|Publication number||US7613250 B2|
|Application number||US 11/165,866|
|Publication date||Nov 3, 2009|
|Priority date||Mar 7, 2005|
|Also published as||CN1832355A, CN100488063C, EP1701451A2, EP1701451A3, EP1701451B1, US20060198464|
|Publication number||11165866, 165866, US 7613250 B2, US 7613250B2, US-B2-7613250, US7613250 B2, US7613250B2|
|Inventors||Takao Sasaki, Masayuki Oonuki, Hiromi Miyamoto|
|Original Assignee||Fujitsu Limited|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (14), Non-Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (4), Classifications (14), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a distortion compensation apparatus, and more particularly a distortion compensation apparatus which obtains a differential signal between a reference signal, that is, a transmission signal and a feedback signal, calculates a distortion compensation coefficient so as to reduce the differential signal by use of an adaptive algorithm, updates a distortion compensation coefficient having been stored using the above-calculated distortion compensation coefficient, and performs distortion compensation onto the transmission signal based on the above obtained distortion compensation coefficient.
2. Description of the Related Art
In recent years, high-efficient digital transmission has been adopted in radio communication. When multilevel phase modulation is adopted in the radio communication, it is an important technique to suppress nonlinear distortion by linearizing the amplification characteristic of a power amplifier on the transmission side, thereby reducing adjacent channel leak power.
Also, when it is intended to improve power efficiency using an amplifier having a degraded linearity, a technique for compensating nonlinear distortion caused by the degraded linearity is essentially required.
A digital-to-analog (D/A) converter 3 converts the I-signal and the Q-signal into an analog baseband signal, respectively, so as to input into a quadrature modulator 4. This quadrature modulator 4 multiplies the input I-signal and Q-signal (a baseband transmission signal) by a reference carrier wave 8, and a carrier wave phase-shifted by 90° from the reference carrier wave 8, and adds the multiplied results, thus performing orthogonal transformation, and outputs the above signal.
A frequency converter 5 mixes the quadrature modulation signal with a local oscillation signal, and converts the mixed signal into a radio frequency. A transmission power amplifier 6 performs power amplification of the radio frequency signal being output from frequency converter 5, and radiates to the air from an antenna 7.
Here, in the mobile communication using W-CDMA, etc., transmission equipment power is substantially large, as much as 10 mW to several tens of mW, and the input/output characteristic (having a distortion function f(p)) of transmission power amplifier 6 shows non-linearity, as shown by the dotted line in
An ACPR (adjacent channel power ratio) represents the magnitude of leak power, being defined as a ratio of leak power to adjacent channels, which corresponds to a spectrum area in the adjacent channels sandwiched between the lines B and B′ in
The leak power is substantially small in a linear region of, for example, a power amplifier (refer to a linear region I in
As shown in the lower part of
The signal to which distortion process is performed in distortion compensator 9 is input into D/A converter 3. This D/A converter 3 converts the input I-signal and Q-signal into analog baseband signals, and inputs the converted signals into quadrature modulator 4. Quadrature modulator 4 performs quadrature modulation by multiplying the input I-signal and Q-signal by a reference carrier wave 8 and a carrier wave being phase-shifted by 90° from reference carrier wave 8, respectively. Quadrature modulator 4 performs quadrature modulation by adding the multiplication result, and outputs the modulated signal.
A frequency converter 5 performs frequency conversion by mixing the quadrature modulation signal with a local oscillation signal. A transmission power amplifier 6 performs power amplification of the radio frequency signal being output from frequency converter 5, and radiates to the air from antenna 7.
A portion of the transmission signal is input to a frequency converter 11 via a directional coupler 10, and input into a quadrature detector 12 after being frequency converted by the above frequency converter 11. Quadrature detector 12 performs quadrature detection by multiplying the input signal by a reference carrier wave, and by a signal being phase-shifted by 90° from the reference carrier wave, respectively. Thus, the baseband I-signal and Q-signal on the transmission side are reproduced, and then input into an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter 13.
A/D converter 13 converts the input I-signal and Q-signal into digital signals, and inputs into distortion compensator 9. Through the adaptive signal processing using an LMS (least-mean-square) algorithm, in distortion compensation coefficient calculator 92 of distortion compensator 9, the pre-compensated transmission signal is compared with the feedback signal being demodulated in quadrature detector 12. Then, distortion compensator 9 calculates the distortion compensation coefficient h(p1) so that the difference of the above comparison values becomes zero, and updates the above-obtained coefficient having been stored in distortion compensation coefficient storage 90. Through the repetition of the calculations above, nonlinear distortion in transmission power amplifier 6 is suppressed, and adjacent channel leak power is reduced.
