|Publication number||US7575404 B2|
|Application number||US 11/874,347|
|Publication date||Aug 18, 2009|
|Filing date||Oct 18, 2007|
|Priority date||Nov 1, 2006|
|Also published as||CN101595314A, CN101595314B, EP2084411A2, EP2084411A4, US7802952, US20080101887, US20080101888, WO2008057756A2, WO2008057756A3|
|Publication number||11874347, 874347, US 7575404 B2, US 7575404B2, US-B2-7575404, US7575404 B2, US7575404B2|
|Inventors||Rahmatollah Fakhri Toosky, Soheil Eshraghi|
|Original Assignee||Sps Technologies, Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (106), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (13), Classifications (11), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application Ser. No. 60/863,828, filed Nov. 1, 2006, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
The present invention generally relates to nut plate fastener assemblies, and more specifically relates to a rivetless nut plate fastener assembly which is configured for use with a composite material workpiece.
Fasteners are used in the aerospace industry for securing at least two workpieces together. Fasteners used in such installations may include a nut plate and a nut which are part of an assembly. There are many different design configurations of nut plates being used today. Two major classes are riveted nut plates and rivetless nut plates.
In riveted nut plates, two rivets are employed for attaching the body of the nut plate to the workpiece. To eliminate the potential for leakage through the openings of the riveted nut plates, sealant is used between the workpiece and the nut plate.
With regard to rivetless nut plates, some designs provide that a sleeve is flared against a workpiece. One example of this type of rivetless nut plate is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,732,518, which is hereby incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. The '518 patent illustrates the insertion of a sleeve inside a workpiece against heavy interference forces and then deformation of the sleeve to produce flaring of the end of the sleeve. The sleeve has a serration/lobe configuration thereon with the serration/lobe configuration being long and tapered such that the serrations/lobes extend into the walls of the workpiece. The tapered feature, length and specific geometry are necessary to make installation possible with the method of installation which was chosen for its application. The main object of the '518 patent with its tapered and extended serration/lobe configuration was to enhance the fatigue life of the workpiece by distributing the load throughout the workpiece and providing expansion due to the insertion of the sleeve into the workpiece, and to cold work the material adjacent the perimeter of the workpiece aperture.
Other nut plate designs do not rely on flaring of the sleeve. U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,096,349, 5,245,743, 5,405,228; 7,059,816 and pending U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/929,701 (filed Aug. 30, 2004) disclose rivetless nut plate designs which do not rely on flaring of the sleeve, and these five items are hereby incorporated herein by reference in their entirety. While some rivetless nut plate designs rely on adhesive for attaching the nut plate to the structure, the designs disclosed in the five items cited above rely on heavily cold-worked holes and high interference engagement utilizing a hardened pin as the installation tool to expand a sleeve element into engagement with a workpiece structure. Because of high level expansion, the friction forces created are intended to retain the nut plate and provide expected mechanical properties.
Currently within the aerospace industry, the rivetless nut plate disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 7,059,816 is becoming more and more predominate within aluminum structure applications, taking the place of outdated nut plates utilizing satellite rivets. This is due to the time saving nature of the rivetless nut plate, while still maintaining the mechanical properties for torque out and push out as required by NASM25027.
This rivetless nut plate works by pulling a mandrel through the inside diameter of a nut plate retainer which has been placed in a pre-drilled hole, expanding the fastener sleeve radially in the hole. This radial expansion of the fastener sleeve in the work piece embeds the sleeve with its complex lobe design into the pre-drilled hole and creates the interlocking action between the nut plate and the structure required to resist torque out and push out.
Unfortunately, with composite structures, the introduction of holes in the material and subsequently fasteners in those holes, create unique problems not existing with most aerospace structural materials. Due to the properties of composites, too much radial expansion of the work hole caused by the fastener sleeve leads to delamination of the composite, while too little radial expansion hampers proper shear load transfer. A solution is needed. Thus, the present invention deals with rivetless nut plates for installation in composite structures.
