|Publication number||US7592225 B2|
|Application number||US 11/623,314|
|Publication date||Sep 22, 2009|
|Filing date||Jan 15, 2007|
|Priority date||Jan 15, 2007|
|Also published as||US20080171428|
|Publication number||11623314, 623314, US 7592225 B2, US 7592225B2, US-B2-7592225, US7592225 B2, US7592225B2|
|Inventors||James Kai, George Matamis, Tuan Duc Pham, Masaaki Higashitani, Takashi Orimoto|
|Original Assignee||Sandisk Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (16), Non-Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (12), Classifications (16), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The following application is cross-referenced and incorporated by reference herein in its entirety:
U.S. Patent Application No. 11/623,315, entitled “Spacer Patterns Using Assist Layer for High Density Semiconductor Devices,” by James Kai, et al., filed on even date herewith.
1. Field of the Invention
Embodiments of the present disclosure are directed to high density semiconductor devices, such as non-volatile memory, and methods of forming the same.
2. Description of the Related Art
In most integrated circuit applications, there is continual pressure to shrink the substrate area required to implement the various integrated circuit functions. Semiconductor memory devices, for example, and the fabrication processes therefore are continuously evolving to meet demands for increases in the amount of digital data that can be stored in a given area of a silicon substrate. Such demands stem from a desire to increase the storage capacity of a given size memory card and other types of packages, or to both increase capacity and decrease size.
Electrical Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory (EEPROM), including flash EEPROM, and Electronically Programmable Read Only Memory (EPROM) are among the most popular non-volatile semiconductor memories. One popular flash EEPROM architecture utilizes a NAND array having a large number of strings of memory cells connected through one or more select transistors between individual bit lines and common source lines.
Note that although
The charge storage elements of current flash EEPROM arrays are most commonly electrically conductive floating gates, typically formed from doped polysilicon material. Another type of memory cell useful in flash EEPROM systems utilizes a non-conductive dielectric material in place of a conductive floating gate to store charge in a non-volatile manner. Such a cell is described in an article by Chan et al., “A True Single-Transistor Oxide-Nitride-Oxide EEPROM Device,” IEEE Electron Device Letters, Vol. EDL-8, No. 3, March 1987, pp. 93-95. A triple layer dielectric formed of silicon oxide, silicon nitride and silicon oxide (“ONO”) is sandwiched between a conductive control gate and a surface of a semi-conductive substrate above the memory cell channel. The cell is programmed by injecting electrons from the cell channel into the nitride, where they are trapped and stored in a limited region. This stored charge then changes the threshold voltage of a portion of the channel of the cell in a manner that is detectable. The cell is erased by injecting hot holes into the nitride. See also Nozaki et al., “A 1-Mb EEPROM with MONOS Memory Cell for Semiconductor Disk Application,” EEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, Vol. 26, No. 4, April 1991, pp. 497-501, which describes a similar cell in a split-gate configuration where a doped polysilicon gate extends over a portion of the memory cell channel to form a separate select transistor.
Memory cells of a typical non-volatile flash array are divided into discrete blocks of cells that are erased together. That is, the block contains the minimum number of cells that are separately erasable together as an erase unit, although more than one block may be erased in a single erasing operation. Each block typically stores one or more pages of data, where a page includes the minimum number of cells that are simultaneously subjected to a data programming and read operation as the basic unit of programming and reading, although more than one page may be programmed or read in a single operation. Each page typically stores one or more sectors of data, the size of the sector being defined by the host system. An example is a sector of 512 bytes of user data, following a standard established with magnetic disk drives, plus some number of bytes of overhead information about the user data and/or the block in which it is stored.
As demands for higher densities in integrated circuit applications have increased, fabrication processes have evolved to reduce the minimum feature sizes of circuit elements such as the gate and channel regions of transistors. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 6,888,755, entitled “Flash Memory Cell Arrays Having Dual Control Gates Per Memory Cell Charge Storage Element,” by Eliyahou Harari, describes a process that utilizes spacers to achieve an element length and a corresponding space therebetween that is smaller than a minimum definable lithographic feature size. Such decreases in the sizes of circuit elements, as well as other considerations, increase the need for precision in fabrication processes and integrity in resulting materials.
