|Publication number||US7667986 B2|
|Application number||US 12/051,334|
|Publication date||Feb 23, 2010|
|Filing date||Mar 19, 2008|
|Priority date||Dec 1, 2006|
|Also published as||US20080232141|
|Publication number||051334, 12051334, US 7667986 B2, US 7667986B2, US-B2-7667986, US7667986 B2, US7667986B2|
|Inventors||Daniel A. Artusi, Ross Fosler, Allen F. Rozman|
|Original Assignee||Flextronics International Usa, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (187), Non-Patent Citations (49), Referenced by (76), Classifications (11), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation in part of, and claims priority to, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/710,276, entitled “Power System with Power Converters having an Adaptive Controller,” filed on Feb. 23, 2007, which is a continuation in part of, and claims priority to, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/607,325, entitled “Power Converter with an Adaptive Controller and Method of Operating the Same,” filed on Dec. 1, 2006 and claims priority to U.S. Patent Application Ser. No. 60/918,806, entitled “Power System States,” filed on Mar. 19, 2007. The aforementioned applications are incorporated herein by reference.
This application relates to the following co-pending and commonly assigned patent applications, which applications are incorporated herein by reference:
U.S. Pat. No.
Power Converter Employing
Integrated Magnetics with a Current
Multiplier Rectifier and Method of
Operating the Same
Power Converter Employing a Tapped
Inductor and Integrated Magnetics and
Method of Operating the Same
Power Converter Employing a Tapped
Inductor and Integrated Magnetics and
Method of Operating the Same
Power Converter Employing a Tapped
Inductor and Integrated Magnetics and
Method of Operating the Same
Control Circuit for a Depletion Mode
Switch and Method of Operating the
Substrate Driven Field-Effect
Semiconductor Device Having a
Lateral Channel and Contacts on
Opposing Surfaces Thereof
High Voltage Semiconductor Device
Having a Lateral Channel and
Enhanced Gate-to-Drain Separation
Semiconductor Device Having
Multiple Lateral Channels and Method
of Forming the Same
Semiconductor Device Having
Transistor and Schottky Diode and
Method of Forming the Same
Semiconductor Device Having an
Interconnect with Sloped Walls and
Method of Forming the Same
Vertical Field-Effect Transistor and
Method of Forming the Same
Vertical Field-Effect Transistor and
Method of Forming the Same
Vertical Field-Effect Transistor and
Method of Forming the Same
Power Converter Employing
Regulators with a Coupled Inductor
Power Converter with Adaptively
Optimized Controller and Method of
Controlling the Same
Power System with Power Converters
Having an Adaptive Controller
System and Method for Estimating
Input Power for a Power Processing
System and Method for Estimating
Input Power for a Power Processing
Vertically Packaged Switched-Mode
Winding Structure for Efficient
Switch-Mode Power Converters
Synthesis of Magnetic, Dielectric or
Phosphorescent Nano Composites
Core Structure and Interleaved DC-DC
Integrated Magnetic Converter Circuit
and Method with Improved Filtering
Switching Power Converter Circuits
Providing Main and Auxiliary Output
Vertical Winding Structures for Planar
Magnetic Switched-Mode Power
Composite Magnetic Core for Switch-
Mode Power Converters
Extended E Matrix Integrated
Magnetics (MIM) Core
The present invention is directed, in general, to electronic power conversion and, more specifically, to a power system having power converters including a controller adapted to improve power conversion efficiency and method of operating the same.
A switch-mode power converter (also referred to as a “power converter”) is a power supply or power processing circuit that converts an input voltage waveform into a specified output voltage waveform. Controllers associated with the power converters manage an operation thereof by controlling the conduction periods of power switches employed therein. Generally, the controllers are coupled between an input and output of the power converter in a feedback loop configuration.
Typically, the controller measures an internal operating characteristic (e.g., an internal bus voltage) or an output characteristic, (e.g., an output voltage or an output current) representing an operating condition of the power converter, and based thereon modifies a duty cycle of a power switch or power switches of the power converter to regulate the internal operating characteristic or the output characteristic. The duty cycle is a ratio represented by a conduction period of a power switch to a switching period thereof. Thus, if a power switch conducts for half of the switching period, the duty cycle for the power switch would be 0.5 (or 50 percent). Additionally, as the needs for systems such as a microprocessor powered by the power converter dynamically change (e.g., as a computational load on the microprocessor changes), the controller should be configured to dynamically increase or decrease the duty cycle of the power switches therein to regulate the internal or the output characteristic at a desired value. In an exemplary application, the power converters have the capability to convert an unregulated dc input voltage such as five volts to a lower, regulated, dc output voltage such as 2.5 volts to power a load. In another exemplary application, the power converters have the capability to convert an unregulated ac input voltage such as 120 volts to a regulated internal dc bus voltage, such as 300 volts dc, and to further convert the regulated internal dc bus voltage into a dc output voltage such as 2.5 volts to power a load.
