|Publication number||US7628034 B2|
|Application number||US 11/266,966|
|Publication date||Dec 8, 2009|
|Filing date||Nov 4, 2005|
|Priority date||May 13, 2005|
|Also published as||CA2866725A1, CA2866725C, US20060254586|
|Publication number||11266966, 266966, US 7628034 B2, US 7628034B2, US-B2-7628034, US7628034 B2, US7628034B2|
|Inventors||James M. Berry, Steve Morris|
|Original Assignee||Anesthetic Gas Reclamation, Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (99), Non-Patent Citations (16), Referenced by (4), Classifications (9), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is based upon provisional application 60/680,644 filed on May 13, 2005, the priority of which is claimed. On May 11, 2006, Applicants filed non-provisional application Ser. No. 11/432,152, which claims the benefit of U.S. provisional patent application 60/680,644 filed on May 13, 2005. On May 11, 2006, Applicants filed non-provisional application Ser. No. 11/432,192, which claims the benefit of U.S. provisional patent application 60/680,644 filed on May 13, 2005. On May 11, 2006, Applicants filed non-provisional application Ser. No. 11/432,189, which claims the benefit of U.S. provisional patent applications 60/680,644 filed on May 13, 2005 and 60/682,249 filed on May 18, 2005.
1. Field of the Invention
This invention concerns treatment of waste anesthetic gases from healthcare or other facilities that use inhaled anesthetics for medical or veterinary purposes. In particular, the invention pertains to the removal and reclamation of nitrous oxide, flouroethers, and other halocarbons from a stream of waste anesthetic gases produced by one or more anesthesia delivery systems of a healthcare facility in order to reduce atmospheric pollution before the gas stream is discharged to the atmosphere.
2. Description of the Prior Art
Anesthesia delivery systems in surgical facilities (both hospital and outpatient) produce significant quantities of waste anesthetic gases. Currently these gases are collected from the patients' exhalation by a dedicated or shared vacuum system. The healthcare facilities typically employ one or more centrally-located vacuum pumps to collect waste gases from individual anesthetizing locations. These vacuum pumps are usually oversized, because they are designed to collect exhaled anesthetics over a wide range of flows. Because these pumps operate continuously, the waste anesthetic gas suction system also entrains large amounts of surrounding room air from the anesthetizing locations, significantly diluting the waste anesthetic gases therein. At the central vacuum pump(s), the gas stream is often admixed with additional room air to further dilute it prior to its ejection from the facility. This dilute waste anesthetic gas/air mixture is typically pumped to the outside of the medical facility, where it is vented to the atmosphere.
The waste anesthetic gases are generally collected at about 20-30° C. with relative humidity ranging between 10 to 60 percent. The average composition of the waste gases is estimated to be (in percent volume) 25-32 percent oxygen, 60-65 percent nitrogen, 5-10 percent nitrous oxide, and 0.1-0.5 percent volatile halocarbons, including flouroethers such as isoflurane, desflurane and sevoflurane. The waste anesthetic gas may also contain trace lubricating oil vapor from vacuum pumps. Like Freon-12® and similar refrigerants, waste anesthetic gas halocarbons (primarily halogenated ethers) contribute to ozone depletion and environmental warming, and they represent an increasingly significant source of environmental concern. Although waste anesthetic gas emissions have thus far escaped environmental regulation in the United States, it is likely that legislative initiatives for ultimate strict regulation of waste anesthetic gas emissions will occur in the near future.
Several techniques have been proposed to treat waste anesthetic gases in an attempt to remedy the growing problem of waste anesthetic gas emissions. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 4,259,303 describes the treatment of laughing gas with a catalyst, U.S. Pat. No. 5,044,363 describes the adsorption of anesthetic gases by charcoal granules, U.S. Pat. No. 5,759,504 details the destruction of anesthetic gases by heating in the presence of a catalyst, U.S. Pat. No. 5,928,411 discloses absorption of anesthetic gases by a molecular sieve, and U.S. Pat. No. 6,134,914 describes the separation of xenon from exhaled anesthetic gas. A cryogenic method for scrubbing volatile halocarbons from waste anesthetic gas is taught by Berry in U.S. Pat. No. 6,729,329, which is incorporated herein by reference.
