US 761287 A
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"-No. 761,287. PATENTED 10131, i964.
R. A. CUMMINGS, CONCRETE AN-D METAL STRUCTURE.
APPLICATION FILED FEB. 14, 1903.
m: NORRIS PETERS cc PHOTO-LITHOY. WASHINGTON. n. cy
UNITED STATES Patented May 31,1904.
. PATENT OFFICE.
ROBERTA. CUMMINGS, or BE VERQPENNS LVANIA.
(iONCRETE-AltlD-METAL STRUCTUREQVI srnczrronrron forming part or Letters Patent No. 761,287, dated May 31, 1904..
' A plication fi1e 1February'1 4,1903. Serial No. 143,278. (No model.)
To aZZ whom it may cancer-m;
Be it known that I, ROBERT A. CUMMINGS,"
a resident of Beaver, in the county of Beaver and State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Concrete-and- Metal Structures; and'I do hereby declare the following to bea-fu'll, clear, andexact description thereof.
My invention relates to composite metaland-concrete,structures such as are common 1n bridges, vladucts, docks,'reservo1rs, con- I duits, floors, roofs, walls, and other portions of fireproof buildings and other structures.
The object of my invention is to provide such a construction wherein the concretestrengthening members serve totie together the metal-structure, thus producing a structure stronger and more rigidthan those heretofore produced.
In all structures of the above-mentioned kind it is the practice to fill the spaces between metal members, whether girders, beams, columns, or the like, with concrete.
The latter generally is strengthened by hav inga series of metal core bars or units embedded therein, which core-bars preferably are roughened or provided with projections or depressions or otherwise formed of irregular outline, so that the concrete will take a firm grip thereon, so that the core-bars prevent longitudinal expansion of the concrete, which would rupture the latter, as it has only slight tensile strength. My invention relates in general to structures of this kind; but I improve thereupon by uniting said core bars or units at their ends to the metal members of the structure, such as the girders, beams, columns, or the like. This is preferably effected by providing the metal member with a slot and the core-bar with a flattened and broadened portion which is of such dimensions that it can be passed through the slot and when the bar is given a quarter-turn will be locked therein.
7 which the work is designed.
3 represents a-core-bar, and L the concrete transversely of the core-bar. Fig. 3 is a plan view of the preferred form of core-bar. Fig. 4 is a cross-section thereof on line a 4, Fig. 8.
Fig. 5 is a plan view of a modifiedform of,
core-bar. Fig. 6 is a detail of another modi- 55 fic'ation; and Figs. 7 8, and 9 illustrate means for adjusting tl'lelength of the core-bar.
In the drawings the members of the metal structures are represented by the I-beam girders 1; but it will be understood that any 6 other members of any metal structure will answerthe purpose. These girders or beams I are provided with metal attaching means for the core bars or units, which means may be 4 formed in a piece separate from and attached 5 to the beams or may be formed directly in the latter. I haveshown for this purpose a series of slots 2 in the beams, which slots are of any desired shapeypreferably oblong or rectangular and here shown as arranged ver 7 tically, but may be horizontal or in any other positionand being of a number and distance apart depending upon the particular use f0 down at intervals to form the broadened flattenedportions 5, which are separated by the round sections 6of the-original bar, thus prot ducing a bar presenting a large number of shoulders whlch Wlll get a good grip on the concrete, and thus greatly strengthen the lat- 5,
In lieu of this bar, however, any bar of I ter. irregular cross-section or even one which is a merely roughened on thesides or even a plain bar, such as shown at 7 in Fig. 5 and. at 8 in Fig. 6, may be employed. In Figs. 3, 4, 9
and '5 the bar has its end hammered, forged, or squeezed down to form a broadened fiattened portion 9 of such width and thickness that when presented edgewise to the slot 2 it will pass therethrough, but which when the bar is given a quarter-turn will prevent the bar from being withdrawn from the slot, thus locking the bar and metal member 1 together. The bar shown in Fig. 6 has an oblong or lozenge-shaped head 10, whichacts similar to I 15 width of the flattened portions 5.
2 slots in the three. or more girders.
the flattened head 9 of the other type of bar. If desired, this head may be rotatably secured to the bar. While preferably the broadened flattened portion 9 of the core-bar will be at the ends thereof, it is obvious that a similar 1 but also to one or more intermediate of its ends. The slots 2 in that case will be made of a width practically equal to the diameter of the circular portion 6 of the core-bar and of the height substantiallythe'same as the Then said bar can be passed through the slots by simply pushing it forward and giving it quarter-turns alternately in opposite directions as it is being pushed along, thus passing the bar through the The broadened flattened portions 9 of the bar can be readily formed at the place where the structure is being built by merely hammering the end of the bar down. Consequently very little 5 additional cost attaches to my improvement over the old structures, and, if necessary, any convenient form of bar that may be at hand can be employed, it not being necessary to use the specific bar shown in Figs. 3 and 1, although 3 I prefer either such a bar or some other bar having roughened or irregular sides in order that the concrete may take a more firm grip thereon.
In the process-of manufacturing metallic structures it may happen that its members are not maintained in alinement or to prescrlbed dimensions. It may therefore be necessary to have some arrangement whereby the length of the core-bar is-adjusted' -In 4 Figs. 7, 8, and 9 I have shown several arrangements suitable for this purpose. In Fig. 7 theycore-bar 3 is provided with a nut 12, whereby its length is varied. If desired or necessary, the nut may be supplemented by one or more ordinary washers 13. The ad- 5 that by turning or moving them transversely on each other a variation in thickness is secured. Other adjusting means will suggest themselves to those skilled in the art.
In the use of my invention the core-bars will be locked to themetal members of the structure in the manner specified and will then be enveloped and embedded in the concrete in the well-known manner of doing this work. After the latter-sets a composite metal and concrete structure is formed, which is exceedingly strong and rigid and wherein all of the members are firmly tied or locked together.
What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is
1. In fireproof or other structures, the combination of a core bar or unit having a series of adjacent flattened and broadened portions, a metallic member having a slot through which the core-bar is passed and wherein it is locked by means of one of its broadened and flattened portions, and concrete or the like enveloping and embedding said core-bar.
2. In fireproof or other structures, the combination of a core bar or unit having a series of adjacent flattened and broadened portions, girders, columns, or other metallic elements of the structure provided with slots through which the core-bar is passed and wherein it is locked by means of one of its broadened and flattened portions, and concrete or the like onveloping and embedding said core-bar.
3. In fireproof or other structures, the combination of the girders, columns, or other metallic members of the structure provided with slots, core bars or units of irregular outline longitudinally having their ends broadened and flattened and passing through the slots in the metallic members and locked therein by their broadened and flattened portions, and concrete or the like enveloping and embedding said core-bars.
1. In fireproof and other structures, the combination with the girders, columns or other metallic members of the structure provided with slots, of a core-bar passing through said slots and provided with a head on its end, a spacing member between said head and the metallic member, and concrete or the like enveloping and embedding said core-bar.
In testimony whereof I, the said Ronnu'r A. CUMMINGS, have hereunto set my hand.
ROBERT A. CUMMINGS.
ROBERT C. TOTTEN, G. (J. RAYMOND.