A symbol 15 a is a multiplier for multiplying a transmission signal x(t) by a distortion compensation coefficient hn−1(p). This multiplier corresponds to the predistortion portion 91 shown in
Distortion compensation coefficient storage 15 e outputs a distortion compensation coefficient hn−1(p) corresponding to the power p of the transmission signal x(t). Distortion compensation coefficient storage 15 e also updates a distortion compensation coefficient hn−1(p) with a distortion compensation coefficient hn(p) obtained through the LMS algorithm.
Further, 15 f is a conjugate complex signal output portion, 15 g is a subtractor outputting a difference e(t) between the transmission signal x(t) and the feedback demodulation signal y(t), 15 h is a multiplier multiplying e(t) by u*(t), 15 i is a multiplier multiplying hn−1(p) by y*(t), and 15 j is a multiplier multiplying by a step size parameter μ, and 15 k is an adder adding hn−1(p) to μe(t)u*(t). Also, 15 m, 15 n, 15 p are delay portions by which a delay time D is added to the input signal. Here, the delay time D denotes the time duration from the time the transmission signal x(t) is input to the time the feedback demodulation signal y(t) is input to subtractor 15 g.
Symbols 15 f, 15 h-15 j constitute a calculation section 16. A signal y(t) is the signal after being distorted. The delay time D being set in delay portions 15 m, 15 n, 15 p is determined so as to satisfy D=D0+D1, where D0 is the delay time in transmission power amplifier 15 b, and D1 is the delay time in feedback system 15 c.
When this delay time D cannot be set correctly, the distortion compensation function does not work effectively. Also, the greater the set error in the delay time is produced, the greater the leak power to the adjacent channels caused by the raised sidelobe becomes.
Using the above configuration, the following calculations are performed.
h n(p)=h n−1(p)+μe(t)u*(t)
Here, x, y, f, h, u, e are complex numbers, and * denotes a conjugate complex number.
Through the above calculation processing, the distortion compensation coefficient h(p) is updated so as to minimize the differential signal e(t) between the transmission signal x(t) and the feedback demodulation signal y(t). Finally, the value converges to an optimal distortion compensation coefficient, so that the distortion of the transmission power amplifier is compensated.
As described above, the principle of the distortion compensation apparatus is that feedback detection of a carrier wave obtained after quadrature modulation of the transmission signal is performed, the amplitudes of the transmission signal and the feedback signal are compared after digital conversion, and a distortion compensation coefficient is updated real time based on the above comparison result. According to this nonlinear distortion compensation system, it is possible to reduce distortion, and leak power as well, even through the operation is performed in a nonlinear region with high output, and also to improve the power load efficiency.
Now, in regard to the above setting of the delay time in the prior application, the applicant of the present invention has proposed one method, which is disclosed in the official gazette of the Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 2001-189685. The method disclosed in the above patent document 1 is outlined below: A correlation value is calculated varying the phases between a transmission signal x(t) and a feedback signal. Based on the maximum value of this correlation, a total delay time produced in a distortion device (transmission power amplifier), a feedback loop, etc. is determined. Then, the determined delay time is set in each delay circuit for timing adjustment in the distortion compensation apparatus.
As such, the distortion compensation operation is performed by the distortion compensation apparatus so as to reduce the difference between the transmission signal and the feedback signal. However, due to incompleteness of the distortion compensation, a noise being output from the transmission power amplifier posterior to the distortion compensation may possibly become larger than the noise being output therefrom prior to the distortion compensation, at the end region of the distortion compensation control bandwidth originally having a small distortion signal.
This signifies an undesirable increase of an unwanted wave transmitted at a frequency apart from the transmission bandwidth.
For example, according to a standard in regard to the unwanted wave specified in the specification TS25.104 issued by the 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project), it is required to reduce an unwanted wave so as to be sufficiently small at the frequency having a distance of a predetermined frequency offset amount from the transmission bandwidth.
As shown in this
However, even in the case the spectrum floor is widened, the unwanted wave is suppressed to a low level at the frequency having a distance of the frequency offset amount OFFSET specified in the standard of the unwanted wave, and thereby the standard is met.
Now, a case of setting the number of carriers less than four is considered in the following.
Also, since the transmission signal bandwidth SSBND2 becomes narrower than the transmission signal bandwidth SSBND1 in the case of four carriers, the frequency having a distance of the frequency offset amount OFFSET specified in the standard of the unwanted wave is shifted to the left (nearer to the transmission bandwidth) as compared to
As such, when the number of carriers (transmission bandwidth) is variable, the distortion compensation may produce an increased unwanted wave (inconformity to the standard of the unwanted wave), contrarily.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a distortion compensation apparatus, enabling suppression of an unwanted wave adaptively corresponding to the number of carriers (transmission bandwidth).
