystallizing of source/drain regions of the semiconductor fin 14 a and a drive-in of active dopants implanted therein.
Although the preferred embodiment illustrates the invention with the recrystallized gate electrode 22″ having two regions of different stress, neither the instant embodiment nor the invention is so limited. Rather, as is understood by a person skilled in the art the invention may be practiced with sequentially less and less deep ion implant amorphizations of a gate electrode, along with concurrent and sequential recrystallizations under multiple sequential stress imparting layer influence. The foregoing process sequence yields further additionally defined stress regions within a multiply recrystallized gate electrode.
Once source/drain region portions of the semiconductor fin 14 a are exposed, the pair of silicide layers 28 may be formed utilizing methods as are also conventional in the art. Typically, the pair of silicide layers 28 is formed utilizing a metal silicide forming metal layer deposition, thermal annealing and subsequent unreacted metal etch method (i.e., a salicide method). Alternative methods may be employed. Typical metal silicide forming metals include, but are not limited to: tungsten, cobalt, platinum, nickel and titanium. Thermal annealing conditions are typically about 350° to about 850° C. for a time period from about 1 second to about 10 minutes. Unreacted metal etchants are specific to particular metals and are typically wet chemical etchants, although this is not a requirement of the invention. Typically, each of the pair of silicide layers 28 has a thickness from about 50 to about 300 angstroms. They are optional within the invention.
Within the instant embodiment, the second stress imparting layer 30 may have a third stress different from either: (1) the first stress closer to the semiconductor fin 14 a within the unamorphized sub-layer 22 a of the recrystallized gate electrode 22″; or (2) the second stress further from the semiconductor fin 14 a within the recrystallized sub-layer 22 b′ of the recrystallized gate electrode 22″. The first stress, the second stress and the third stress may define a continuous stress progression (either increasing or decreasing). Alternatively, they may define a discontinuous stress progression. Each of the first stress, second stress and third stress may independently be a tensile stress or a compressive stress. Magnitudes of the first stress, second stress and third stress may also vary, but will typically range from about −3.5 GPa to 2.5 GPa.
The preferred embodiment of the invention is illustrative of the invention rather than limiting of the invention. Revisions and modifications may be made to methods, materials, structures and dimensions in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention while still providing an embodiment in accordance with the invention, further in accordance with the accompanying claims.
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|U.S. Classification||257/288, 257/401, 257/412, 257/347|
|Cooperative Classification||H01L29/7842, H01L29/785, H01L29/66795, H01L29/42384|
|European Classification||H01L29/66M6T6F16F, H01L29/78R, H01L29/423D2B8, H01L29/78S|
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