|Publication number||US7600258 B2|
|Application number||US 11/171,248|
|Publication date||Oct 6, 2009|
|Filing date||Jul 1, 2005|
|Priority date||Jul 1, 2005|
|Also published as||US20070006308|
|Publication number||11171248, 171248, US 7600258 B2, US 7600258B2, US-B2-7600258, US7600258 B2, US7600258B2|
|Inventors||Francis Aurelio Desouza, Jon Sakoda, Arthur William Gilliland, Anandamoy Roychowdhary, Eric Lyle Lorenzo, Milan Shah|
|Original Assignee||Symantec Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (25), Non-Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (8), Classifications (14), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates to reducing the spread of malware on Instant Messaging networks. In particular, this invention relates to detecting and preventing the spread of malware on Instant Message networks by introducing fictitious buddies into buddy lists.
Instant messaging (IM) is a popular method of communication over the Internet. IM offers several features that other means of communication over the Internet (e.g., e-mails) do not offer. For instance, IM allows “real-time” communication between users. Also, IM users can see whether friends or co-workers are present to participate in dialogs. Owing to these and other features, the number of users actively using IM has grown to substantial levels for both personal and professional uses. For personal uses, America On Line (AOL), Microsoft Network (MSN), Yahoo!, ICQ, and others provide IM services. Some of these services are free of charge (i.e., public IM services), and some charge subscriptions (i.e., hosted IM services). For professional uses, corporations, e.g., International Business Machines (IBM), offer enterprise IM servers that can be installed on enterprise premises and can offer IM services to authorized users within the enterprise.
As shown in
All users who sign up for IM services are given unique identifiers, which can be a combination of characters and numbers (hereinafter the “account names”). Users can publicize their account names to other users with whom they wish to communicate. The list of the account names with which a user wishes to communicate using IM is referred to as a “Buddy List” in AOL Instance Messenger and Yahoo! Messenger, and a “Contact List” in MSN Messenger and ICQ. Hereafter, the term “buddy list” refers to the “Buddy List,” “Contact List,” or other similar lists.
In operation, the IM client 101 creates a communication connection (e.g., a TCP connection) with the IM server 103. Once a connection is established between the IM server 103 and the IM client 101, the connection is “permanent”, and IM protocol packets are exchanged between the IM client 101 and the IM server 103. The IM protocol packets include:
Two unique characteristics of IM:
As with other means of communication over the Internet, IM is vulnerable to attacks by “malware” programs. Here, malware refers to, without limitation, viruses, worms, SPIMs (i.e., SPAMs for IM), Trojan horses, spy ware, malcode, etc. Malware also refers to messages that contain any references (e.g., pointers or URLs) to any of the malware just listed.
Malware can “infect” computers (e.g., turning computers into sources of malware, corrupting storages devices of computers, etc.) that host IM clients in a variety of ways. For instance, malware can take the advantage of the “fully” connected and “pushing” messages characteristics of IM by sending messages from one user's host computer to host computers of the buddies. This spreading process can be repeated when the malware arrives at each of the host computers of the buddies. In this way, malware can rapidly propagate and penetrate a large number of computers. Theoretically, malware can spread to 10 million host computers in 2 hours at a very conservative rate of propagation. Conventional security systems (e.g., firewalls, virus detectors, etc.) do not address this and other types of new threats posed by malware on IM.
Various embodiments of the present invention provide methods and systems to prevent the spread of malware by identifying the new threats and addressing them. In particular, embodiments of the present invention provide an IM filter module (IM FM) configured to intercept a buddy list sent from an IM server to an IM client, add one or more fictitious buddies to the intercepted buddy list, and forward the buddy list with the one or more fictitious buddies to the IM client. The IM FM is further configured to identify a computer that hosts the IM client as a source of malware based on messages sent by the IM client to at least one of the fictitious buddies and to determine that the host computer of the IM client is a source of malware if a content of the messages sent to the at least one of the fictitious buddies contains malware. The IM FM can also identify messages as malware messages, if the messages are from the IM client determined as a source of malware.
Embodiments of the present invention will be best understood when read in reference to the accompanying figures wherein:
Each embodiment of the present invention described below addresses particular techniques to identify (e.g., detect) and block (e.g., prevent) the spread of malware on IM networks. Embodiments of the present invention can operate as stand-alone techniques or as combined techniques that incorporate all or a combination of various embodiments of the present invention described below.