High density semiconductor devices and methods of fabricating the same are provided in accordance with one or embodiments. Spacer fabrication techniques are utilized to form circuit elements having reduced feature sizes, which in some instances are smaller than the smallest lithographically resolvable element size of the process being used. Spacers are formed that serve as a mask for etching one or more layers to form one or more circuit elements beneath the spacers. An intervening layer having a material composition substantially similar to the spacer material is provided between a dielectric layer and an insulating sacrificial layer such as silicon nitride. When etching the sacrificial layer, the intervening layer serves as an etch stop layer to avoid damaging and reducing the size of the underlying dielectric layer. By utilizing matched material compositions, improved adhesion is provided for the spacers, thereby improving the rigidity and integrity of the spacers.
Other features, aspects, and objects of the disclosed technology can be obtained from a review of the specification, the figures, and the claims.
Embodiments in accordance with the present disclosure can be used in the formation of numerous types of high density semiconductor devices. A spacer and corresponding formation technique are provided to reduce the size of the fabricated elements. While not so limited, the described techniques can achieve feature sizes that are smaller than the smallest lithographically resolvable element size of the process being used. This can facilitate the high density formation of numerous types of elements in integrated semiconductor device fabrication. Various features and techniques are presented with respect to the NAND flash memory architecture. It will be appreciated from the provided disclosure that implementations of the disclosed technology are not so limited. By way of non-limiting example, embodiments in accordance with the present disclosure can provide and be used in the fabrication of a wide range of semiconductor devices, including but not limited to logic arrays, volatile memory arrays including SRAM and DRAM, and non-volatile memory arrays including both the NOR and NAND architecture.
When fabricating a NAND-based non-volatile memory system, including NAND strings as depicted in
Major components of a few memory cells of a NAND array that can be fabricated in accordance with one embodiment are illustrated in plan view in
Each of the NAND strings 21-25 includes two select transistors, one at each end of the string, to controllably connect the string between a different one of global bit lines BL0-BL4 and a reference potential VS, typically provided at a common source line. VS is normally ground during reading but may assume a small positive value during programming to assist in minimizing leakage across the source select transistor. Voltage VSSL is applied to respective source select gates 43-47 to control connection of one end of their respective memory cell strings 21-25 to the common source line. The other ends of the strings 21-25 are connected through respective drain select transistors to the respective bit lines BL0-BL4 by voltage VDSL applied to drain select gates 49-53. Column control circuitry described hereinafter applies a voltage to each bit line that is representative of the specific data to be written, or to sense the voltage or current of a corresponding string or memory cell during a read or verify operation. The select transistors include respective source and drain regions 55-64 and 65-74 in a semiconductor substrate 402 at its surface 401.
A typical NAND array includes control gate (word) lines extending across multiple strings, over rows of floating gates with a suitable insulating dielectric layer therebetween. Close coupling between the control and floating gates is desirable in order to minimize the control gate voltages that are required to raise the coupled floating gates to the voltage levels necessary for programming and reading their states. One control gate (word) line is used for each row of floating gates. In order to make an array with the floating and control gates self-aligned in a y-direction (along the lengths of the NAND strings), the control gates are typically used as masks to form the floating gates, which then have the same dimensions in the y-direction as the control gates.
In the NAND array presented hereinafter, control gate (word) lines 81-84 are positioned between the floating gates instead of on top of them. Each control gate line extends across multiple strings of memory cells and is capacitively coupled through a suitable insulating dielectric, such as multi-layer oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO), to the floating gates on both sides. Additional coupling area is obtained by using the sidewall areas of both sides of the floating gates. The floating gates can be made thicker (higher) than usual in order to increase this coupling area, and the control gates in between them are then made to be at least as thick as the floating gates in order to take advantage of the added coupling area. An advantage is that this coupling area may be controlled largely independently of the coupling area of the floating gates and the substrate, resulting in a desirably high coupling ratio even as the coupling area of the floating gates with the substrate is reduced during future decreases in device dimensions. The principles, devices and techniques disclosed hereinafter can also be used with more traditional NAND architectures having word lines positioned above floating gates.