While it seems that there is no current approach to modifying a rivetless nut plate such that it is useable with composite material workpieces, there is an approach using the outdated nut plate with satellite rivets. This approach requires drilling and reaming operations for their holes, or it needs to be accompanied with a bonding agent. Due to the nature of composite material, each drilled hole, as well as each additional installed fastener, endangers the integrity of the structure. Performing the drilling process in the composite material is difficult and costly, and can also damage the structure by exposing fibers to water absorption problems, while each installed fastener can damage the composite structure due to overfill conditions. In overfill conditions, the excessive radial expansion of the fastener can lead to delamination of the composite structure. Finally, the integrity of the bonding process is not easily verifiable and it can deteriorate due to environmental changes such as heat, moisture and chemicals.
Thus, an embodiment of the present invention aims to fasten a rivetless nut plate to a composite structure without the use of bonding agents, additional holes or satellite rivets, and without damaging the structure.
An object of an embodiment of the present invention is to provide a rivetless nut plate assembly which can be installed into an aperture of a composite material workpiece without risking delamination of the workpiece.
Another object of an embodiment of the present invention aims to fasten a rivetless nut plate to a composite structure without the use of bonding agents, additional holes or satellite rivets, and without damaging the structure.
Briefly, and in accordance with the foregoing, an embodiment of the present invention provides a rivetless nut plate assembly, which is fully preassembled, which can be installed into an aperture of a composite material workpiece, such as a carbon fiber structure, without risking delamination of the workpiece. The rivetless nut plate assembly includes a nut, a holding bracket, a retainer, and a sleeve member. Additionally, a stem is used to install the rivetless nut plate assembly. The sleeve member is configured such that the nut plate assembly can be installed in a composite material workpiece without risk of delamination. The sleeve member may be formed of 45Cb-55Ti Titanium Columbium, as Titanium Columbium is a high strength and ductile material that resists corrosion in the presence of, for example, a carbon fiber composite structure. Monel, Titanium alloys, and other soft Nickel alloys are also good material selections for the sleeve, for similar reasons. Non-metallic materials with high tensile and shear strengths, such as Torlon or Parmax, would provide the desired corrosion protection and also offer a potential weight savings.
The organization and manner of the structure and operation of the invention, together with further objects and advantages thereof, may best be understood by reference to the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein like reference numerals identify like elements in which:
While this invention may be susceptible to embodiment in different forms, there are shown in the drawings and will be described herein in detail, specific embodiments with the understanding that the present disclosure is to be considered an exemplification of the principles of the invention, and is not intended to limit the invention to that as illustrated.
The nut plate assembly 20 includes a nut 22, a holding bracket 24, a sleeve 25 and a retainer 28. Additionally, before installation, the nut plate assembly 20 includes a stem 26 that is used to install the nut plate assembly 20 into an aperture 112 in a composite material workpiece 110.
The nut 22 includes a base portion 30 and a portion 32 which extends upwardly therefrom, which is generally cylindrical in configuration. An aperture 34 is provided through the base portion 30 and the portion 32 which defines an aperture wall 36. The aperture wall 36 is generally threaded such that a fastener, such as a bolt, can be attached thereto. The base portion 30 includes end recesses 38, 40 and axially projecting end portions 42, 44 and 46, 48 situated on opposite sides of the recesses 38, 40, respectively.
As shown in
The tubular portion 50 extends in the opposite direction from the base portion 56 of the bracket portion 52 than do the side walls 58, 60 and the protrusions 62, 64 of the bracket portion 52. The tubular portion 50 has an aperture 74 therethrough which defines an inner wall 76 of the tubular portion 50. The tubular portion 50 also has an outer wall 78. From the first end 54 of the tubular portion 50, the inner wall 76 preferably curves inwardly to provide a shoulder 80. From the shoulder 80 to a second end 82 of the tubular portion 50, the inner wall 76 is preferably tapered or stepped such that the diameter of the inner wall 76 is gradually reduced, as illustrated in
The outer wall 78 of the tubular portion 50 extends from an undersurface 86 of the bracket portion 52 to the second end 82 of the tubular portion 50. Lobes or ribs 88 extend outwardly from the outer wall 78 of the tubular portion 50 if desired, and each lobe or rib 88 may be provided with an upper angled surface 89. The purpose for the lobes/ribs 88 and upper angled surfaces 89 will be discussed further later herein.
