US 760463 A
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' No,- 760,f163.- PATENTED MAY 24, 1904.
' G. MAROONI.
WIRELESS SIGNALING SYSTEM.
guru-non nun snrrr. 10. 1903.
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M J Gususmo MARcoNl,
UNITED STATES Patented May 24, 1904.
GUGLIELMO MAROONI, OF LONDON, ENGLAND, ASSIGNOR TO MARCONIS WIRELESS TELEGRAPH COMPANY, LIMITED, CORPORATION OF GREAT BRITAIN.
WIRELESS SIGNALING SYSTEM.
SIECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 760,463, dated. May 24:, 1904.
Application filed September 10, 1903. Serial No 172,617. (No model.)
To all whon't it may concern:
Be it known that I, GUsLIELMo MAROONI, a subject of the King of Italy, residing at London, England, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Wireless Signaling Systems, of which the following is a full and true description.
My invention has as its object the provision of means whereby etheric vibrations or Hertzian waves or electrical oscillations of high frequency, such as are used in systems of wireless telegraphy or signaling, may be transmitted to greater distances at smaller cost and by means of less expenditure of electrical energy than has been required in systems previously usec.
My invention relates particularly to the aerial or elevated conductor used in connection with such systems for radiating or receiving the etheric vibrations or Hertzian waves or electrical oscillations of high frequency. Heretofore it has been the practice to use for this purpose an upright or vertical mast or other support for the aerial conductor with or without a capacity area at the top, from which the waves or vibrations are to be radiated or 7 upon which they are to be received. I have found in the use of such apparatus that the distances to which messages can be sent and detected depends, for one thing, upon the height to which the conductor is carried. It is not practicable, however, to'carry such conductor to a height much greater than two hundred feet on account of the mechanical difiiculties and the expense involved in erecting and maintaining structures of greater height. I have also found that with an elevated conductor of a given height the distance to which messages may be sent can be increased by increasing the electrical energy by means of which the etheric waves are produced. I find, however, that there is a limit beyond which increased electrical energy does not appreciably increase the distance to which signals may be sent.
According to my present invention I connect to the vertical elevated conductor which, as shown, is in the form of awire or rod, one
or more members consisting of wires or rods extending therefrom in a lateral or outward direction. The vertical portion of the aerial may then, if desired, be made comparatively short, and the necessary length and capacity secured by lateral extension. The 'lateral aerials may extend either in ahorizontal plane or may be inclined either above or below such.
a plane. These outwardly-extending mem bers, by reason of their rod or wire'form, may be carried for a considerable distance from the upright elevated aerial conductor, and thereby greatly extend the distance across which signals may be sentor received without involving serious difiiculty in supporting and maintaining the same, and in such case their free ends are preferably supported directly from the ground, but insulated from said support and from the ground.
Reference is hereby made to the accompanying drawings, showing several forms in which my invention may be embodied.
In the drawings, Figures 1, 2, and 3 are views showing in elevation various forms embodying my invention. Fig. 4c is a perspective view showing the form in which my invention is preferably embodied.
In all of the figures, 1 represents the upright elevated conductor, to the lower end of which is electrically connected any suitable form of apparatus for producing or detecting the etheric vibrations or Hertzian waves by means of which the signals are produced and detected. I have indicated diagrammatically apparatus 4 suitable for receiving and detecting the signals; but it will be understood that this may be replaced by sending apparatus,
In Fig. 1 I have shown a single outwardlyextending member 2, which is connected to the vertical member 1 at one end and'extends therefrom in a horizontal plane, being supported at its free end by the support 3, which rises from the ground, the member 2 being electrically connected-with the member 1, and insulated from the support 3.
In Fig. 2 the outwardly-extending members 2 are inclined upward from the horizontal. This form is superior to a single vertical con ductor which terminates at a point at the same elevation as the free ends of the members 2 but it is obvious that in this construction the outwardextending members cannot becarried to so great a distance on account of mechanical difficulties as that shown in Fig. 1.
In the form shown in Fig. 3 the outwardlyextendingconductors 2 are inclined downward from a, horizontal plane.
In the preferred form illustrated in Fig. 4:
the outwardly-extending members 2 radiate in all directions from the vertical member 1 in a horizontal plane, their free ends. being supported by supports 3 and insulated therefrom, as inthe form shown in Fig. 1. I have obtained goodresults by using ei- 'ht of the outwardly-extending conductors 2 each one forming an angle of forty-five degrees with its.v neighbor. I have also found that good results may be obtained by making the members 2 of such a length that the free ends of adjacentmembers will be supported at a distance of about thirty feet from each other. The members 2 'may be placed at any desired height above the earth, depending upon the distance to which it is desired to transmit or from which it is desired to receive the signals. I have found, however, that with an elevated conductor of this form measuring about twenty-five feet in height I have been able to transmit signals to-as great a distance as could be accomplished with a single vertical aerial conductor of six times the height. A special advantage of a plurality of outwardly-extending aerials is that having a common center the oscillations in the several aerialsconcentrate their effect at a common point, and the apparatus is thus more efficient both for transmission and reception.
The whole system of both the vertical and projecting aerials should be in tune with the circuitsof the transmitter and receiver, as fully explained in my British Patent No. 7,777 of 1900.
Ido not limit myself to any specific dimensions or elevations of the members comprisving the elevated conductor nor to the number of members which extend outwardly from the vertical member.
It is tobe understood. that under the term Wire I include rods or other form of conductor which admits of great extension or length without requiring impracticable forms of support.
What I claim, however, and desire to secure by LettersPatent, is;-
'1. As a means for increasing the effective distance to which intelligible signals may be transmittedby electrical oscillations of high frequency, an-elevated conductor, comprising an upright wire or rod, reduced in height compared with the usual height of elevated conductors heretofore used for a given distance, and a wire or rod extending outwardly therefrom in an elevated position.
2. In a system of signaling by means of electrical oscillations of high frequency, an elevated conductor, comprising an upright wire or red and a plurality of wires extending outwardly therefrom in elevated positions whereby the distance to which intelligible signals may be transmitted with a given amount of energy is increased, substantially as described.
3. In a system of signaling by means of electrical oscillations of high frequency, an elevated conductor, comprising an upright wire or rod and a wire extending outwardly therefrom in an elevated position, in combination with a support for said outwardly-extending member whereby the distance to which intelligible signals may be transmitted with a given amount of energy is increased, substantially as described.
4. In a system of signaling by means of electrical oscillations of high frequency, an elevated conductor, comprising an upright wire or rod and a plurality of Wires extending out wardly therefrom in elevated positions, in combination with supports for the free ends of said outwardly-extending members whereby the distance to which intelligible signals may be transmitted with a given amount of energy is increased,substantially as described.
5. In a system of signaling by means of elec trical oscillations of high frequency, an elevated conductor, comprising an upright wire or rod, and a horizontal wire or rod extending outwardly therefrom in an elevated position, and exceeding in length the upright in, mber whereby the distance to which intelligible signals may be transmitted with a given amount of energy is increased, substantially as described.
6. In a system of signaling by means of electrical oscillations of high frequency, an elevated conductor, comprising an upright member and a plurality of outwardly-extending members extending radially from a common center in combination with supports for said outwardly-extending members whereby the distance to which intelligible signals may be transmitted with a given amount of energy is increased, substantially as described- In witness whereof I have hereunto signed my name this 3d day of September, 1903.
In presence of J. BQTTOMLEY, W. H. BENTLEY.