As a first aspect of the distortion compensation apparatus according to the present invention to solve the aforementioned problem, a distortion compensation apparatus includes: a predistortion portion performing distortion compensation processing to an input signal using a distortion compensation coefficient; a distortion compensation coefficient portion storing the distortion compensation coefficient correspondingly to the input signal power, based on the input signal prior to the distortion compensation and a feedback signal being feedbacked from the output side of a distortion device; and a controller for reducing a distortion compensation control bandwidth in the predistortion portion, corresponding to the reduction of the number of input signal carriers.
As a second aspect of the distortion compensation apparatus according to the present invention to solve the aforementioned problem, a distortion compensation apparatus includes: a distortion compensation processing circuit multiplying an input signal by a distortion compensation coefficient; a distortion compensation coefficient storage storing the distortion compensation coefficient correspondingly to the input signal power; a distortion compensation coefficient calculator calculating an update value of the distortion compensation coefficient stored in the distortion compensation coefficient storage, based on the input signal and a feedback signal being feedbacked from the output side of a distortion device; and a digital filter inputting the output of the distortion compensation processing circuit. The distortion compensation apparatus further include a unit for modifying the passband of the digital filter so as to reduce a distortion compensation control bandwidth in the predistortion portion, in response to the reduction of the number of carriers in the input signal. The modifying unit may include a memory storing a filter coefficient, and reads out, from the memory, the filter coefficient to be set for the digital filter passband corresponding to the number of carriers in the input signal, and sets the readout filter coefficient to the digital filter. The modifying unit may reduce a clock frequency for the distortion compensation apparatus, a D/A converter, an A/D converter, and a digital filter, in response to the reduction of the number of carriers in the input signal.
As a third aspect of the distortion compensation apparatus according to the present invention to solve the aforementioned problem, the distortion device includes a controller controlling to reduce a signal bandwidth to be input to the amplifier, when a signal transmission bandwidth is reduced.
Further scopes and features of the present invention will become more apparent by the following description of the embodiments with the accompanied drawings.
The preferred embodiment of the present invention is described hereinafter referring to the charts and drawings. However, it is noted that the embodiment is provided for the sake of easy understanding, and accordingly, the technical scope of the present invention is not limited to the embodiments described below.
A distortion compensation coefficient calculator 92 is a functional portion for obtaining an update value of a distortion compensation coefficient to be stored in look-up table 90, based on the difference of a transmission signal S(x), a feedback signal R(x) and the correlation value therebetween. Distortion compensation coefficient calculator 92 includes a subtractor 15 g and a calculation section 16, as shown in
A distortion compensation apparatus 9 shown in
The number of transmission carriers transmitted from a base station is input and set into a base station (a transmission parameter set section provided therein) as a transmission parameter, when the base station is newly installed or a system change is performed. As such, according to the number of transmission carriers being set in the base station, a carrier set signal is input to supervision and control circuit 101.
Here, also by operating an operation section (not shown) provided on distortion compensation apparatus 9, it is possible to control to change setting of a filter coefficient to the supervision and control circuit.
Further, though a concrete chart is not shown in
Moreover, supervision and control circuit 101 includes a filter coefficient set circuit 101 a, to which a carrier set signal is input either from the transmission parameter set section of the base station, or through the operation from the operation section. Filter coefficient set circuit 101 a has a function of referring to a table in a filter coefficient storage memory 101 b, and reading out a corresponding filter coefficient from the table, based on the information of the number of carriers in the carrier set signal.
The filter coefficient corresponding to the information of the number of carriers in the carrier set signal, which is read out by filter coefficient set circuit 101 a, is forwarded to a digital filter 100. Digital filter 100 functions as filter having a passband characteristic corresponding to the filter coefficient supplied thereto.
Namely, digital filter 100 controls the passband thereof by setting the internal circuit according to the supplied filter coefficient. For example, after a tap coefficient group is supplied as filter coefficients, digital filter 100 controls to obtain a desired passband by setting the supplied tap coefficients to the respective taps. With this, when the transmission bandwidth is made narrower according to the carrier set signal, digital filter 100 can be modified to have a narrower passband.
As shown in
The reduced passband in digital filter 100 produces a reduced control bandwidth for predistortion processing, which undesirably weakens a distortion suppression effect, and increases an unwanted wave. However, in the case that a relatively small number of carriers, such as two carriers, a wide control bandwidth contrarily produces an increased noise component due to the incompleteness in the distortion compensation, and the influence by the unwanted wave is strengthened. Therefore, it is advantageous to reduce the control bandwidth from the viewpoint of suppressing the increase of the unwanted wave.
Accordingly, as described above, the control bandwidth of the distortion compensation is reduced when the number of carriers is small, so as to suppress an increase of the unwanted wave bandwidth caused by the incompleteness of the distortion compensation.