The stem 26 includes an enlarged head portion 90 at a first end 92 thereof and an elongated portion 94, which is preferably cylindrical, which extends from the enlarged head portion 90. The enlarged head portion 90 tapers to the elongated portion 94. The elongated portion 94 has a tool engaging section 96 proximate to a second end 98 of the stem 26, which may include annular lobes 99 (see
The retainer 28 may be a spring formed from rectangular wire bent into the form illustrated. The retainer 28 is preferably one piece and extends from end portion 100, to side portion 102, then to middle portion 104, then to side portion 106, and then to end portion 108. The side portions 102, 106 are configured to insert in the slots 70, 72 which extend through the side walls 58, 60 of the bracket portion 52 of the bracket 24.
The second end 98 of the stem 26 is positioned within the aperture 74 of the tubular portion 50 of the holding bracket 24 at the first end 54 thereof such that the enlarged head portion 90 of the stem 26 rests on the shoulder 80 of the inner wall 76 of the tubular portion 50.
The nut 22 is connected to the holding bracket 24 by the base portion 30 being positioned against the base portion 56 of the bracket portion 52 such that the protrusions 62, 64 on the base portion 56 are positioned within the recesses 38, 40 of the nut 22. When the side portions 102, 106 of the retainer 28 are received in the slots 70, 72 of the bracket portion 52 of the bracket 24, the retainer 28 is attached to the bracket portion 52 to hold the nut 22 within the confines defined by the bracket portion 52 and the retainer 28, but such that the nut 22 is allowed to float in at least one dimension, but preferably in three dimensions, in order to facilitate and permit alignment of a fastener, such as a bolt, with the nut 22.
The rivetless nut plate 20 also includes a sleeve member 25. Preferably, the sleeve member 25 is formed of a material such as 45Cb-55Ti Titanium Columbium, as Titanium Columbium is a high strength and ductile material that resists corrosion in the presence of, for example, a carbon fiber composite structure. Monel, Titanium alloys and other soft Nickel alloys are also good material selections for the sleeve 25, for similar reasons. Non-metallic materials with high tensile and shear strengths, such as Torlon or Parmax, would provide the desired corrosion protection and also offer a potential weight savings. The sleeve 25 allows the installation of the rivetless nut plate assembly 20 into composite structures, such as carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP), in such a way that the mechanical properties of the installed rivetless nut plate conforms with NASM25027 for torque out and push out.
As shown in
The outside surface 200 of the sleeve 25 is preferably provided as either being smooth or as having a shallow (i.e. not deep) geometrical pattern impressed into it. Preferably, the sleeve 25 does not have deep lobes and/or ribs around it, because it may cause delamination of the composite structure. Another option in lieu of providing shallow lobes on the outside surface 200 of the sleeve 25 is to mold or spray a non-metallic coating onto the outside surface 200, in order to increase the friction between the composite structure and the sleeve. The increased friction between the composite structure 110 and the sleeve 25 will allow the component to resist greater push out and torque out values. Yet another option is to add an epoxy to the outside surface 200 of the sleeve 25 to create a bond between the sleeve 25 and the composite workpiece structure 110. Although not specifically shown in the FIGURES, the sleeve 25 may include an optional geometry on its outside surface 200, such as a step wherein the outside surface 200 has effectively two outside diameters.
