|Publication number||US7581515 B2|
|Application number||US 11/770,785|
|Publication date||Sep 1, 2009|
|Filing date||Jun 29, 2007|
|Priority date||Jun 29, 2007|
|Also published as||EP2009384A2, EP2009384A3, US20090000772|
|Publication number||11770785, 770785, US 7581515 B2, US 7581515B2, US-B2-7581515, US7581515 B2, US7581515B2|
|Inventors||Edward W. O'Connor|
|Original Assignee||Hamilton Sundstrand Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (19), Classifications (7), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention generally relates to a method of controlling an evaporative heat exchanger. More particularly, this invention relates to a control scheme for operating an evaporative heat exchanger that exhausts to space vacuum.
Evaporative heat exchangers are utilized in applications where a conventional radiator cannot be utilized. An evaporative heat exchanger includes a cooling medium that accepts heat from another system and exhausts that heat to an ambient environment. Water is a very efficient cooling medium with a latent heat of 1000 BTU/lb (2326.000 J/kg). The favorable latent heat to weight ratio makes water a suitable choice for use in vehicles operating in extreme conditions with restrictive space and weight requirements.
The conditions in which evaporative heat exchangers are utilized in a space vacuum are at the extreme thermodynamic conditions for water. Slight changes in pressure and temperature can result in freezing of water within the evaporator. For this reason great care must be taken to maintain operation of the evaporative heat exchanger within desired performance ranges.
Accordingly, it is desirable to design and develop a method and device for adapting evaporative heat exchanger operation to current operating conditions to maintain desired performance.
The example heat exchanger assembly includes a plurality of evaporative heat exchangers that are selectively fed evaporant to tailor operation to current heat load in order to maintain operation in thermodynamically extreme conditions.
An example evaporative heat exchange assembly includes three evaporative heat exchangers into which is fed a heat transfer medium that carries heat from a heat generating system to an inlet. Heat rejected from the heat transfer medium is accepted by an evaporant feed separately to each of the evaporative heat exchangers. The evaporant enters each of the heat exchangers in a liquid form and vaporizes upon encountering heat given off by the heat transfer medium and is exhausted into an ambient environment.
The example heat exchanger assembly operates in the vacuum of space. The operating environment in the vacuum of space is at or near the triple point of water. At the temperatures expected during operation, water will freeze at pressures below 0.089 psia (613.6 Pa). Therefore, pressures within each of the heat exchangers must be kept above such a pressure to prevent freezing.
The temperature or heat load into the heat exchanger assembly varies during operation. Incoming heat transfer fluid at lower temperatures will not vaporize evaporant at levels encountered with higher temperatures. The resulting reduction in vaporized evaporant reduces pressure within each of the heat exchangers The example system accommodates such temperature fluctuations by tailoring heat load capacity such that pressure within each of the heat exchangers remains above the triple point pressure.
Accordingly, the example disclosed system tailors operation to provide reliable vaporization of liquid evaporant near thermodynamic limits.
These and other features of the present invention can be best understood from the following specification and drawings, the following of which is a brief description.
The example assembly 10 operates where the ambient environment 36 is at or near the vacuum of space. The example evaporant 46 is water as it is a weight efficient evaporant with a latent heat of 1000 BTU/lb (2326.000 J/kg). In vehicles and devices that operate in such extreme environments, weight and space must be allocated in the most efficient manner. Therefore the favorable latent heat to weight properties of water provides the desired efficiencies. However, the operating environment is at or near the triple point of water with temperatures at the relatively low temperature of around 32-36 F.° (0-2 C.°), with pressures approaching zero. At the example operating temperatures water will freeze at pressures below 0.089 psia. For this reason, pressures within each of the heat exchangers 12, 14 and 16 must be kept above such a pressure to prevent freezing.
Liquid water evaporant 46 entering each of the heat exchangers 12, 14, and 16 is vaporized by heat from the heat transfer medium 44. Each of the heat exchangers 12, 14, 16 provides for expansion of the vaporized evaporant to maintain a desired pressure above the triple point pressure. The vapor is then exhausted through exhaust ports 50 as water vapor 34. The increase in pressure caused by the vaporization of the water evaporant is utilized to maintain pressures above the triple point pressure that causes water to freeze.
As appreciated, the temperature or heat load into the heat exchanger assembly 10 varies during operation. Incoming heat transfer fluid 44 at lower temperatures will not vaporize evaporant 46 at levels encountered with higher heat transfer medium temperatures. The resulting reduction in vaporized evaporant additionally reduces pressure within each of the heat exchangers 12, 14, 16. In the environment in which the example system operates, such a reduction in pressure can result in freezing of liquid evaporant within the heat exchangers 12, 14, and 16.
The example system accommodates such temperature fluctuations by tailoring heat load capacity such that pressure within each of the heat exchangers remains above the triple point pressure. Heat load capacity is controlled by adjusting the flow of water evaporant 46 separately to each of the heat exchangers 12, 14, 16 such that the vaporization of the water evaporant produces the desired pressures at each of the outlets 50.