An important consideration for the design of a power converter and its controller is the efficiency (also referred to as “operating efficiency”) in a particular application, and under particular operating conditions. The efficiency of a power converter is the ratio of its output power to its input power. The practical efficiency of a power converter that delivers at least half its rated output power to a load is typically 80 to 90%. As load current is reduced, the operating efficiency correspondingly goes down. In the limiting case wherein the load current approaches a small percentage of the maximum rated current of the power converter, the operating efficiency approaches zero due to the need to provide power for fixed internal loads such as the controller itself, for drivers, for internal high-frequency power switches, and for inherently dissipative circuit elements such as the magnetic core of a high-frequency transformer. Power converter efficiency is accordingly dependent on an internal operating characteristic of the power converter or an output characteristic thereof. Examples of an internal operating characteristic include a temperature of a component part, an internal bus voltage, the voltage level of a drive signal for a power switch, the number of paralleled power switches selectively enabled to conduct, the number of phases enabled on a power converter, or even the basic switching frequency of the power converter. Examples of an output characteristic include a load current drawn from the power converter and an output voltage. Power converter efficiency is also dependent on a parameter that may be measured after a manufacturing step, which may reflect a dependency of efficiency on particular parts used to manufacture the power converter in question.
Operating efficiency is an important quality indicator for a power converter because of the broad impact efficiency has on equipment reliability and size, operating expense, and corresponding effects on the load equipment that it powers. Thus, system considerations of achieving high operating efficiency have immediate effects on the applicability of a particular power converter design, and the associated price thereof in the marketplace.
Numerous prior art attempts have been made to improve the operating efficiency of a power converter. Most attempts have focused on selection of proper components to provide the maximum operating efficiency for average operating conditions at a chosen operating point, such as a load current at three quarters of a maximum rated value, the environmental temperature at a typical expected value, and for a typical mix of actual components employed to manufacture a particular power converter. Recognizing the wide range of possible values for any of these parameters, there is substantial opportunity to improve the efficiency of a power converter for a particular operating condition.
An example of the prior art to provide high power converter efficiency at a particular operating condition is provided in U.S. Pat. No. 6,351,396, entitled “Method and Apparatus for Dynamically Altering Operation of a Converter Device to Improve Conversion Efficiency,” to Jacobs, issued Feb. 26, 2002 which is incorporated herein by reference. Jacobs is directed to a search process that varies parameters accessible to the controller during power converter operation, such as a timing delay between conduction intervals of the power switches, and observes the resulting effect on the duty cycle. The duty cycle is employed as an indicator of operating efficiency, and parameters accessible to the controller are adjusted to produce an extremum in the duty cycle for a particular operating condition, thereby increasing the operating efficiency of the power converter. While Jacobs performs efficiency optimization under actual operating conditions, the reference nonetheless fails to consider constraints of the actual application (such as described in a requirements document or operating specification document) or the environment during execution of the process of efficiency optimization, or a signal from an external source to enable, limit, or alter the optimization process. For example, no attempt is made to measure a parameter of a particular power converter after a manufacturing step (or to measure a parameter of a representative power converter), or to control, program, or otherwise alter a response of the controller to reflect such measurement, such as by controlling an internal operating characteristic or an output characteristic.
Another attempt to adaptively operate a power converter to improve efficiency is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,742,491, entitled “Power Converter Adaptively Driven,” to Bowman, et al. (“Bowman”), issued Apr. 21, 1998, which is incorporated herein by reference. Bowman is directed to a drive circuit for a power converter wherein the timing of conduction intervals for the power switches is programmed to increase the efficiency of the power converter while keeping stresses on individual components within acceptable limits. A predetermined delay between drive waveforms supplied to the power switches and to the synchronous rectifiers of the power converter is altered with a predetermined program that is a function of an operating condition of the power converter to allow the power converter to operate efficiently in an anticipated operating environment and with anticipated component realizations. A design objective is to desensitize the operating efficiency to an expected range of changes in the operating environment and with an anticipated range of component realizations, which results in a compromise in a static program to optimize efficiency that might otherwise be achievable with the design of an improved controller not so limited. Bowman relies on a limited set of a priori conditions, and does not adjust controller parameters in response to a measured power converter parameter for the particular power converter after a manufacturing step, or to a measured parameter of a representative power converter (e.g., from a group of manufactured units), or in response to a signal from an external source representing an environmental parameter.
A further attempt to optimize power conversion efficiency is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,734,564, entitled “High-Efficiency Switching Power Converter,” to Brkovic, issued Mar. 31, 1998, which is incorporated herein by reference. Brkovic describes measuring an internal operating characteristic of a power train of the power converter (i.e., a voltage across a power switch) and adjusting a timing of a duty cycle for the power switch in response to the measured power switch voltage to improve power conversion efficiency. Brkovic provides a preconditioned response to a measured parameter of the particular power converter after a manufacturing step. Brkovic does not consider adapting or constraining the response to a signal from an external source representing an environmental parameter.
It is well known in the art to couple an input control signal to a power converter to control the setpoint of an output characteristic thereof. For example, the output voltage of a power converter adapted to supply power to a microprocessor load (wherein the operating voltage thereof is not known at the time of manufacture, or that is changed during normal operation such as when a microprocessor enters a sleep mode) can be statically or dynamically altered by an input control signal. However, this control mechanism merely changes a setpoint for an output characteristic of the power converter, and is not adapted to optimize the efficiency of the power converter at the signaled setpoint.
It should also be taken into account that there are loads with different operating states. For example, a server configured to process financial data may operate at a higher level of criticality during normal business hours, and revert to a lower processing state at another time of day. The aforementioned system may require a higher level of performance from the power converter during such periods of high criticality, which may compromise operating efficiency, but which may admit higher operating efficiency during substantial periods of time in the lower processing state.