The current methods for scavenging waste anesthetic gases from anesthetizing locations (15A, 15B, 15C) in healthcare facilities generally involve drawing high flows of room air into the dedicated or shared vacuum collection manifold (16) to entrain waste anesthetic gases. The collection manifold (16) may also continuously draw in air through a number of idle anesthetizing machines (12A, 12B, 12C). On average, the collection system manifold (16) extracts between 20-30 liters of waste anesthetic gas and/or room air per minute at each anesthetizing location (15A, 15B, 15C). For a large hospital having between 20-30 operating rooms, it is estimated that waste anesthetic reclamation system (10) flow rate ranges between 500-1000 l/min. (14-35 scf/min.).
The advantages of a high-flow dilute waste gas system are that the system easily accommodates a wide range of anesthetic exhaust flows, the system is safe, in that little anesthetic can escape the system, and the system is simple, requiring little maintenance. However, high-flow systems are energy-intensive, generally requiring large vacuum pumps (20) in order to maintain sufficient suction at a large number of anesthetizing stations (15A, 15B, 15C). For example, to maintain a vacuum of about 200 mm Hg at a flow rate of 1-2 cfm at each anesthetizing station (15A, 15B, 15C), vacuum pumps of 100-200 cfm capacity are common. Furthermore, because removal of a waste component by condensation requires lowering the temperature of the flow stream to a point where the partial pressure of the waste component is equal to or greater than its saturated vapor pressure (at that temperature), diluted waste anesthetic gas concentrations can hamper efficient recovery by condensation processes. A method and system for increasing the efficacy and efficiency of condensation-type waste anesthetic gas scavenging and reclamation systems is thus desirable.
3. Identification of Objects of the Invention
A primary object of the invention is to provide an economical system and method for removing flouroethers and other volatile halocarbons from waste anesthetic gases from a surgical or other healthcare facility before such gases are vented to the atmosphere.
Another object of the invention is to provide an economical system and method for removing nitrous oxide from waste anesthetic gases from a surgical or other healthcare facility before such gases are vented to the atmosphere.
Another object of the invention is to provide an economical system and method for substantially preventing atmospheric venting of flouroethers and other volatile halocarbons of waste anesthetic gas while eliminating the need of prior art catalysts, charcoal granules and heating techniques.
Another object of the invention is to provide an economical system and method for increasing the efficacy and efficiency of condensation-type waste anesthetic scavenging systems.
Another object of the invention is to provide an economical system and method which utilizes and enhances existing waste anesthetic gas reclamation systems of healthcare facilities for minimal impact and cost.
Another object of the invention is to provide a system and method which requires minimal additional investment for a healthcare facility to implement.
Another object of the invention is to provide a system and method which reclaims and allows re-distillation and/or reuse of a large percentage of the nitrous oxide and/or anesthetic halocarbon used in the facility.
Another object of the invention is to provide a system and method which reduces anesthetic-related halocarbon emissions from a healthcare facility into the atmosphere by about 99 percent or more.
The objects identified above, as well as other advantages and features are preferably embodied in a system and method for removal of nitrous oxide and volatile halocarbon gas components from waste anesthetic gases using a low-flow scavenging or reclamation system which in a preferred embodiment includes a number of intelligent waste anesthetic gas collection units, one located at each individual anesthetizing machine in a healthcare or surgical facility which are fluidly coupled to a combined collection manifold. Each intelligent gas collection unit includes a collection chamber, an exhaust valve to selectively isolate the suction of the collection manifold at the respective anesthetizing station when waste anesthetic gas is not being produced, and associated sensors, circuitry, controls, or mechanisms to operate the exhaust valve.