Embodiments of the present invention, as shown in
As computer programs (e.g., a set of executables), the IM FM 203 can be hosted on (e.g., executed on) a number of different computers. For instance, in an enterprise setting, the IM FM 203 can be hosted on the same computer that hosts the enterprise's firewall. The IM FM 203 can also be hosted on the same computer that hosts the IM client 201 or the IM server 205. Indeed, embodiments of the present invention do not require that the IM FM 203 be hosted on any specific computer, as long as the IM FM 203 can intercept communication packets exchanged between the IM client 201 and IM server 205 and block the delivery of certain packets.
As noted above, IM is open to a variety of attacks by malware. Some operators of malware would obtain a list of IM account names of unsuspecting users and send messages that contain malware (“malware messages”) to those users in mass. Here, an operator of malware can be a computer application(s) and/or a person(s) running a computer application that sends malware messages to unsuspecting IM users. In order to identify and block malware messages, embodiments of the present invention provide a Malware Trapping System (MTS) 303, which is coupled to the IM FM 203, as shown in
The MTS 303 is a computer resource (e.g., a set of computer programs), designed to be indistinguishable from a real resource, whose value lies in unauthorized or illicit use of that resource. In other words, a goal of the MTS 303 is to lure operators of malware to send messages to the MTS. For this purpose, the MTS 303 includes, among other things, as shown in
Regarding the number of registered virtual users to be registered to a particular IM server, embodiments of the present invention do not impose any limit. However, an extremely large number of registered virtual users can be too expensive to implement and unnecessary. Embodiments of the present invention prefer to set the number of registered virtual users to be statistically significant in order to trap malware messages. For instance, if a typical operator of malware is known to send malware messages to at least one thousand unsuspecting users per IM server, then the number of registered virtual users can be set to 1/1,000th of the total number of users for an IM server. In this example, if the total number of users for an IM server is 1,000,000, then about 1,000 registered virtual users would be sufficient to ensure that at least one registered virtual user receives a malware message. In some embodiments, the MTS 303 is connected to many different IM servers provided by different IM services. For these embodiments, MTS 303 can register an identical set or different sets of virtual users for each IM service.
As it is widely known, operators of malware obtain account names of unsuspecting users by, for example, performing unauthorized accesses to IM server registries or purchasing such information from third parties. When an operator of malware sends a message to a registered virtual user, the IM server 205 forwards the message to an IM Login System 405, which is described in detail later. Upon receiving the message, the IM LS 405 collects information about the message (e.g., a unique identifier of the sender and the content of the message). The IM LS 405 forwards the collected information to an Information Storing System (ISS) 407, which causes the collected information to be stored in a centralized database 411. By repeating this process, the centralized database 411 becomes a depository of unique identifiers of sources of malware as well as contents of malware messages.
The centralized database 411 can organize the stored information as illustrated in
The IM FM 203 can access the stored information in the centralized database 411. In particular, the IM FM 203 accesses the information stored in the centralized database via an Information Retrieval System (IRS) 409. The IM FM 203 can copy the information stored in the centralized database 411 to a local database (not shown), and/or it can inquire about the reputation (i.e., the confidence level) of one or more unique identifiers or one or more message contents. Since the IM FM 203 examines all messages exchanged between the IM client 201 and IM server 205, it can compare the unique identifier and/or the content of each message with the information available in the centralized database 411. If the IM FM 205 finds one or more messages that contain unique identifiers that are identical or similar and/or messages that contain contents that are identical to those stored in the centralized database 411, the IM FM 203 blocks those messages from being delivered to their destinations.
Moreover, the IM FM 203 can block messages that contain unique identifiers or contents that are similar (but not identical) to an entry stored in the centralized database 411. In particular, the IM FM 203 copies the entries of the centralized database 411 to a localized database. When a new message that contains a unique identifier or content that is similar to an entry stored in the local database, then an additional entry is made to the localized database with the information from the new message. Its confidence level would be adjusted lower. For instance, if the content in the new message is 90% similar to a content stored in the local database, then the confidence level can be lowered by 10%. The IM FM 203 can be configured to block messages with confidence levels higher than a certain value (e.g., 0.8). The IM FM 203 can also report any additional entries in the local database to the centralized database 411 via the Information Storing System 407.