Power conversion systems of the prior art have only partially responded to such system operational state considerations in the optimization of operating efficiency, particularly at a system level. For example, the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (“ACPI”) specification is an open industry standard initially produced in December 1996 that describes “P-states” and “C-states” of a processor employed in a digital system, and which is incorporated herein by reference. The P-state, typically designated as P-states P0, P1, and P2, describes the “performance” state (or, alternatively, the “power” state) of the processor as high, medium, or low, respectively, for example, as described by Alon Naveh, et al., in the article entitled “Power and Thermal Management in the IntelŪ Core Duo™ Processor, Intel Technology Journal, May 15, 2006, pp. 109-121, which is incorporated herein by reference. The P-state is selected by the software operating system to meet the execution needs of the software load as observed over a period of time. A particular P-state is affected by setting, from a set of predetermined values from a list, the core input voltage of the processor and its clock rate. The processor core input voltage is adjusted by sending a digital signal such as a “VID” code to the processor's point-of-load voltage source. A processor operating at a lower core voltage and with a slower clock operates at a substantially lower power level.
Another processor state indicator, the core state (“C-state”), also under software operating system control, affects its level of power consumption from another perspective. The highest processor C-state, C0, describes a processor at its full operational level. Lower C-state levels, C1, C2, . . . , C4, describe various levels of a processor sleep state. The C-state level C1 provides the minimum level of power saving, but provides the fastest response time back to the full operational level C-state level C0. The C-state level C4 provides a “deep sleep” level, but requires substantial time for the processor to return to normal operation. The various sleep levels are achieved by halting instruction execution, gating internal clocks, disabling internal phase-locked loops, and disabling ports that respond to certain levels of interrupts. The minimum core voltage necessary to retain certain volatile memory elements is applied.
Although these state indicators have been used to substantially reduce the energy requirement of a digital system at the system level, particularly the power level during an idling state, corresponding states have not been described for elements of the power system as it responds to the various operational levels of the load, such as a request for a particular load voltage, or a particular level of system readiness, or the response time for changes in a system operational level. Accordingly, opportunities for further improvement in power converter operational efficiency have not been realized.
Thus, attempts have been made in the prior art to configure power converter controllers to statically optimize power conversion efficiency of a power train. The static responses have included varying an internal operating characteristic of the power converter with a fixed program in response to a measured characteristic such as a load current to improve power conversion efficiency, or in response to observed changes in power converter duty cycle. The aforementioned attempts to improve efficiency have been facilitated by inclusion of programmable digital devices such as microprocessors, digital signal processors, application specific integrated circuits, and field-programmable gate arrays in the controller. Nonetheless, the responses of a controller have not included consideration of a measured parameter after a manufacturing step for the particular power converter that is being controlled such as a measurement of an actual delay of a particular power switch or an internal circuit after completion of a stage of manufacture, or a signal indicating a system operational state.
Considering limitations as described above, a controller for a power converter is presently not available for the more severe applications that lie ahead that depend on achieving higher operating efficiency for a particular operating characteristic constrained or controlled by an environmental parameter. In addition, a controller for a power converter is presently not available that responds to a parameter measured after a manufacturing step for the particular power converter, or to a parameter measured after a manufacturing step on a representative power converter, or on power converters in a representative run, to improve the operating efficiency thereof. A controller for a power converter is also presently not available that responds to a signal indicating a system operational state to improve operating efficiency at a system level.
Accordingly, what is needed in the art is a controller for a power converter and power system that adaptively improves power conversion efficiency of a power converter in response to a measured parameter of the power converter after a manufacturing step, or to a parameter measured on a representative power converter, and includes consideration of operating conditions, a signal from an external source representing an environmental parameter or system operational state of a load coupled to the power system. In accordance therewith, a controller for a power converter and power system is provided that adaptively improves power conversion efficiency, including considerations as provided herein.
These and other problems are generally solved or circumvented, and technical advantages are generally achieved, by advantageous embodiments of the present invention, which include a power system having a power converter with an adaptive controller and method of operating the same. In one embodiment, a power converter coupled to a load includes a power switch configured to conduct for a duty cycle to provide an output characteristic at an output thereof. The power converter also includes a power converter controller configured to receive a signal from the load indicating a system operational state of the load and enable a power converter topological state as a function of the signal.
In another embodiment, a power system includes a power system controller configured to provide a signal characterizing a power requirement of a processor system and a power converter coupled to the processor system. The power converter includes a power switch configured to conduct for a duty cycle to provide an output characteristic at an output thereof and a power converter controller configured to receive the signal from the power system controller to enter a power converter topological state dependent on the signal.
In another embodiment, a power system includes a power system controller configured to enable operation of components of a processor system to establish a state of power drain thereof and provide a signal to identify operation of the processor system in the state of power drain. The power system also includes a power converter, coupled to the processor system, including a power converter controller configured to receive the signal from the power system controller, to sense a power level of the state of power drain in response to the signal, and to control a power converter topological state as a function of the power level.
The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the features and technical advantages of the present invention in order that the detailed description of the invention that follows may be better understood. Additional features and advantages of the invention will be described hereinafter which form the subject of the claims of the invention. It should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the conception and specific embodiment disclosed may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other structures or processes for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. It should also be realized by those skilled in the art that such equivalent constructions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
For a more complete understanding of the present invention, and the advantages thereof, reference is now made to the following descriptions taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which:
The making and using of the presently preferred embodiments are discussed in detail below. It should be appreciated, however, that the present invention provides many applicable inventive concepts that can be embodied in a wide variety of specific contexts. The specific embodiments discussed are merely illustrative of specific ways to make and use the invention, and do not limit the scope of the invention.
