|Publication number||US7613744 B2|
|Application number||US 11/224,852|
|Publication date||Nov 3, 2009|
|Priority date||Aug 17, 2005|
|Also published as||CN101233517A, CN101233517B, EP1924933A1, US7657577, US7660834, US20070043785, US20070043788, US20070043789, WO2007020124A1|
|Publication number||11224852, 224852, US 7613744 B2, US 7613744B2, US-B2-7613744, US7613744 B2, US7613744B2|
|Inventors||David Maxwell Cannon, Howard Newton Martin|
|Original Assignee||International Business Machines Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (36), Non-Patent Citations (18), Referenced by (2), Classifications (14), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application entitled “Maintaining An Aggregate Including Active Files In A Storage Pool”, by David M. Cannon and Howard N. Martin, having U.S. application Ser. No. 11/206,488 and filed on Aug. 17, 2005, which patent application is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a method, system, and program for maintaining active-only copy storage pools.
2. Description of the Related Art
Storage management software maintains a repository for data by backing-up, archiving or migrating data from client nodes in a computer network. A storage management server stores data objects or files in one or more storage pools maintained in storage devices. The storage management server may use a database to track information about the stored files, including their location, status, policy information on the files, etc. The storage management software may also be used to restore data. The storage management software may maintain a hierarchy of storage devices, where a first level of the hierarchy includes the faster access devices, such as disk drives, storing more frequently used and accessed files. Lower levels in the hierarchy provide slower access storage devices, such as lower performance disk drives and tape drives, to store less frequently accessed or inactive data. One example of storage management software is the Tivoli® Storage Manager product marketed by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM®). (Tivoli and IBM are registered trademarks of IBM).
To improve data transfer performance, the storage management software may aggregate individual files in a storage pool, so that moving and copying operations may be performed with respect to an aggregate of files instead of single files. U.S. Pat. No. 6,098,074 describes an aggregation technique in which objects being stored are aggregated into a “managed file.” The objects may thereafter be tracked and moved as a single managed file within the storage hierarchy. When appropriate, individual objects can be processed individually such as for deletion or retrieval operations. The co-pending and commonly assigned patent application entitled “Method, System, And Program For Storing Data For Retrieval And Transfer”, having Ser. No. 10/766,576 and filed on Jan. 27, 2004, describes further techniques for managing files in aggregates.
Data, including both active and inactive files, in a primary storage pool may be copied to a copy storage pool, which may provide off-site backup and disaster recovery for the primary storage pool. As the amount of user data in primary storage pools continues to increase, the size and number of copy storage pools needed to backup data from the primary storage pools continues to increase. The copy storage pools may comprise a slower access device, such as tape, than the devices used for the primary storage pool, such as disks. Further, to restore data from the copy storage pool, the data may first be staged from the copy storage pool tape to a hard disk drive pool and then restored from the hard disk drive.
Further improvements in data storage may be useful in a variety of applications.
Provided are a method, system, and program for maintaining active-only copy storage pools. A first storage pool includes at least a first aggregate including a plurality of files. A second aggregate is generated in a second storage pool. A determination is made as to whether files in the first aggregate are active or inactive versions. Active versions of files are copied from the first aggregate to the second aggregate in the second storage pool, wherein the second aggregate does not include inactive versions of files in the first storage pool.
The storage management software 12 maintains information on the files in the storage pools, including file information 16, aggregate information 18, and storage pool information 20. The information 16, 18, and 20 may be implemented in one or more database tables of a relational database or other suitable data structures known in the art. The file information 16 may comprise an inventory table having information on every file in the storage pools 14 a, 14 b, including client and policy information. The aggregate information 18 comprises information on aggregates defined in the storage pools 14 a, 14 b. An aggregate comprises a managed file in one storage pool in which one or more files are written. An aggregate simplifies file movement operations (e.g., storage pool backup, restore, reclamation or movement to another pool which includes migration to another location within the hierarchy) because the storage management software 12 need only specify a data transfer operation with respect to an aggregate, and the storage management software 12 will then perform the requested operation with respect to the files grouped by the aggregate. Further, an aggregate may provide for the storage of the associated files in a single managed file that may be readily subject to a data transfer operation.