Two control gate lines replace a single word line of conventional NAND arrays in the hereinafter described example. For example, the word line that would extend across the row of floating gates 27, 30, 33, 36 and 39 in a conventional array is replaced by two control gate lines 81 and 82 (WL0 and WL1). Similarly, a word line that would normally extend across the row of floating gates 28, 31, 34, 37 and 40 is replaced by two control gate lines 82 and 83 (WL1 and WL2). The control lines 81-84 are elongated in the x-direction across the array and separated in the y-direction by the length of the intervening floating gates and the thicknesses of the dielectric layers between them. Although the size of the memory floating gate is typically made as small as the photolithography allows in both x and y dimensions, the channel length of the select transistors 43-47 and 49-53 (y-dimension) is typically slightly larger than the minimum feature size to ensure it can effectively block all conduction including leakage when the maximum voltage is applied across it.
FIGS. 5 and 6A-6I depict the fabrication of a portion of an exemplary NAND memory array in accordance with one embodiment that includes two word lines per row of floating gates. A small portion of the memory array is depicted at various steps of the fabrication process to highlight select portions of the process. Various other steps known to those of ordinary skill in the art are omitted for conciseness of explanation of the disclosed principles. Modifications to the disclosed process can be made in other implementations as will be appreciated.
One or more wells (e.g., a triple well) are typically formed in substrate 402, according to the requirements of a particular implementation. After implanting and associated annealing of the well(s) to dope the substrate 402, a layer 602 of tunnel dielectric material is formed on the surface 401 of the substrate. Different materials can be used for layer 602, but silicon oxide (SiO2) is often grown on the surface 401 to form a tunnel oxide having a thickness of about 8 nm. The dielectric layer can also be deposited using known chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes, metal organic CVD processes, physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes, atomic layer deposition (ALD) processes, grown using a thermal oxidation process, or formed using another suitable process.
A first layer 604 of doped polysilicon is then formed over at least the area of the array, typically by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD), although other processes can be used. The floating gates will be formed later from this first polysilicon layer. Different thicknesses of the first polysilicon layer can be formed. For example, thicknesses ranging from 50 to 200 nm can be used in one embodiment. This is thicker than the usual first polysilicon layer in many NAND devices, with the result that the later formed floating gates are thicker than those of many traditional devices. Other embodiments may utilize other materials to form the charge storage regions.
A thin pad 606 of silicon dioxide is then formed over the top of the polysilicon layer. Different thicknesses can be used for the oxide pad in accordance with various embodiments. In one embodiment, silicon dioxide is deposited to about 40 nm to form a thin pad of high temperature oxide (HTO). Other materials can be used in other implementations. The oxide or other pad formed over the doped polysilicon layer will later be used as a mask when forming the individual floating gates or other charge storage regions.
A sacrificial layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4) is then deposited to a thickness typically between 100 and 300 nm. A mask is formed on the top of the nitride layer for etching the exposed nitride, oxide pad, polysilicon and tunnel oxide to leave stacked strips elongated across the substrate in the y-direction, and separated from one another in the x-direction. Typically, the separation in the x-direction is the smallest spacing dimension resolvable by the mask formation process. The width of the strips is also preferably made equal to their spacing. The etch is anisotropic and exposes the surface 401 of the substrate 402 between these strips.
A next series of steps provides electrical isolation between resulting columns of floating gates. Shallow Trench Isolation (STI) is employed in one embodiment whereby the exposed substrate surface is anisotropically etched to form trenches 97-100 (
Various techniques for forming the isolation trenches can be used. It is possible to form the array without employing shallow trench isolation, for example, by forming thick dielectric isolation above the silicon surface rather than in trenches etched into it. LOCOS or SWAMI techniques as previously described can be used in embodiments. In some embodiments, the isolation trenches may be formed prior to the floating gates and/or tunnel dielectric. Deep self-aligned trenches are formed in one embodiment, as described in: U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/996,030, entitled “SELF-ALIGNED TRENCH FILLING WITH HIGH COUPLING RATIO,” by Jack H. Yuan, filed Nov. 23, 2004; and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/251,386, entitled “SELF-ALIGNED TRENCH FILLING FOR NARROW GAP ISOLOATION REGIONS,” by Jack H. Yuan, filed Oct. 14, 2005, both incorporated by reference herein in their entirety.