The present invention will be described with respect to exemplary embodiments in a specific context, namely, a power system including power converters with a controller and, more particularly, a controller for a power converter that regulates an output characteristic of the power converter at an output thereof that adaptively controls an internal operating characteristic of the power converter to increase power conversion efficiency in response to a parameter of the power converter measured after a manufacturing step and/or an environmental parameter of the power converter. The parameters mentioned above are typically measured after the power converter(s) are implemented and/or after a signal is received from an external source representing an environmental parameter or a signal indicating a system operational state or a change in a system operational state. In addition, the controller may change a topological state of a power converter in response to a signal received from an external source. Examples of a topological state or changes thereto include, without limitation, a fully operational power converter, a number of paralleled synchronous rectifiers that are actively driven, a power factor-corrected front end for which active control is disabled but remains operational to maintain an internal bus voltage without active power factor control, disabling (or setting in a standby mode) one or more of a plurality of paralleled power converters when a high level of operational reliability is not required by the system, a power converter with reduced power factor control, and a power converter with at least one phase of power factor control disabled. The changes to the topological state of the power converter may improve an operating efficiency thereof as a function of a system operational state.
Regarding the environmental parameters, examples thereof include, without limitation, a signal indicating the existence of a paralleled power converter, the operational state of the paralleled power converter, that the powered system is operating from a backup power source, a request for a particular load voltage, an indication that a particular portion of the load has failed, or has been disabled, or is operating at a reduced power level. Further examples indicating a system operational state include, without limitation, a signal providing a performance state or a core state of a processor such as a P-state or C-state, indicating, for example, that the system is operating from emergency power or battery reserve, that redundant hardware such as a redundant power converter may have been disabled, that the system is not providing a critical function such as during an off-hours timeframe, that the system is sustaining substantial thermal margins allowing selected fans to be disabled and/or the fan speed to be substantially reduced, that the system is about to transition to a higher level of system performance, or that a requirement for a specified holdover time can be relaxed. An example of a signal indicating a change in a system operational state is a signal indicating that a load current will change from a first current level to a second current level at or around a particular time.
Additionally, the controller for a power converter according to the principles of the present invention can control, alter, relax, or differently constrain an internal operating characteristic (such as a gate drive voltage level, a switching frequency, an internal voltage or current, etc.) or an output characteristic (such as a regulated voltage setpoint of the power converter) to improve an efficiency thereof in response to signals from an external source representing an environmental parameter (such as the existence of a parallel-coupled power converter powering a common load) or in response to a signal indicating a system operational state. For example, the internal dc bus voltage of a power converter might be adaptively reduced to improve the power conversion efficiency of a front-end boost power converter, recognizing that such voltage reduction would directly affect the holdover capability of the power converter during periods of loss of ac input voltage (often referred to as line dropout, for example, as illustrated and described hereinbelow with reference to
The data from an external source representing an environmental parameter can be employed by an adaptive controller, for example, to reduce the internal dc bus voltage to a particular level above a lower voltage limit dependent on the measured power converter load and the external data, and thereby improve operating efficiency in view of an internal characteristic or an output characteristic, but constrained by a signal from an external source. Examples of a response to a signal indicating a system operational state include, without limitation, selectively disabling paralleled synchronous rectifiers during a sustained light load operating condition, disabling a power factor correction function in a boost power converter and relying on a peak-charging mechanism to sustain an internal bus voltage, configuring a power factor correction function in a boost power converter to operate at reduced power factor thereby improving efficiency, selectively disabling one or more phases of a multi-phase power converter such as a multi-phase boost power factor correction (“PFC”) power converter, or a multi phase implementation of a DC/DC power converter, disabling (or setting in a standby mode) a redundant power converter when such redundancy is not required for system operation, and selectively disabling and/or reducing the speed of power converter fans that may not be needed from a system operational consideration.
Referring initially to
The power train 105 receives an input voltage Vin at an input thereof and provides a regulated output characteristic (e.g., an output voltage Vout) to power a microprocessor or other load coupled to an output of the power converter. The controller 110 is typically coupled to a voltage reference representing a desired characteristic such as a desired system voltage from an internal or external source associated with the microprocessor, and to the output voltage Vout of the power converter. In accordance with the aforementioned characteristics, the controller 110 provides a signal to control a duty cycle and a frequency of at least one power switch of the power train 105 to regulate the output voltage Vout or another characteristic thereof. Thus, the controller 110 for the power train 105 of a power converter, particularly a switch-mode power converter, generally measures an internal operating characteristic or an output characteristic of the power converter and controls a duty cycle of a power switch therein in response to the measured characteristic to regulate the internal operating characteristic or the output characteristic thereof.
A driver (not shown) may be interposed between the controller 110 and the power train 105 to provide a drive signal(s) for the power switch(es) with sufficient amplitude and with waveform characteristics to efficiently enable or disable conductivity of the power switch(es). In accordance with the aforementioned characteristics, a drive signal is provided by a driver to control a duty cycle and a frequency of one or more power switches of the power converter, preferably to regulate the output voltage Vout thereof. For a P-channel metal-oxide semiconductor power switch, a gate drive signal is typically driven negative (with respect to the source terminal) to turn on the power switch, and for an N-channel metal-oxide semiconductor power switch, a gate drive signal is typically driven positive (with respect to the source terminal) to turn on the power switch. A driver may employ techniques to provide sufficient signal delays to prevent shoot-through currents when controlling multiple power switches in a power converter.