The sleeve member 25 also preferably has a length, defined as a distance from the top 206 of the sleeve 25 to the bottom 208 of the sleeve 25, which is substantially equal to a thickness of the workpiece 110, defined as a distance (dimension 209 in
Preferably, the sleeve 25 is shaped such it can be press fit onto the bracket 24, i.e., onto the lobes 88. As such, preferably an inner diameter 120 (see
In use, a hole or aperture 112 of a standard specified size is drilled into the composite structure 110 at the point where the rivetless nut plate 20 is needed. Then, the sleeve 25 is pressed onto the bracket 24, the stem 26 is positioned such that the head 90 of the stem 26 is in contact with the shoulder 80 of the bracket 24, and the elongated portion 94 extends through the aperture 74 in the tubular portion 50 of the bracket 24. Then, the nut 22 is placed on the bracket 24, and the retainer 28 is used to secure the nut 22 against the bracket 24 and effectively secure the head 90 of the stem 26 in the bracket 24.
The nut plate assembly 20, in its preassembled form, is then inserted into the aperture 112 of the workpiece 110 by inserting the second end 98 of the stem 26 and the tubular portion 50 of the holding bracket 24 and the sleeve 25 into the aperture 112 of the workpiece 110, such that the undersurface 86 of the bracket portion 52 of the holding bracket 24 sits on the top surface 114 of the workpiece 110, as illustrated in
Through the use of a pulling tool, a holding or abutment force F1 (see
Through the use of the pulling tool, the head 90 of the stem 26 is pulled through the tubular portion 50 of the bracket 24, expanding both the tubular portion 50 of the bracket 24 and the sleeve 25, creating interference between the bracket 24 and sleeve 25, as well as interference between the sleeve 25 and the composite material workpiece 110. This radial expansion and resulting interference creates the interlocking and interference necessary to obtain the required mechanical properties for the rivetless nut plate 20. The sleeve 25 is pliable to interlock with the tubular portion 50 of the bracket 24 and create the necessary interference load with the composite structure 110 from this radial expansion, while not causing delamination of the composite workpiece structure 110.
The enlarged head portion 90 of the stem 26 initially expands the tubular portion 50 as well as places a compressive load on the components to seat them against the top surface 114 of the workpiece 110. The tubular portion 50 expands to engage the sleeve 25. As this occurs, the head 90 of the stem 26 continuously deforms the tubular portion 50 radially outwardly to engage the sleeve 25 with sufficient force to cause the lobes/ribs 88, or alternate structure, if provided, on the outer wall 78 of the tubular portion 50 to embed in the interior wall 302 of the sleeve 25. As can be appreciated, the increasing wall thickness of the tubular portion 50 insures that radial deformation continues along the entire length of the tubular portion 50 to attain the desired degree of engagement of the lobes/ribs 88 in the wall 302 of the sleeve 25 such that improved push-out, pull-out, torque-out and fatigue characteristics are achieved.
When the enlarged head portion 90 is pulled completely through the aperture 74 of the tubular portion 50, as shown in
This embodiment of the present invention provides a practical means for attaching a nut plate to a composite structure without the need for satellite rivets or glue. Application of this product decreases cost due to time savings during installation, decreases the chances of a failed installation, and most importantly, a failed structure.
To improve performance, an alternative mandrel head design can be used. Specifically, a mandrel head 90 a can be provided as being solid but having ribs 91 a thereon as shown in
While preferred embodiments of the invention are shown and described, it is envisioned that those skilled in the art may devise various modifications without departing from the spirit and scope of the foregoing description. For example,
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|U.S. Classification||411/113, 411/501, 411/69|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S411/969, F16B37/045, F16B17/006, F16B37/062|
|European Classification||F16B37/06B, F16B37/04E, F16B17/00B4|
|Nov 19, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SPS TECHNOLOGIES, LLC, PENNSYLVANIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:TOOSKY, RAHMATOLLAH FAKHRI;ESHRAGHI, SOHEIL;REEL/FRAME:020133/0641
Effective date: 20071115
|Dec 21, 2012||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Feb 7, 2017||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8