A layer 608 of undoped polysilicon is then formed on top of the planarized surface. A second sacrificial layer 610 of silicon nitride (Si3N4) is formed on this undoped polysilicon layer 608. Different thicknesses of nitride layer 610 can be used. For example, the nitride is deposited to a thickness of between 80 and 10 nm in one embodiment.
Undoped polysilicon layer 608 can serve as an etch stop layer during later fabrication steps. Additionally, the undoped polysilicon will provide a stable base for subsequently formed polysilicon spacers used in the formation of individual floating gate regions. The material composition of layer 608 is chosen so as to provide adequate adhesion for these thinly formed spacers. The use of matched materials for the spacers and layer 608 serves the dual functions of providing an etch stop as part of the spacer formation, and providing a matched surface to facilitate adhesion of the spacers. Providing adequate adhesion between the spacers and an underlying layer is of increased importance as the spacers are continually fabricated with thinner dimensions and increased aspect ratios. Additionally, the use of the same or similar materials for the spacers and intervening layer can help with stresses between the different films. If layers of different materials are used, the different materials will have different coefficients of thermal expansion. The different thermal coefficients can cause stress at the interface of the different materials. When the same or similar materials are used in accordance with one or embodiments as provided herein, matching thermal coefficients can decrease stresses at the material interfaces.
In traditional spacer fabrication processes, an additional etch stop layer 608 has not been provided. Spacers have been formed directly on the high temperate oxide layer 606 or other dielectric layer provided above the conductive gate region 604. Simply forming polysilicon on oxide layer 606 may not provide adequate adhesion to support the subsequently formed spacers. These thin spacers may essentially fall over or fail after being formed and directional supports (e.g., nitride 610) removed as part of the fabrication process. Other material combinations may also have inadequate adhesive properties, and consequently, not provide suitable rigidity and integrity for the fabrication. Additionally, when an additional polysilicon layer 608 is not used, thus exposing the oxide layer during subsequent etching of nitride layer 610, the etch process may not stop precisely at the upper surface of oxide layer 606. This can damage the oxide such that unwanted growth may occur therein during subsequent fabrication steps. Additionally, unintended etching of the oxide pad 606 can ultimately result in undesirable variations in the thickness of the tunnel oxide layer 602. When variances in the tunnel oxide thickness occur, memory cell performance variances can also occur. For instance, variances in the thickness can affect the threshold voltage characteristics of the resulting memory cells. Programming, erasing and reading the memory cells can all be affected by variations in the characteristics of individual memory cells.
A mask is formed over nitride layer 610 to begin forming the individual floating gate regions for the array. The mask can be formed of strips of photoresist 615 that are formed over a bottom anti-reflective coating (BARC) 616. The masking strips are formed to extend in the x-direction, and have widths and spacing in the y-direction that are determined by the lithographically minimum resolvable element size.
Using the photoresist as a mask, nitride layer 610 is etched, resulting in the array as shown in
The photoresist layer 615 and BARC layer 616 are next removed using a combination of O2 plasma ashing followed by wet chemical etching in one embodiment. A piranha oxidizing or other cleaning process can be used to remove remaining photoresist and other organic materials from the wafer surfaces.
A next series of steps forms the spacers that are later used as a mask to form the individual charge storage regions. A conformal deposition process, such as low pressure chemical-vapor deposition (LPCVD), is used to form a conformal layer of polysilicon 618. A conformal deposition process forms a layer of polysilicon having a substantially uniform thickness on both the side portions and top portion of nitride strips 611-614.
A wet etch is used to remove the nitride strips 611-614 after forming the individual spacers 616. The wet etch will leave the polysilicon spacers above the polysilicon etch stop layer 608. As previously described, the etch stop layer provides adhesion and support for the narrow and tall spacers resulting from the previous processes.
After removing nitride strips 611-614, a combinational etch process is used to form the individual floating gate regions. A chemically non-selective etch is first used to remove the portions of intervening layer 608 and oxide pad layer 606 between and outside of spacers 620-634. The non-selective etch also removes the polysilicon spacers. After etching completely through the thin oxide pad layer 606, etching that is selective for polysilicon is used to etch through doped polysilicon layer 604.