Turning now to
During a complementary interval, the main power switch Qmain is transitioned to a non-conducting state and an auxiliary power switch Qaux is enabled to conduct by a complementary gate drive signal 1-D. The auxiliary power switch Qaux provides a path to maintain a continuity of the inductor current ILout flowing through the output filter inductor Lout. During the complementary interval 1-D, the inductor current ILout through the output filter inductor Lout decreases. In general, the duty cycle of the main and auxiliary power switches Qmain, Qaux may be adjusted to maintain a regulation of the output voltage Vout of the power converter. Those skilled in the art understand that the conduction periods for the main and auxiliary power switches Qmain, Qaux may be separated by a small time interval to avoid cross conduction current therebetween and beneficially to reduce the switching losses associated with the power converter, where such time interval is ideally selected based on load, operating, and environmental conditions. Similarly, conduction periods for power switches that may be diodes may also be separated by a small time interval to avoid cross conduction current therebetween. Thus, the power train of a switch-mode power converter generally includes a plurality of power switches coupled to reactive circuit elements to provide the power conversion function therefore.
Turning now to
The second power stage 320 includes isolation transformer TR and a power switch Qpri in series with the primary winding thereof. Synchronous rectifier switches Qfwd, Qfly are power switches coupled in series across a secondary winding of the isolation transformer TR to rectify the voltage therefrom, which winding voltage is coupled to an output filter including an output inductor Lout and an output capacitor Cout. The controller 311 provides control signals (e.g., gate control signals) VGfwd, VGfly to control the synchronous rectifier switches Qfwd, Qfly, respectively. A brief time delay ΔT between conduction intervals of the synchronous rectifier switches Qfwd, Qfly is provided by the controller 311 to prevent cross conduction therebetween. In a preferred embodiment, the controller 311 selects the time delay ΔT dependent on operating conditions of the power converter as described hereinbelow to provide improved power conversion efficiency.
Turning now to
Returning now to the description of the power converter of
The controller 311 in the exemplary power converter illustrated in
The controller 311 is configured to augment the operating efficiency of the power converter in response to a sensed or signaled internal operating characteristic and/or an output characteristic, a power converter parameter measured after a manufacturing step, and a signal from an external source representing an environmental parameter obtained from an external source such as a signal from a server being powered. Exemplary environmental parameters obtained from an external source, which reflect how the power converter is being used in an application, include a signal indicating parallel operation with a second power converter, an indication that a paralleled power converter has failed, an indication that the power converter is supporting a critical application requiring a modified trade-off between power conversion efficiency and reliability, and an indication that the system is operating from a back-up power source, and may signal, for example, a lower limit for a dc bus voltage, reflecting a modified need for power converter holdover to accommodate altered statistics for a transient power outage condition.
The controller 311 may also respond to a signal indicating a system operational state Sop
A system such as a personal computer, processor system or a server is often constructed with a number of system components such as memory, hard drives, and specialized circuit cards that are specified and installed when the system is assembled for a particular application. Thus, power system drains are generally unknown until such a system is specified and assembled. The rated power drain of installed power converters will generally be substantially greater than actual power drains of a system in a particular application, which provides an opportunity to optimize power conversion efficiency. Upon power-up of such a system, or during its continued operation, a power system controller can enable operation of its principal components to establish a state of maximum power drain (e.g., substantially a maximum level of power drain that must be supported by the power system). The power system controller can be configured to provide a signal to the power system to identify operation of the system in such a state of a maximum power drain. A power converter controller, such as controller 311, can be configured to receive the signal from the power system controller, and to sense a power level of the system operating in such a state of maximum power drain. The power converter controller can then control a power converter topological state as a function of the sensed maximum power level, including an appropriate margin as necessary. The power converter controller can be configured to control a duty cycle of a power switch, adjust a bus voltage, etc., in accordance with the sensed maximum power level. The power converter controller can also transmit a signal back to the power system controller identifying the sensed maximum power level so that the power system controller can select a system operational state dependent on the sensed maximum power level. Of course, a power level of a system can be sensed and signaled at other times during system operation, such as at a time when power drains are at a normal or reduced operating level. A signal from a power system controller signaling to a power converter controller an expected level of power drains can also be produced by the power system controller based on an inventory of installed components, rather than on an actual drain measurement.
The power converter controller, such as controller 311, may include a multidimensional table or other functional representation of a value to control an internal operating characteristic or an output characteristic of the power converter. Multidimensional inputs to such a table or other functional representation include signals representing an internal operating characteristic, an output operating characteristic, a power converter parameter measured after a manufacturing stage, a parameter measured on a representative power converter, and/or a signal representing an environmental parameter or a system operational state. There are references utilizing lookup tables and other multidimensional functional representations directed to automotive engine map and lookup table systems such as U.S. Pat. No. 5,925,088, entitled “Air-fuel Ratio Detecting Device and Method,” to Nasu, issued Jul. 20, 1999, U.S. Pat. No. 7,076,360, entitled “Auto-Ignition Timing Control and Calibration Method,” to Ma, issued Jul. 11, 2006, and U.S. Pat. No. 6,539,299, entitled “Apparatus and Method for Calibrating an Engine Management System,” to Chatfield, et al., issued Mar. 25, 2003, which are incorporated herein by reference.