The storage pool information 20 contains information about where each file is stored in the storage hierarchy implemented in the storage pools 14 a, 14 b. The storage table contains an entry for each managed file.
A storage pool 14 a, 14 b may be implemented as a sequential access storage pool in which data is stored sequentially in a file volume, where the volume is a file in the underlying file system. Space from a deleted file in a sequential-access disk pool is recovered by consolidating valid data on a new file volume during a reclamation operation. Additionally, the storage pools 14 a, 14 b may also be organized as a random-access disk pools in which space is allocated in random blocks, such that once a file is deleted from a random-access storage pool, the space is immediately available for use.
In one embodiment, a storage pool may be defined as an active-only storage pool 22, such that only active files are maintained in that storage pool 22, not inactive files. An inactive file is any file that has been deactivated according to some criteria. For instance, a file may be considered inactive if it is updated, deleted or is a file whose age exceeds an aging policy. A file may be updated or deleted on a client system 2 a, 2 b . . . 2 n, and then when that update is supplied to the storage management server 6, the deactivated file may be marked as inactive. A file may also be updated or deleted directly by the storage management software 12. An update to a file results in both an active version of the file having the update and an inactive version of the pre-updated file.
In one embodiment, the active-only storage pool 22 may be implemented as a sequential-access disk pool, such that all files in an aggregate stored in the active-only storage pool 22 are written sequentially to a sequential file volume in the storage pool 22. A sequential file volume comprises a file on a random access media, such as a hard disk drive, that is managed as a tape device where data is written sequentially. The aggregate and its included files are written to a sequential file volume. A storage pool can have multiple sequential file volumes and each sequential file volume can have one or more aggregates. When the sequential file volume reaches a predefined size, then the sequential file volume is closed and a new sequential file volume is added to the storage pool to fill-up. So an update can be in the same file volume including the aggregate having the unmodified version of the file or in a different file in the active-only storage pool.
The clients 2 a, 2 b . . . 2 n may comprise a suitable computational device known in the art, such as a workstation, desktop computer, server, mainframe, hand held computer, telephony device, etc. The storage management server 6 may comprise a suitable server class machine. The network 8 may comprise a Local Area Network (LAN), Storage Area Network (SAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), wireless network, etc. The storage devices 4 a, 4 b be implemented in storage devices known in the art, such as one hard disk drive, a plurality of interconnected hard disk drives configured as Direct Access Storage Device (DASD), Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID), Just a Bunch of Disks (JBOD), etc., a tape device, an optical disk device, a non-volatile electronic memory device (e.g., Flash Disk), a tape library, etc.
The storage management software 12 generates (at block 206) a second aggregate in the active-only storage pool 96 to replace the first aggregate. The second aggregate has a new identifier (ID) different from the first aggregate ID. A loop is then performed at blocks 208 through 218 for each file in the first aggregate to reclaim. If (at block 210) the file is active, i.e., not inactive or deleted, then the file is copied (at block 212) to the second aggregate to sequentially follow the previously written file in the storage device if there is already file in the aggregate, else the file is written at the start of the aggregate. An aggregate file information entry 80 is added (at block 214) including the file identifier 82, the second aggregate ID 84, the offset 86 in the second aggregate at which the file is written, the length 88 of the file, and the active status 90 is set to active. If (at block 210) the file was inactive or deleted, then an aggregate file information entry 80 (
After adding all active files to the new second aggregate file, such that all active files from the first aggregate are written sequentially to the second aggregate in the active-only storage pool 94, which may comprise a sequential access disk, the entry 50 (
In one embodiment, the storage management software 12 maintains a file/aggregate information table 310, an aggregate information table 312, and an aggregate file information table 314 having information on the files and aggregates in the storage pools 300. The file/aggregate information table 310 includes entries, such as entry 50 (
The updated file/aggregate information table 322 for
Described embodiments provide an active-only storage pool that may be implemented in a sequential media, such that any files in an aggregate in the active-only storage pool that become inactive as a result of an update or other deactivation are removed from the aggregate file during a reclamation operation, so that all the active files are written sequentially in the aggregate file. Further, by maintaining only active files in an aggregate, the client may restore the active data faster from either the active-only storage pool or a copy of the aggregate having active data, which may be on disk or tape. In this way, the active files may be streamed from the aggregate managed file on the tape or disk media. This allows the client to restore the active files faster, which the client is more likely to need than inactive files.