After etching the polysilicon to form floating gate regions, source and drain ion implantation can be performed, using the floating gates and oxide pads as a mask, as shown in
As previously mentioned, the formation of shallow trench or other isolation regions can be performed at different stages of the fabrication process. In one embodiment, the control gate layer is deposited and etched to form the word lines prior to etching the previously formed floating gate layer. The floating gate layer is then etched to form the individual floating gates. Isolation trenches can be formed at the end of the process, after patterning and forming both the control and floating gates.
During read and programming operations for memory cells of one embodiment, 4,256 memory cells are simultaneously selected. The memory cells selected have the same word line (e.g. WL2-i), and the same kind of bit line (e.g. even bit lines). Therefore, 532 bytes of data can be read or programmed simultaneously. These 532 bytes of data that are simultaneously read or programmed form a logical page. Therefore, in this example, one block can store at least eight pages. When each memory cell stores two bits of data (e.g. a multi-level cell), one block stores 16 pages. In another embodiment, a memory array is formed that utilizes an all bit-line architecture such that each bit line within a block is simultaneously selected, including those adjacent in the x-direction.
The data stored in the memory cells are read out by the column control circuit 804 and are output to external I/O lines via data input/output buffer 812. Program data to be stored in the memory cells are input to the data input/output buffer 812 via the external I/O lines, and transferred to the column control circuit 804. The external I/O lines are connected to controller 818.
Command data for controlling the flash memory device is input to controller 818. The command data informs the flash memory of what operation is requested. The input command is transferred to state machine 816 which is part of control circuitry 815. State machine 816 controls column control circuit 804, row control circuit 806, c-source control 810, p-well control circuit 808 and data input/output buffer 812. State machine 816 can also output status data of the flash memory such as READY/BUSY or PASS/FAIL.
Controller 818 is connected to or connectable with a host system such as a personal computer, a digital camera, or personal digital assistant, etc. It communicates with the host that initiates commands, such as to store or read data to or from the memory array 802, and provides or receives such data. Controller 818 converts such commands into command signals that can be interpreted and executed by command circuits 814 which are part of control circuitry 815. Command circuits 814 are in communication with state machine 816. Controller 818 typically contains buffer memory for the user data being written to or read from the memory array.
One exemplary memory system comprises one integrated circuit that includes controller 818, and one or more integrated circuit chips that each contain a memory array and associated control, input/output and state machine circuits. There is a trend to integrate the memory arrays and controller circuits of a system together on one or more integrated circuit chips. The memory system may be embedded as part of the host system, or may be included in a memory card (or other package) that is removably inserted into the host systems. Such a card may include the entire memory system (e.g. including the controller) or just the memory array(s) with associated peripheral circuits (with the controller or control function being embedded in the host). Thus, the controller can be embedded in the host or included within the removable memory system.
The foregoing detailed description has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the subject matter claimed herein to the precise form(s) disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teachings. The described embodiments were chosen in order to best explain the principles of the disclosed technology and its practical application to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the technology in various embodiments and with various modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the claims appended hereto.
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|U.S. Classification||438/261, 438/587, 438/264, 257/E21.681|
|International Classification||H01L21/3205, H01L21/336|
|Cooperative Classification||H01L21/0337, H01L21/32139, H01L27/115, H01L27/11521, H01L27/11524|
|European Classification||H01L27/115F4N, H01L27/115, H01L21/3213D, H01L21/033F4, H01L27/115F4|
|Apr 10, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SANDISK CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KAI, JAMES;MATAMIS, GEORGE;PHAM, TUAN DUC;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:019143/0115;SIGNING DATES FROM 20070305 TO 20070306
|Aug 9, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CERAMATEC, INC., UTAH
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:JOSHI, ASHOK;PENDELTON, JUSTIN;BALAGOPAL, SHEKAR;REEL/FRAME:019674/0763;SIGNING DATES FROM 20070712 TO 20070803
|May 10, 2011||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SANDISK TECHNOLOGIES INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SANDISK CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:026255/0274
Effective date: 20110404
|Feb 20, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4