Some operators of malware collect account names by joining groups of buddies, connecting to chat rooms or the like. To publicize the account names of the registered virtual users in those venues, the MTS 303 also includes an IM LS 405 and a CR AS 403. A function of the 1M LS 405 is to make one or more registered virtual users available to participate in dialogs with buddies. The IM LS 405 first performs log-on steps (see, e.g., step 601 in
When a registered virtual user receives a message, the message likely contains malware, and the sender of such a message is likely be an operator of malware. The IM LS 405 collects information from the message and stores it in the centralized database 411 as described above in connection with the MTS IM User List 401. As noted above, the information stored in the centralized database 411 is used by the IM FM 203 to identify and block likely malware messages and messages originated from likely sources of malware.
Regarding the CR AS, 403, it first connects to a chat room using the account name of a virtual user (see, e.g., step 801 in
Various sources of malware would collect the account names of users of chat rooms, log on to IM servers, and send malware messages to the users of the IM servers. As described above, when the IM LS 405 receives a message, the message likely contains malware, and the originator of such a message is likely an operator of malware. The IM LS 405 collects information from the received message and stores it in the centralized database 411 as described above in connection with the MTS IM User List 401. As noted above, the information stored in the centralized database 411 is used by the IM FM 203 to block malware messages and messages originated from likely sources of malware.
However, some operators of malware would not collect the account names of chat room members who passively wait to receive messages. These operators of malware would observe and determine if a member is actively participating in a dialog. Only after such an observation is made, do such operators of malware collect the account names of those members who participated in dialogs. In order to elicit these operators of malware to collect the account names of the registered virtual users, the CR AS 403 can automatically participate in a dialog (e.g., exchange messages) with buddies (see, e.g., step 805).
In particular, as shown in
In the parameterized regular expression matching technique 711, the CR AS 403 recognizes certain generalized patterns (e.g., “Have you seen #1?”) and specific patterns (e.g., “#1” refers to “Nikon D50”). The generalized patterns are searched in the pattern database to locate a corresponding output pattern (e.g., “Yes. #1 is great.”). The CR AS 403 then forms an output expression using the now-obtained output pattern along with the specific pattern (e.g., “Yes. Nikon D50 is great.”).
The whole expression matching and parameterized regular expression matching techniques are described only as examples. Conventional matching techniques can also be used in combination with the example techniques described above. For instance, conventional natural language processing techniques can be used. The IM LS 405 can also automatically participate in dialogs (see, e.g., step 605) using the pattern matching techniques described above in connection with
With the best protections against malware, the computer that hosts an IM client can still be infected with malware. In such an instance, the infecting malware would quickly attempt to replicate itself by sending malware messages to other IM clients. Since an IM client stores a local copy of the IM user's buddy list, the malware that infected the host computer can be configured to obtain the buddy list and send messages out to the users listed on the buddy list. These steps (i.e., infecting, obtaining the buddy list, and then sending messages to the buddies) can be rapidly repeated to infect many IM clients and their host computers.
In order to prevent the spread of such malware, the IM FM 203 can be configured to add fictitious buddies into the buddy list. In particular, as described above, the IM FM 203 can intercept all communication packets exchanged between the IM server 205 and IM client 201, including the communication packets that contain buddy lists. As the IM client 201 logs-on to the IM server 205, the IM server 205 sends the buddy list of the logged-on user of the IM client 201. Upon intercepting the buddy list, the IM FM 203 inserts one, two, or more fictitious buddies to the buddy list. The modified buddy list (901 in
If the IM client 201 sends one or more messages to the fictitious buddies, the computer that hosts the IM client 201 is most likely infected with malware. If so, the IM FM 203 blocks any messages originated from the IM client 201. In particular, the IM FM 203 blocks messages originated from the IM client 201 and sent to the IM server 205 as well as any messages sent to other IM clients belonging to the enterprise of the infected IM client.
The unique identifiers and/or the contents of messages from the infected host computer are sent to the centralized database 411 via the ISS 407 (and/or stored in a local database). The stored information is used by the IM FM 203 to examine other messages.