In a further embodiment, aggregates and files in a primary storage pool may be backed-up in an active-only copy storage pool that stores only active versions of files from the primary storage pool. Maintaining an active-only copy storage pool reduces the amount of space, e.g., fewer tapes or other storage units, needed for the copy storage pool because only the active versions of files are copied. The copy storage pool may be maintained in the same or a different geographical location than the location of the primary storage pool to provide for disaster recovery.
After copying all the files in one aggregate, the storage management software 12 may further add (at block 616) a file/aggregate information entry 50 identifying the target aggregate 52, cumulative size of all files in the target aggregate 54, and identify the active-only copy storage pool 56 (
In the embodiment of
With the operations of
The updated file/aggregate information table 522 in
In the event of a failure or data loss in the primary storage pool, the active-only versions of the files, including files within aggregates and not within aggregates, may be recovered from the active-only copy storage pool. Entries would be added to the file and aggregate information tables to include entries, such as entries 50 (
Described embodiments provide a primary and copy storage pools that may be implemented in a sequential media. The copy storage pool may maintain only active versions of files and only the active versions of aggregates in the primary storage pool, such that any files in the aggregate in the primary storage pool that become inactive as a result of an update or other deactivation are not copied to the aggregate copy in the copy storage pool. Further, by maintaining only active files in the copy storage pool, copy storage pool space is conserved and a client may restore the active data faster from an active-only copy storage pool. The active files from the active-only copy storage pool may be streamed from the aggregate managed file on the tape or disk media. This allows the client to restore the active files faster, which the client is more likely to need than inactive files.
In a further embodiment, an active-only primary storage pool may be created from a legacy primary storage pool including both active and inactive files. After the active-only primary storage pool is created having only active files, updates are then applied first to the active-only primary storage pool and then later migrated to the legacy primary storage pool, which maintains both inactive and active files. In this way, the data in a client may be recovered from the active-only primary storage pool.
If (at block 754) there are clients that need to store into the active-only primary storage pool 704, then the storage management software 12 configures (at block 756) settings to allow the client 2 a, 2 b . . . 2 n to store into the active-only primary storage pool 704. If (at block 754) there are no clients that need to store into the active-only primary storage pool 704 and if (at block 758) there are clients with legacy data (i.e., data in the legacy storage pools that can be active or inactive) that needs to be copied into the active-only primary storage pool 704, then the storage management software 12 determines (at block 760) client legacy data that has not yet been copied to the active-only primary storage pool 704 that satisfies one or more criterion (e.g., file size, file age, source of client originating file, etc.). The determined client legacy data is copied (at block 762) from the legacy primary storage pool 700 to the active-only primary storage pool 704 using the operations of
In performing the operations of
After files and updates are copied to the legacy primary storage pool 700, the storage management software 12 may perform reclamation operations shown in
If (at block 860) the file in the aggregate is active, then the file is copied (at block 864) to the replacement aggregate in sequence. The aggregate file information entry 80 (
After copying all active files, the storage management software 12 may delete (at block 870) the file/aggregate information entry 50 for the source aggregate in the active-only primary storage pool 704. A file/aggregate information entry 50 is added (at block 872) identifying in field 52 (
With the operations of
Further, the operations of
The updated file/aggregate information table 734 in
Described embodiments provide legacy and active-only primary storage pools that may be implemented in a sequential media. The active-only primary storage pool may be created from the active versions of files and only the active versions of files in aggregates from the legacy primary storage pool. After the active-only storage pool is established, new files and updates are applied directly to the active-only primary storage pool. At certain points, files may be copied from the active-only primary storage pool to the legacy primary storage pool and then reclamation performed after the copying to remove inactive files from the active-only primary storage pool. The legacy primary storage pool thus maintains all inactive and active files, while the active-only primary storage pool is maintained to include active files.