Turning now to
Such multidimensional tables can be used, for example, to control the switching frequency of a power converter. Switching frequency in the prior art is generally set as a design parameter, and is selected and fixed during a stage of design. The selected switching frequency is generally the result of a trade-off that considers, for example, the loss characteristics of the core material of the isolation transformer which depend on, without limitation, transformer core temperature, the primary-to-secondary turns ratio of the transformer, the expected thermal environment of the application, the heat transfer characteristics of the resulting power converter design, and the particular batch of core material from which the magnetic core thereof was formed. The resulting core loss for a particular power converter can also be substantially dependent on core characteristics such as a flux gap and core area of the particular core that was installed, all of which are substantially unknown before the power converter is manufactured.
In addition, the selected switching frequency is a result of consideration of other frequency dependent losses within the power converter. For example, gate drive losses are generally proportional to switching frequency and depend on the particular manufacturing run of power switches employed therein. Thus, altering the switching frequency for a particular application using a table constructed according to the principles of the present invention, considering manufacturing data, actual load current, and other measured or sensed variables can result in improved power conversion efficiency within a predetermined set of operating constraints that may be signaled from an external source. A test set can be readily constructed, as is well known in the art, to vary switching frequency and observe the effect on power conversion efficiency. Entries are then made in the table to represent preferable switching frequencies. Static efficiency optimization approaches of the prior art that use a predetermined curve or other fixed approach do not advantageously achieve the benefits of improved efficiency with greater flexibility to respond to additional data as described herein.
A lookup table-based optimization procedure may be the most economical and effective method for many practical applications. Optimization would be limited to discrete ranges using preprogrammed values. A power converter would only enter an optimization state after sufficient time at a given operating point. A few discrete power states can be fully characterized during design to ensure reliability. The alternative of a continuous search algorithm would be eliminated by a table-based procedure. A continuous search algorithm can lead to a continuing state of “hunting.” The complex, nonlinear nature of the optimization problem may make such continuous search algorithms non-deterministic and unreliable in a practical application.
Turning now to
where “Iload” represents a sensed power converter load current, “Temp” represents a sensed temperature using a thermistor or other temperature sensing element for a location in or about the power converter, “Vsetup” represents a correction constant obtained from a test set after a manufacturing step, and “Vext” represents a signal from an external source that might assume the values 0 and 1 to indicate the presence or absence of a paralleled power converter (see, e.g.,
The functional representation for the internal bus voltage setpoint Vbus
The use of tables, functional relationships, and curve fits to control an operating parameter for a controller of a power converter, constructed according to the principles of the present invention, can advantageously use the extensive data ordinarily acquired by test fixtures at various stages of the manufacturing process. The test fixtures are generally configured to sweep a broad range of operating conditions from a particular power converter, or from a representative power converter, or from power converters produced during a run of representative power converters, and can even operate the power converter over a range of temperatures and for an extended period of time (e.g., during “burn in”). A test fixture can be arranged to operate a power converter over a range of trial values for a controllable parameter and to select a value that provides a preferable operating efficiency for the particular power converter under test. Thus, the efficiency program for a particular power converter can be tailored to represent the particular characteristics of the individual components from which the power converter is built. In a preferred arrangement, the test fixture is programmed to automatically search for the best value for the controllable parameter.
Recognizing that automatic test equipment (“ATE”) programs can be configured to perform thousands of tests on a representative unit, every reasonable combination of parameters can generally be practically searched for optimal efficiency over a given operating range. Reasonable combinations of parameters would be those that allow the power converter to maintain transient specifications for that operating range. These parameters can be determined, for example, using design equations and spreadsheets employing techniques well known in the art. The ATE data can then be reduced to a small lookup table containing the proper optimization parameters for the given operating range. Small variations in power converter test data would be expected over a production run. Optimizing every production power supply would be costly in certain production environments, providing diminishing returns for the effort. Nonetheless, it could be done if the resulting efficiency improvement would justify the effort. A practical option would be to sample power converters from all or selected production runs based on operating experience.
It is recognized that the timescale for the response of a controller to different internal and external stimuli can preferably be different. For example, the voltage level of an internal bus, which generally depends on charging and discharging a capacitor, might be practically changed over a period of hundreds of milliseconds, or even seconds, whereas the switching frequency of a power conversion stage or the timing delay between power switch conduction intervals can be readily changed on a much faster time scale, ultimately on a cycle-by-cycle basis. It may even be inappropriate to substantially change operating parameters such as an internal bus voltage level over intervals of time shorter than several seconds. Some internal operating characteristics or parameters would inherently change or would be inherently varied over a relatively long period, such as the input current of an ac front end, compared to other time scales within a power converter, and require a period of time to sense or alter an average or peak value. The internal parameters may be monitored over a longer time interval before the controller responds to a change in an internal operating characteristic or an output characteristic to augment power conversion efficiency.
Thus, for example, a controller may control an internal operating characteristic of a power converter in a step-by-step manner during an efficiency enhancement (e.g., optimization) process on a time scale substantially different from a time scale for controlling the duty cycle of the power converter. A parameter can be controlled on a slow timescale by using a digital representation of a low pass filter to retard changes in a parameter. An exemplary equation representing a low pass filter implemented over discrete time steps is:
V bus,n=(1−τ)·V bus,n−1 +τ·V bus,desired
where “Vbus,n” represents a filtered bus reference voltage at time step “n” to control an internal bus voltage on a slow time scale, “τ” represents a parameter that sets the time scale for the filtering process, “Vbus,n−1” represents the filtered bus reference voltage at the previous time step “n−1,” and “Vbus,desired” represents a desired, optimized bus voltage produced by a functional relationship or a table as described hereinabove.