Waste anesthetic gas enters from the anesthetizing machine exhaust into the collection chamber 32 through a standard anesthetic waste-gas connector. Located within the collection chamber is a sensitive pressure sensor which is preferably electrically coupled to a solenoid-operated exhaust valve located at the exhaust side of the collection chamber. The pressure measured by the pressure sensor is the difference between the pressure of the collection chamber and the outside ambient air pressure. If the pressure within the collection chamber exceeds ambient pressure, the increased pressure is detected by the pressure sensor, which by control circuitry causes the exhaust valve to open and results in a rapid decrease in collection chamber pressure. As the chamber pressure approaches ambient, the pressure sensor detects the pressure drop and causes the exhaust valve to shut.
The collection circuitry is preferably a low voltage direct current circuit, and the exhaust valve is preferably configured as a normally-open valve. A mechanical vacuum breaker and a mechanical relief valve exist in the collection chamber for safety purposes.
The pressure detector, exhaust valve, and the circuitry therebetween may optionally be selected and designed to provide a proportional response to pressure changes, so that the exhaust valve opens a small amount for a small pressure rise and a larger amount for a larger pressure rise. In alternate embodiments, the pressure sensor may be pneumatically or mechanically coupled to the exhaust valve for control thereof, and/or the intelligent waste anesthetic gas collection unit may be incorporated into an improved anesthetizing machine instead of integrated with the healthcare facility waste anesthetic gas collection manifold. The improved anesthetizing machine thus includes the anesthetizing machine of prior art and an intelligent waste anesthetic gas collection unit according to an embodiment of the invention.
Isolating the collection manifold from entraining room air when no waste anesthetic gas is being produced reduces the average anesthetic scavenging flow by approximately 90 percent, thus reducing the necessary capacity of the vacuum pumps, piping, and associated other hardware.
The invention is described in detail hereinafter on the basis of the embodiments represented in the accompanying figures, in which:
Isolating the collection manifold 16 from entraining room air when no waste anesthetic gas is being produced reduces the average anesthetic scavenging flow by approximately 90 percent, thus reducing the necessary capacity of the vacuum pumps, piping, and associated other hardware. Thus, for a large hospital having between 20-30 operating rooms, it is estimated that waste anesthetic gas flow rate of 500-1000 l/min with the prior art reclamation system 10 of
Preferably, exhaust valve 34 is configured as a normally-open valve, so that if a fault occurs, the exhaust valve 34 will fail open, and the system will, in effect, revert to the a continuous-flow air-dilution scavenging system of prior art. Moreover, a means of preventing excessive positive or negative pressures being transmitted to the anesthetizing machine 12 is provided in anesthetic waste gas collection unit 30 to assure patient safety. Although unlikely, should exhaust valve 34 leak by its seat or stick in the open position causing the pressure in chamber 32 to decrease significantly below ambient, a mechanical vacuum breaker 44 exists in chamber 32 which will be drawn open to restore the pressure to ambient. Similarly, should the pressure in chamber 32 increase significantly above ambient, a mechanical relief valve 46 will open to vent the excess pressure to the atmosphere. The waste anesthetic gas collection unit 30 is preferably constructed of materials which comply with safety standards for use in oxygen-enriched environments.
In an alternate embodiment, illustrated in
The Abstract of the disclosure is written solely for providing the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the public at large with a means by which to determine quickly from a cursory inspection the nature and gist of the technical disclosure, and it represents solely a preferred embodiment and is not indicative of the nature of the invention as a whole.
While some embodiments of the invention have been illustrated in detail, the invention is not limited to the embodiments shown; modifications and adaptations of the above embodiment may occur to those skilled in the art. Such modifications and adaptations are in the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth herein:
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|U.S. Classification||62/617, 128/204.16, 128/205.27|
|International Classification||F25B3/00, F24F5/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A61M16/009, Y02C20/10, A61M16/0093|
|Nov 4, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ANESTHETIC GAS RECLAMATION, L.L.C., TENNESSEE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BERRY, JAMES M.;MORRIS, STEVE;REEL/FRAME:017208/0412
Effective date: 20050121
|Apr 8, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4