The assembly 10 includes valves 20, 22, and 24 selectively actuated by a controller 48 to control water evaporant 46 flow to each corresponding heat exchanger 12, 14, 16. An inlet temperature sensor 52 communicates temperature information indicative of the temperature of incoming heat transfer medium 44. An outlet temperature sensor 54 communicates information indicative of outlet temperature of the heat transfer medium. The valves 20, 22, and 24 feed evaporant through a variable control valve 26.
The heat exchangers 12, 14, and 16 are orientated to receive the heat transfer medium in series. Heat transfer medium from the first heat exchanger 12 enters the second heat exchanger 14, which in turn enters the third heat exchanger 16. Combining the heat exchangers 12, 14, 16 in series results in an overall increase in turndown capacity. In the example heat exchanger assembly, each of the evaporative heat exchangers 12, 14, 16 operate at a turndown range of 1.5:1. Combining the three provides a turndown range of 3.38:1. ((1.5*1.5*1.5) =3.38:1). When less turndown range is required due to lower temperatures of the heat transfer medium 44, one or a combination of the heat exchangers 12, 14, 16 is deactivated by closing the corresponding one of the control valves 20, 22, 24. Further, each of the heat exchangers 12, 14 and 16 can provide different turndown ranges that when operated together, or in various combinations tailor heat turndown to current conditions.
Before one of the heat exchangers 12, 14, and 16 are deactivated, the variable control valve 26 reduces flow to the currently active heat exchangers 12, 14, 16. When the reduction in evaporant flow is not sufficient to tailor operation of the heat exchanger assembly 10 to the current temperature of the incoming heat transfer medium 44, one or a combination of the heat exchangers 12, 14, and 16 are deactivated. In the disclosed example, the third heat exchanger 16 is deactivated by closing the control valve 24. Closing the control valve 24 stops the flow of evaporant 46 to the third heat exchanger 16. Accordingly, the turndown capacity is reduced. Heat transfer medium 44 still flows through the third heat exchanger 16, but no heat transfer takes place.
Operation continues at the reduced heat turndown capacity that vaporizes evaporant at levels corresponding to the reduced volume of the heat exchanger assembly 10 to maintain pressure above the triple point pressures. Further reductions in heat transfer medium temperatures are accommodated by deactivating the second heat exchanger 14 by closing off the control valve 22. The resulting reductions in heat turndown range tailors operation to maintain pressure within each of the evaporative heat exchangers 12, 14, 16 above a pressure that would cause freezing of the water evaporant.
The heat exchangers 12, 14, and 16 can be activated and deactivated in any combination to tailor the heat turndown range to current conditions. The first heat exchanger 12 and the second heat exchanger can be operated together with the third heat exchanger 16 turned off. Because each of the heat exchangers 12, 14, and 16 are independently controlled by the corresponding control valve 20, 22, and 24, many combinations of heat exchanger operation can be implanted depending on current operating conditions. Other combinations of the heat exchangers can be operated by closing off one of the corresponding control valves 20, 22, and 24.
The fourth heat exchanger 18 provides a final turndown or temperature reduction. The fourth heat exchanger 18 reduces heat transport fluid outlet temperature to a fixed lower value. Because, the fourth heat exchanger 18 encounters a substantially constant heat load there is little temperature variation and the potential of freeze-up is mitigated. Selectively deactivating one of the first, second and third heat exchangers 12, 14, 16 provides an output of heat transport fluid 44 at a substantially constant temperature regardless of the temperature at the inlet 30. Therefore, the fourth heat exchanger 18 is not exposed to the range of temperatures that the first three heat exchangers 12, 14, 16 encounters. The second variable control valve 28 provides a sufficient range of evaporant flow to control any small fluctuation in temperature that may occur.
In the disclosed example, the heat transfer medium is also water as water is an efficient heat transfer medium relative to weight. However, other heat transfer mediums may be utilized as are dictated and desired by application specific requirements. Further, the example evaporant is water. The example system is specifically designed to take advantage of the favorable latent heat to weight properties of water. The example ambient conditions expose water to the thermodynamic extremes where small changes can result in liquid water vaporizing or freezing. Accordingly, the example disclosed system tailors operation to provide reliable vaporization of liquid water near triple point pressures.
Although a preferred embodiment of this invention has been disclosed, a worker of ordinary skill in this art would recognize that certain modifications would come within the scope of this invention. For that reason, the following claims should be studied to determine the true scope and content of this invention.
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|U.S. Classification||122/31.1, 165/104.19, 165/104.11|
|International Classification||F28D15/02, F28D15/06|
|Jun 29, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HAMILTON SUNDSTRAND CORPORATION, CONNECTICUT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:O'CONNOR, EDWARD W.;REEL/FRAME:019497/0080
Effective date: 20070613
|Jan 30, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Feb 23, 2017||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 8