In a related embodiment, a controller for a power converter may enhance (e.g., optimize) the operating efficiency (or other desirable parameter) of the power converter in response to a sensed or signaled internal operating characteristic and/or an output characteristic, using parameters measured on a representative power converter. For example, a multidimensional table or other functional representation of a value to control an internal operating characteristic or an output characteristic of the power converter could be derived from testing one or more representative power converters, as opposed to testing the actual power converter to be controlled. Multidimensional inputs to such a table or other functional representation may include, without limitation, signals representing an internal operating characteristic, an output operating characteristic, a power converter parameter measured during a test or characterization phase, and/or a signal representing an environmental parameter.
During a typical power converter product development process, a product design may proceed through several stages, for example, prototyping, pilot (or small volume) production, characterization and/or qualification testing, safety agency and electromagnetic interference (“EMI”) compliance testing, highly accelerated life testing, highly accelerated stress screening, and final release to production. During the characterization and/or qualification testing phase, one or more representative power supplies may be subjected to extensive testing to ensure compliance with the end specification. This testing may be automated by one or more racks of automated test equipment, enabling possibly many thousands of individual tests to be performed.
During an exemplary characterization testing stage, a representative power converter may be extensively tested over a wide variety of operating conditions. The characterization test may measure and collect thousands, or tens of thousands, of individual data points. These data may then be compiled into one or more multidimensional tables or other functional representation(s) and used by the control circuit to adjust an internal operating characteristic or an output characteristic of the power converter in order to operate the power converter at or near an optimal efficiency for a given set of conditions, while still enabling the power converter to meet its required specification. The characterization testing may also be repeated after a new manufacturing run to characterize the currently manufactured product.
Turning now to
Turning now to
The secondary controller, including the pulse-width modulation (“PWM”) control and alarm circuits, may monitor and control the parameters shown in
Turning now to
The number of different relationships that could be measured and data points collected is limited only by the ingenuity of the test engineer, time, and data memory resources. Over many such projects, an engineer may learn that certain relationship data has more of an impact on efficiency than others, and may learn how to intelligently limit the number of tests performed and data points collected to only those relationships having the greatest affect on efficiency.
Once the data is collected on one or more representative power converters, multidimensional data table(s) or other functional representation(s) may be stored into the internal control memory of the power converter for use during operation. This stored data could include, for example, a look-up table, an algorithm, or any other suitable method of converting test data into an actionable control parameter. For example, assume an exemplary power converter constructed according to the principles of the present invention was operating in a server, perhaps in a data center. The exemplary power converter may sense one or more environmental and operating conditions including a system operational state. The power converter may determine that it is operating at 20% load, at 120V ac input at 59.9 Hz, with an inlet ambient temperature of 35° C. (other parameters could also be measured), and that the power system is operating at full operational performance. The primary and/or secondary controller(s) may then access a stored look-up table that specifies, for example, the proper switching frequency, bus voltage operating conditions, the number of interleaved phases to enable, and switch timing relationships in order to improve or optimize efficiency. The controllers may be programmed to wait for a predetermined amount of time at a given operating condition before making any adjustment. This type of delay could allow the power converter to avoid making an unnecessarily large number of adjustments.
It may be advantageous to limit the range of possible adjustments to only those values that allow the power converter to remain within specified operating requirements during any operating condition specified in a requirements document. It may also be advantageous to limit the range of possible adjustments to only those values that ensure that the components of the power converter do not exceed maximum stress levels, thereby improving reliability and reducing component or power converter failures. For example, a requirements document for a power converter may specify operation under a number of transient conditions, such as output load transients, input transients, brown-out conditions, line drop-out conditions, temperature transients, etc.
Turning now to
It should ordinarily be assumed that a maximum specification power transient can occur at any time during power supply operation without warning. This assumption clearly limits opportunities for optimization. A given server with a particular configuration of memory, disk drives, etc., will have a maximum load capability, which is typically less than the power supply's maximum load specification. This maximum load could be characterized at system boot up and communicated to the power supply, then stored, for example, in a flash memory. The power supply control system could add margin to the maximum load number and thus know the maximum possible load for the server to which it is coupled. This information can then be used to compute the optimization parameters such that specification conformance is maintained.
Thus, a power converter constructed according to the principles of the present invention may sense a variety of input/output operating parameters and calculate, for example, the minimum (or a safe) bus voltage that could both improve efficiency and ensure that the power converter can maintain the proper holdup time through a line dropout event. This is illustrated by Bus Voltage 3 in
There are many examples where adjustments to improve efficiency while maintaining compliance with a specification will require a power converter to make intelligent adjustments, possibly combining data stored in a multidimensional data table(s) or other functional representation(s) with sensed operating parameters in the adjustment computation. One such example concerns switching frequency adjustments. It may be advantageous to reduce a switching frequency under, for example, lighter output load conditions. However, if the load were to suddenly increase, the power converter controller should ensure that the magnetic components will not be detrimentally affected (by possibly saturating) at the combination of a higher load condition and a lower frequency operating condition, prior to the controller adjusting the switching frequency to a level more appropriate with the new load condition. Thus, a power system controller may consider a system operational state when altering a power converter switching frequency.