In the event of data loss or system failure, the clients may recover their data from the active-only primary storage pool. Maintaining only active files in the active-only primary storage pool allows faster data recovery in the event of a failure by providing only the active files, which the clients are more likely to need than inactive files. If clients need inactive files, such files may be recovered separately from the legacy primary storage pool. Moreover, the active-only copy storage pools are more space efficient because they conserve space by storing only active versions of files, and not inactive versions. Thus, the active-only copy storage pools require less off-site storage by not storing inactive versions of files.
The described operations may be implemented as a method, apparatus or article of manufacture using standard programming and/or engineering techniques to produce software, firmware, hardware, or any combination thereof. The described operations may be implemented as code maintained in a “computer readable medium”, where a processor may read and execute the code from the computer readable medium. A computer readable medium may comprise media such as magnetic storage medium (e.g., hard disk drives, floppy disks, tape, etc.), optical storage (CD-ROMs, DVDs, optical disks, etc.), volatile and non-volatile memory devices (e.g., EEPROMs, ROMs, PROMs, RAMs, DRAMs, SRAMs, Flash Memory, firmware, programmable logic, etc.), etc. The code implementing the described operations may further be implemented in hardware logic (e.g., an integrated circuit chip, Programmable Gate Array (PGA), Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), etc.). Still further, the code implementing the described operations may be implemented in “transmission signals”, where transmission signals may propagate through space or through a transmission media, such as an optical fiber, copper wire, etc. The transmission signals in which the code or logic is encoded may further comprise a wireless signal, satellite transmission, radio waves, infrared signals, Bluetooth, etc. The transmission signals in which the code or logic is encoded is capable of being transmitted by a transmitting station and received by a receiving station, where the code or logic encoded in the transmission signal may be decoded and stored in hardware or a computer readable medium at the receiving and transmitting stations or devices. An “article of manufacture” comprises computer readable medium, hardware logic, and/or transmission signals in which code may be implemented. Of course, those skilled in the art will recognize that many modifications may be made to this configuration without departing from the scope of the present invention, and that the article of manufacture may comprise suitable information bearing medium known in the art.
In described embodiments, the aggregate files were contained in a sequential access media, such as a sequential disk or tape. In an alternative embodiment, the described operations may apply to an aggregate file in a random access media.
In described embodiments, the primary storage pool maintains inactive as well as active files. In an alternative embodiment, the primary storage pool may comprise an active-only storage pool and inactive files are removed from aggregates as a result of a reclamation process, such as shown in
The terms “an embodiment”, “embodiment”, “embodiments”, “the embodiment”, “the embodiments”, “one or more embodiments”, “some embodiments”, and “one embodiment” mean “one or more (but not all) embodiments of the present invention(s)” unless expressly specified otherwise.
The terms “including”, “comprising”, “having” and variations thereof mean “including but not limited to”, unless expressly specified otherwise.
The enumerated listing of items does not imply that any or all of the items are mutually exclusive, unless expressly specified otherwise.
The terms “a”, “an” and “the” mean “one or more”, unless expressly specified
Devices that are in communication with each other need not be in continuous communication with each other, unless expressly specified otherwise. In addition, devices that are in communication with each other may communicate directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries.
A description of an embodiment with several components in communication with each other does not imply that all such components are required. On the contrary a variety of optional components are described to illustrate the wide variety of possible embodiments of the present invention.
Further, although process steps, method steps, algorithms or the like may be described in a sequential order, such processes, methods and algorithms may be configured to work in alternate orders. In other words, any sequence or order of steps that may be described does not necessarily indicate a requirement that the steps be performed in that order. The steps of processes described herein may be performed in any order practical. Further, some steps may be performed simultaneously.
When a single device or article is described herein, it will be readily apparent that more than one device/article (whether or not they cooperate) may be used in place of a single device/article. Similarly, where more than one device or article is described herein (whether or not they cooperate), it will be readily apparent that a single device/article may be used in place of the more than one device or article or a different number of devices/articles may be used instead of the shown number of devices or programs. The functionality and/or the features of a device may be alternatively embodied by one or more other devices which are not explicitly described as having such functionality/features. Thus, other embodiments of the present invention need not include the device itself.
Further, when a reference letter, such as “a”, “b”, or “n” is used to denote a certain number of items, the reference “a”, “b” or “n” used with different elements may indicate the same or different number of such elements.