The IM FM 203 can block messages from the IM client 201 when one message from the IM client 201 is sent to one fictitious buddy. However, the IM FM 203 can also perform additional steps to ensure that the host computer of the IM client 201 is actually infected. For instance, the IM FM 203 can send a confirmation message to the IM client 201. The confirmation message asks the user of the IM client to confirm that the user intended to send the message to the fictitious buddy. If the user confirms it, then it is unlikely that the host computer is infected. But, if the user denies it, the IM FM 203 determines that the host computer is infected.
Some forms of malware send messages only to the buddies that have sent messages to the user of the IM client 201. In order to elicit such malware to send messages, the IM FM 203 periodically sends a message (e.g., a test message) to the user of the IM client 201 using the account names of the fictitious buddies. If the IM client 201 sends one or more messages to the fictitious buddy in response, the IM FM 203 determines that the host computer is infected with a high confidence level (e.g., 0.7). This can be further confirmed by analyzing the messages sent by the IM client 201 to the fictitious buddies. For instance, if too many messages are sent by IM client 201 within too short of an interval to be typed by a person, then the host computer of the IM client 201 is highly likely infected. In another example, if the contents of the messages sent by the IM client 201 contain malware, the IM FM 203 determines that the host computer is infected with a very high confidence level (e.g., 0.9).
The IM FM 203 can also add fictitious buddies to the buddy lists of many IM clients (e.g., IM clients belonging to the same enterprise to which the IM client 201 belongs) and perform the above-described functions. The IM FM 203 can, for example, determine that two or more IM clients are infected if those IM clients send messages containing identical contents (e.g., containing the same URL) to the fictitious buddies.
As described above, the IM FM 203 can be coupled to the centralized database 411 via the IRS 409 and ISS 407. More specifically, the information stored in the centralized database 411 can also be used by the IM FM 203 to confirm whether or not the host computer of the IM client 201 is infected. For instance, if the contents of the messages sent to the fictitious buddies are identical or similar to the contents of messages stored in a database (e.g., the central database 411), then the IM FM 203 determines that the host computer of the IM client 201 is infected with a very high level of confidence. Moreover, the IM FM 203 can cause an information storing system (e.g., the ISS 407) to store onto a database (e.g., the centralized database 411) the contents and/or unique identifiers of messages sent from the host computer that has been infected.
Some malware can infect computers before the IM FM 203 that uses the techniques described above identifies and blocks it. The IM FM 203 can be configured to identify and block malware messages by analyzing message traffic patterns between the IM server 205 and IM client 201. More specifically, the IM FM 203 analyzes message traffic patterns by examining all messages between the IM client 201 and the IM server 205. The messages include incoming messages, which are sent by the IM server 205 to the IM client 201, and outgoing messages, which are sent by the IM client 201 to the IM server 205 and to, eventually, another IM client. As shown in
The local database 1003 can store the information organized as illustrated in
The following is a list of analyses that the IM FM 203 can perform. The IM FM 203 can perform all, only one, or any combination of them depending on the security threat level. In other words, if it is known that there is a high likelihood of future attacks by various malware, all of the listed analyses can be performed.
Analysis 1: A high frequency of outgoing messages that have identical contents (see, e.g., 1203). The IM FM 203 can determine that a message contains malware if the IM FM 203 identified previous outgoing messages that contain identical contents for a certain number of times. The IM FM 203 can examine outgoing messages sent by a number of IM clients (e.g., IM clients belonging to the same enterprise as the IM client 201). For example, if the IM FM 203 detected three or more messages with identical contents, then the IM FM 203 can determine that all three messages contain malware. The number three here is an arbitrary number. The user of the IM FM 203 can set the number. In another example, when the IM FM identifies two messages with identical contents, the IM FM sets the confidence level to a particular value (e.g., 0.51). However, as the number of messages containing the identical content increases, the confidence level can be set higher proportional to the number of messages with identical contents.
Analysis 2: A high frequency of identical incoming messages with identical contents (see, e.g., 1201).
Analysis 3: A high frequency of identical incoming or outgoing messages with identical contents (see, e.g., 1205). For Analysis 2 and 3, the IM FM 203 is configured to function similarly with Analysis 1.