Thus, in contrast to the output spectrum A of power amplifier 6 prior to the distortion compensation, it becomes possible to reduce an increase of the floor region in the output spectrum B posterior to the distortion compensation. In such a way, it becomes possible to sufficiently suppress the unwanted wave level at a frequency apart from the transmission bandwidth with a distance of a frequency offset being specified in the standard of the unwanted wave.
As having been described above, the present invention has been devised to reduce the distortion compensation control bandwidth, so as to suppress the increase of the floor portion in the spectrum posterior to the distortion compensation, when the number of set carriers is reduced.
In the above embodiment, an example of reducing the passband of digital filter 100 by setting a filter coefficient has been described, as a control means for reducing the distortion compensation control bandwidth. However, the present invention is not limited to the above example. It is also possible to reduce the filter passband by decreasing an operation clock frequency for a digital distortion compensation portion (distortion compensator, D/A converter, A/D converter, and digital filter).
According to the present invention, the distortion compensation control bandwidth can be controlled using a simple configuration, in response to either an increase or a decrease of the number of carriers being set in a transmitter. Even if the number of carriers decreases, an unwanted wave can easily be suppressed.
The foregoing description of the embodiments is not intended to limit the invention to the particular details of the examples illustrated. Any suitable modification and equivalents may be resorted to the scope of the invention. All features and advantages of the invention which fall within the scope of the invention are covered by the appended claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US6125266 *||Dec 31, 1997||Sep 26, 2000||Nokia Mobile Phones Limited||Dual band architectures for mobile stations having transmitter linearization feedback|
|US6836517||Dec 22, 2000||Dec 28, 2004||Fujitsu Limited||Distortion compensating apparatus|
|US7194043 *||May 31, 2002||Mar 20, 2007||Lucent Technologies Inc.||System and method for predistorting a signal to reduce out-of-band error|
|US7330517 *||Nov 24, 2003||Feb 12, 2008||P-Wave Ltd.||Amplifier linearization using non-linear predistortion|
|US20010007435||Dec 14, 2000||Jul 12, 2001||Fujitsu Limited||Distortion compensating apparatus|
|US20010051504||Mar 14, 2001||Dec 13, 2001||Tokuro Kubo||Activation method of communications apparatus with a non-linear distortion compensation device|
|US20030118126 *||Dec 24, 2002||Jun 26, 2003||Lg Electronics Inc.||Apparatus and method for compensating error for analog quadrature modulator (AQM)|
|US20030223509 *||May 31, 2002||Dec 4, 2003||Zhengxiang Ma||system and method for predistorting a signal to reduce out-of-band error|
|US20050111574 *||Sep 28, 2004||May 26, 2005||Jan-Erik Muller||Transmission device with digital predistortion, and method for regulating predistortion in a transmission device|
|US20050111575 *||Nov 24, 2003||May 26, 2005||Wiseband Communications Ltd.||Amplifier linearization using non-linear predistortion|
|US20050129141 *||Nov 1, 2004||Jun 16, 2005||Seung-Hwan Lee||Apparatus and method for compensating for analog quadrature modulation error|
|US20050163268 *||Jan 27, 2004||Jul 28, 2005||Crestcom, Inc.||Predistortion circuit and method for compensating nonlinear distortion in a digital RF communications transmitter|
|GB2283629A||Title not available|
|JP2001189685A||Title not available|
|1||3GPP TS 25.104, 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Base Station (BS) radio transmission and reception (FDD).|
|2||European Search Report dated Jun. 21, 2007, from the corresponding European Application.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8525592||Feb 27, 2012||Sep 3, 2013||Fujitsu Limited||Power amplification device, transmitter, and power amplification control method|
|US8989681 *||Apr 22, 2009||Mar 24, 2015||Nxp, B.V.||Calibration of communication apparatus|
|US20110045788 *||Apr 22, 2009||Feb 24, 2011||Nxp B.V.||Calibration of communication apparatus|
|US20150270857 *||Jun 9, 2015||Sep 24, 2015||Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for eliminating interference among transmission channels of transmitter|
|U.S. Classification||375/296, 455/126, 375/297, 375/346, 375/298|
|Cooperative Classification||H03F1/3247, H03F1/3258, H04B2001/0425, H03F1/0205, H03F2201/3233|
|European Classification||H03F1/02T, H03F1/32P6, H03F1/32P2|
|Jun 24, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FUJITSU LIMITED, JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SASAKI, TAKAO;OONUKI, MASAYUKI;MIYAMOTO, HIROMI;REEL/FRAME:016731/0378;SIGNING DATES FROM 20050607 TO 20050609
|Mar 7, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4