The illustrated operations of
The foregoing description of various embodiments of the invention has been presented for the purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. It is intended that the scope of the invention be limited not by this detailed description, but rather by the claims appended hereto. The above specification, examples and data provide a complete description of the manufacture and use of the composition of the invention. Since many embodiments of the invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, the invention resides in the claims hereinafter appended.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5644766 *||Aug 23, 1996||Jul 1, 1997||International Business Machines Corporation||System and method for managing a hierarchical storage system through improved data migration|
|US5761677||Jan 3, 1996||Jun 2, 1998||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Computer system method and apparatus providing for various versions of a file without requiring data copy or log operations|
|US5819295 *||Sep 26, 1996||Oct 6, 1998||Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.||Document storing and managing system|
|US5920867 *||Dec 6, 1996||Jul 6, 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Data management system having data management configuration|
|US5983239||Oct 29, 1997||Nov 9, 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Storage management system with file aggregation supporting multiple aggregated file counterparts|
|US6021415||Oct 29, 1997||Feb 1, 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Storage management system with file aggregation and space reclamation within aggregated files|
|US6023706||Jul 11, 1997||Feb 8, 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Parallel file system and method for multiple node file access|
|US6098074||Oct 29, 1997||Aug 1, 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Storage management system with file aggregation|
|US6330572||Jul 15, 1999||Dec 11, 2001||Imation Corp.||Hierarchical data storage management|
|US6351753 *||Feb 19, 1999||Feb 26, 2002||At&T Corp.||Method and apparatus for asynchronous version advancement in a three version database|
|US6366988 *||Jul 17, 1998||Apr 2, 2002||Storactive, Inc.||Systems and methods for electronic data storage management|
|US6886018 *||Oct 5, 2001||Apr 26, 2005||Metavante Corporation||Data processing technique for formatting data files that are subjected to a high volume of changes|
|US6889249||Jan 2, 2003||May 3, 2005||Z-Force, Inc.||Transaction aggregation in a switched file system|
|US7024429 *||Jan 31, 2002||Apr 4, 2006||Nextpage,Inc.||Data replication based upon a non-destructive data model|
|US7039661 *||Dec 29, 2003||May 2, 2006||Veritas Operating Corporation||Coordinated dirty block tracking|
|US7069401 *||Sep 18, 2002||Jun 27, 2006||Veritas Operating Corporating||Management of frozen images|
|US7096330 *||Jul 29, 2002||Aug 22, 2006||Veritas Operating Corporation||Symmetrical data change tracking|
|US7130970 *||Sep 9, 2003||Oct 31, 2006||Commvault Systems, Inc.||Dynamic storage device pooling in a computer system|
|US7191552||Mar 8, 2005||Mar 20, 2007||Danny Bruce Husom||Foot rollover preventive footwear sole|
|US7243103 *||Aug 12, 2002||Jul 10, 2007||The Escher Group, Ltd.||Peer to peer enterprise storage system with lexical recovery sub-system|
|US20010042073 *||Sep 24, 1999||Nov 15, 2001||Christian D. Saether||Method and system for automatically updating the version of a set of files stored on content servers|
|US20020120763||Jan 10, 2002||Aug 29, 2002||Z-Force Communications, Inc.||File switch and switched file system|
|US20030078930||Aug 21, 2002||Apr 24, 2003||Andre Surcouf||File and content management|
|US20030154220||Jan 22, 2002||Aug 14, 2003||David Maxwell Cannon||Copy process substituting compressible bit pattern for any unqualified data objects|
|US20030154238||Aug 12, 2002||Aug 14, 2003||Murphy Michael J.||Peer to peer enterprise storage system with lexical recovery sub-system|
|US20040133577||Jan 2, 2003||Jul 8, 2004||Z-Force Communications, Inc.||Rule based aggregation of files and transactions in a switched file system|