For Analyses 1-3, confidence levels can be adjusted even if there are messages with similar contents instead of messages with identical contents. For the messages with similar contents, confidence levels can be adjusted proportionately to the similarities between the contents. In some embodiments, for messages with similar contents, confidence levels can be adjusted higher based on the number of messages with similar contents that meet certain criteria. For instance, if two or more messages contain contents that are 95% identical each to other and the messages are rapidly sent, the two messages are treated as identical messages.
Analysis 4: A high correlation between an incoming event and a number of outgoing messages subsequent to the incoming event (see, e.g., 1203). If an incoming event is closely followed by a large number of outgoing messages, then the incoming event was likely originated from a source of malware and the outgoing messages may contain malware. The confidence level can be set high or adjusted higher as the number of outgoing messages increases following an incoming event. Examples of an incoming event are an incoming message, an incoming presence event (i.e., a third party IM client joins the buddy list and/or makes itself available for a dialog), or the like.
Analysis 5: The speed at which the IM client sends outgoing messages. If too many messages are originated from the IM client 201 (too fast to be typed and sent by a person), then the outgoing messages likely contain malware. The confidence level can be set high or adjusted higher as more and more messages are sent from the IM client too fast to be typed by a person.
Analysis 6: The lengths of the messages. The IM FM calculates and stores statistical information (e.g., averages and standard deviations) relating to the lengths of message contents. The IM FM can calculate and store the statistical information relating to various categories of messages: all messages, incoming messages, and outgoing messages. For each message it receives and stores to the buffering queue 1001, the IM FM 203 calculates its content length. If the length of a particular message is a statistical outlier (e.g., the message content is longer or shorter by two standard deviations from the average), the confidence level that the message contains malware is set high or adjusted higher. The comparison can be made with the statistical information of a particular category of messages. For instance, the length of an incoming message can be compared against the statistical information of the lengths of other incoming messages. Also, the length of an outgoing message can be compared against the statistical information of the lengths of other outgoing messages.
Analysis 7: The lengths of the tokens. This analysis can also performed on tokens after breaking up messages into tokens and collecting statistical information on the lengths of the tokens. The IM FM 203 calculates and stores statistical information (e.g., averages and standard deviations) relating to the lengths of message contents. The IM FM 203 can calculate and store the statistical information relating to various categories of messages: all messages, incoming messages, and outgoing messages. For each message it receives and stores to the buffering queue 1001, the IM FM 203 calculates its content length. If the length of a particular message is a statistical outlier (e.g., the message content is longer or shorter by two standard deviations from the average), the confidence level that the message contains malware is set high or adjusted higher. The comparison can be made with the statistical information of a particular category of messages. For instance, the length of an incoming message can be compared against the statistical information of the lengths of other incoming messages. Also, the length of an outgoing message can be compared against the statistical information of the lengths of other outgoing messages.
The results of the above-described analyses can be expressed in binary decisions. For instance, if the confidence level of a message is higher than a certain value (e.g., 0.8), then that message would be identified as containing malware. Messages having confidence level below 0.8 would be identified as not containing malware.
In addition to the above-described example analyses of IM messages, the IM FM 203 can also be configured to analyze certain aspects of individual IM messages to determine if they contain malware.
Analysis 8: The IM FM 203 examines contents of messages. If the content of a message includes a URL, then the IM FM 203 resolves the URL to its final target URL. If the final target URL is a known source of malware, then the message is identified as malware, and the sender of that message is identified as a source of malware.
Analysis 9: The IM FM 203 can be configured to include all, or any combination of, the above-described embodiments. For instance, the IM FM 203 can have access to the centralized database 411 and/or can add fictitious buddies to buddy lists in addition to having the ability to perform any or all of the above describe analyses.
Analysis 10: The IM FM 203 can send a confirmation message to a trusted user regarding a suspicious message (see, e.g., 1211). The confirmation message can ask whether the user wishes to receive or send the suspicious message. If the answer is no, then the confidence level is adjusted higher. If answer is yes, then the confidence level is adjusted lower.
Many IM FMs from a number of different enterprises can cooperate with each other via the centralized database 411. More specifically, as illustrated in
As described above, in many instances the confidence values are either decreased or increased based on various analyses. The exact amount of the increases or decreases can be determined heuristically (e.g., the past experience of the user of the IM FM 203). However, in some embodiments of the present invention, a Bayesian filter 1405 can be employed to determine the amount of the increases or decreases. Bayesian filters for recognizing “junk” e-mail or the like are known in the art. For instance, U.S. Pat. No. 6,161,130, which is incorporated herein by reference, describes a technique that uses a “probabilistic classifier to detect ‘junk’ e-mail.”
The IM FM 203 uses a typical Bayesian filter to obtain a block list. However, embodiments of the present invention use a feedback system to train and re-train the Bayesian filter by continually updating the training set of the Bayesian filter.
In operation, the IM FM 203 analyzes messages exchanged between the IM server 205 and IM client 201 as discussed above in connection with
The above-described Bayesian filter along with the feedback technique can be used in conjunction with one, a combination, or all of various embodiments described above. In particular, the IM FM 203 illustrated in
Regarding Analysis 1-3, the Bayesian filter working with the IM FM 203 identifies a certain number of messages as containing malware if the certain number of messages contains an identical content. The Bayesian filter, by its training steps, can determine whether some messages contain identical contents and adjust the confidence levels accordingly.
Regarding Analysis 4, the Bayesian filter working with the IM FM 203 identifies messages sent by the IM client 201 as containing malware if the IM client 201 sends a large number of messages after receiving one message from the IM server 205. The Bayesian filter, by its training steps, can determine what is a too large of number of message to be sent out after one incoming event and adjust the confidence levels accordingly.
Regarding Analysis 5, the Bayesian filter working with the IM FM 203 identifies two or more messages sent by the IM client 201 as containing malware if the two or more messages are sent at too short of an interval to be sent by a person. The Bayesian filter, by its training steps, can determine how many is too many messages to be sent out by a person typing the messages and adjust the confidence levels accordingly.
Regarding Analysis 6 and 7, the Bayesian filter working with the IM FM 203 identifies a message as containing malware based on statistical information provided to the Bayesian filter (e.g., the statistical information relating to the length of messages and/or length of tokens) via the training set 1401. The Bayesian filter, by its training steps, can determine what messages contain statistical extreme values (and thereby likely malware messages) and adjust the confidence levels accordingly.
Parts of the present invention and corresponding detailed description are presented in terms of software, computer programs, or algorithms. Software includes symbolic representations of operations or steps stored in the form of data bits within a computer memory. An algorithm is a sequence of steps leading to a desired result(s). The steps are those requiring physical manipulations of physical quantities. Usually, though not necessarily, these quantities take the form of optical, electrical, or magnetic signals capable of being stored, transferred, combined, compared, and otherwise manipulated. Unless specifically stated otherwise, or as is apparent from the discussion, terms such as “processing” or “determining” or the like refer to the actions and processes of a computer system, or similar electronic computing device, that manipulates and transforms data represented as physical, electronic quantities within the computer system's memories into other data similarly represented as physical quantities within the computer system's memories or registers or other such information storage, transmission or display devices.
Various embodiments and advantages of the present invention are apparent from the detailed specification, and, thus, it is intended by the appended claims to cover all such features and advantages of the invention which fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and variations will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation illustrated and described, and, accordingly, all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to falling within the scope of the invention. For example, some embodiments are described using one IM client examples. However, various embodiments (e.g., adding fictitious buddies, various analyses of messages, Bayesian filtering techniques) can be used with multiple IM clients. While the foregoing invention has been described in detail by way of illustration and example of various embodiments, numerous modifications, substitutions, and alterations are possible without departing from the scope of the invention defined in the following claims.
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|International Classification||H04L9/32, G06F12/14|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L63/1491, H04L51/04, H04L51/12, H04L12/581, H04L63/145, H04L12/585|
|European Classification||H04L63/14D, H04L51/04, H04L51/12, H04L12/58B, H04L12/58F|
|Nov 8, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: IMLOGIC, INC., MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:DESOUZA, FRANCIS AURELIO;SAKODA, JON;GILLILAND, ARTHUR WILLIAM;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:017192/0583;SIGNING DATES FROM 20051019 TO 20051020
|Apr 18, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SYMANTEC CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:IMLOGIC;REEL/FRAME:019178/0363
Effective date: 20070322
|Jan 5, 2010||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Apr 8, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4