|US20040186826||Mar 21, 2003||Sep 23, 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||Real-time aggregation of unstructured data into structured data for SQL processing by a relational database engine|
|US20040199521||Apr 7, 2003||Oct 7, 2004||International Business Machines Corporation||Method, system, and program for managing groups of objects when there are different group types|
|US20050137731 *||Dec 19, 2003||Jun 23, 2005||Albert Haag||Versioning of elements in a configuration model|
|US20050165722||Jan 27, 2004||Jul 28, 2005||International Business Machines Corporation||Method, system, and program for storing data for retrieval and transfer|
|US20050229031 *||Mar 30, 2004||Oct 13, 2005||Alexei Kojenov||Method, system, and program for restoring data to a file|
|US20070005666 *||Jul 1, 2005||Jan 4, 2007||Udo Klein||Methods and systems for reducing database accesses in an object-oriented system|
|US20070043785||Aug 17, 2005||Feb 22, 2007||Cannon David M||Maintaining an aggregate including active files in a storage pool|
|US20070043788||Sep 12, 2005||Feb 22, 2007||International Business Machines Corporation||Maintaining active-only storage pools|
|US20070043789||Sep 12, 2005||Feb 22, 2007||International Business Machines Corporation||Maintaining active-only copy storage pools|
|JPS62281038A||Title not available|
|1||Communication pursuant to Article 94 (3) EPC for Application 06 777 449.7-2201, filed Jun. 9, 2008, 2 pp.|
|2||EPO document entitled "Communication pursuant to Article 94(3) EPC" dated Jun. 6, 2008, pp. 1-5, for application Serial No. 06 763 848.6-2201.|
|3||Final Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 11/206,488, dated Jun. 12, 2008, 15 pp.|
|4||Final Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 11/206,496, dated Jul. 9, 2008, 17 pp.|
|5||Final Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 11/224,768, dated Jun. 11, 2008, 14 pp.|
|6||First Office Action , dated Jul. 17, 2009, for CN Application No. 2006800283841, 5 pp.|
|7||First Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 11/206,488, dated Dec. 11, 2007, 20 pp.|
|8||First Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 11/206,496, dated Jan. 2, 2008, 23 pp.|
|9||First Office Action for U.S. Appl. No. 11/224,768, dated Dec. 13, 2007, 16 pp.|
|10||J.J. Daudenarde, et al., "Implementation of a File System with a Fast and Selective Recovery", IBM Corporation, Technical Disclosure Bulletin, Feb. 1987, pp. 3837-3838.|
|11||Notice of Allowance for U.S. Appl. No. 11/206,488, dated Dec. 15, 2008, 10 pp.|
|12||Notice of Allowance for U.S. Appl. No. 11/206,496, dated Jan. 29, 2009,12 pp.|
|13||Notice of Allowance for U.S. Appl. No. 11/224,768, dated Dec. 16, 2008, 10 pp.|
|14||PCT International Search Report and Written Opinion mailed Nov. 10, 2006 for PCT/EP2006/063511 filed Jun. 23, 2006.|
|15||PCT International Search Report and Written Opinion mailed Nov. 13, 2006 for PCT/EP2006/063455 filed Jun. 22, 2006.|
|16||Translation of First Office Action from Chinese (PRC) Patent Office for Application No. 2006800283841, dated Jul. 17, 2009, 10 pp.|
|17||U.S. Application entitled "Maintaining an Aggregate Including Active Files in a Storage Pool in a Random Access Medium", IBM, filed Aug. 15, 2005, U.S. Appl. No. 11/206,496, by inventors D.M. Cannon and H.N. Martin.|
|18||U.S. Patent Application entitled "Maintaining Active-Only Storage Pools", IBM, serial number not yet assigned, filed Sep. 12, 2005, by inventors D.M. Cannon and H.N. Martin.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US7921417 *||Feb 13, 2004||Apr 5, 2011||Sap Ag||Method and computer system for activation of source files|
|US20060248517 *||Feb 13, 2004||Nov 2, 2006||Eduard Bartsch||Method and computer system for activation of source files|
|U.S. Classification||1/1, 715/229, 707/999.203, 707/999.202, 707/999.102, 707/999.101, 707/999.2|
|Cooperative Classification||G06F17/3023, Y10S707/99942, Y10S707/99943, Y10S707/99954, Y10S707/99953|
|Nov 2, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:CANNON, DAVID MAXWELL;MARTIN, HOWARD NEWTON;REEL/FRAME:016972/0820
Effective date: 20050912
|Mar 29, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4