Another example can be found in switch timing adjustments, illustrated in
Turning now to
The power converters PU are coupled to the power system controller PSC over respective power converter communication buses (designated “PCBUS_1 . . . PCBUS_n” and also referred to as “PCBUS”) that conduct signals therebetween to communicate requests for a power converter operational state PCop
An exemplary set of power converter operational states PCop
Power Converter Operational State Description
Full power capability. All power converter components operational
at full performance level
Reduced internal bus voltage (possibly reducing holdover time).
Switching frequency reduced. Switch timing optimized for lighter
Elements of PCop-state1 plus active power factor correction control
off or diminished, at least one synchronous rectifier switch
disabled, and/or an interleaved phase disabled. Bus voltage
Very light load
Elements of PCop-state2 plus substantial bus voltage reduction.
Disable phases in PFC.
Elements of PCop-state3 plus temporarily disabling a power converter
in a redundant set, but power converter remaining in a standby
condition. PFC disabled at high line.
Redundant supply shut down. PFC disabled at high line.
The C-states corresponding to the PCop
optimization. Transition back
optimization. Transition back
Good efficiency optimization.
Transition back to PCop
in tens of ms.
Maximum power savings with
redundancy. Transition back
Maximum possible power
savings. Transition back to
Each power converter PU responds to a command for a power converter operational state PCop
The servers SVR communicate with the power system controller PSC over respective server communication buses (designated “SVRBUS_1 . . . SVRBUS_n” and also referred to as “SVRBUS”) to communicate data to establish a system operational state with respect to the servers SVR. The data may include a processor P-state or C-state, a signal indicative of a level of system or power system functionality, and/or a signal anticipating a change in power system functionality. In a preferred embodiment, the various communication buses are serial data buses such as I2C buses (or any other suitable communication protocol). In an alternative embodiment, parallel buses can be used.
As mentioned above, the power system controller PSC receives signals representing a power converter status PCstatus from the power converters PU over a respective power converter communication bus PCBUS. An exemplary set of power converter statuses PCstatus is shown below in TABLE III with an associated description thereof. Additional (or fewer) status conditions could be used based on the needs of each system. For example, a power converter status flag setting of “1” may indicate an overheated condition for a power converter component, or a high level of ripple voltage on an internal circuit node, either event representing an out-of-specification or unanticipated operating condition for the power converter PU. A power converter status flag setting of “3” may indicate a load failure, wherein a load (e.g., server SVR) component draws a current beyond a rated value. The power system controller PSC may signal, as a consequence thereof, the need to replace a power converter PU, temporarily operate a power converter PU at a lower level of performance, or indicate a generally lower level of power system reliability. The power system controller PSC may employ power converter status data to enhance (e.g., optimize) power system operating efficiency on a power system-level basis.
Power Converter Status Description
All power converter components operational at a
full performance level
Power converter operating with reduced
Power converter failed
Power converter unable to sustain an output
voltage or current
Turning now to
Turning now to
Transitions among the power converter operational states PCop
Turning now to
Turning now to
Thus, a controller for a power converter advantageously providing improved power conversion efficiency and improved power system reliability both at a unit and a system level has been introduced. A load is configured to provide a signal representing a system operational state to a power system controller coupled thereto. The power system controller in turn provides a command to the power converter to transition to or enter into a power converter operational state in accordance with the system operational state and a power converter status. The power system controller, therefore, induces the power converter to enter a power converter operational state. The power system controller may advantageously provide a command to the power converter to transition to or enter into a power converter topological state. The power converter includes a controller and a power switch configured to conduct for a duty cycle and to provide a regulated output characteristic at an output thereof. The power converter controller is configured to provide a signal to control the duty cycle of the power switch as a function of the output characteristic. The controller thereby regulates an internal operating characteristic of the power converter to improve an operating efficiency of the power converter depending on a value of a system operational state. Thus, by communicating operational data among the power converters of the power system in accordance with a power system controller, the operational efficiency of the power system and its reliability can be enhanced (e.g., optimized) at a level beyond that which can be achieved with more limited powering arrangements. The systems introduced herein may be implemented as hardware (including an integrated circuit such as an application specific integrated circuit), or may be implemented as software or firmware for execution by a computer processor. In particular, in the case of firmware or software, the exemplary embodiment can be provided as a computer program product including a computer readable storage structure embodying computer program code (i.e., software or firmware) thereon for execution by the computer processor.
Those skilled in the art should understand that the previously described embodiments of a controller for a power converter and related methods are submitted for illustrative purposes only. Those skilled in the art understand further that various changes, substitutions, and alterations can be made to the controller without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention in its broadest form. In addition, other embodiments capable of providing the advantages as described hereinabove are well within the broad scope of the present invention. While the controller and method have been described as providing advantages in the environment of a power converter, other applications therefore such as a controller for a motor or other electromechanical device are well within the broad scope of the present invention.
For a better understanding of power electronics, see “Principles of Power Electronics,” by J. G. Kassakian, M. F. Schlecht and G. C. Verghese, Addison-Wesley (1991). For a better understanding of semiconductor devices and processes, see “Fundamentals of III-V Devices,” by William Liu, John Wiley and Sons, (1999). For a better understanding of gallium arsenide processing, see “Modern GaAs Processing Methods,” by Ralph Williams, Artech House, Second Ed. (1990). The aforementioned references are incorporated herein by reference.
Also, although the present invention and its advantages have been described in detail, it should be understood that various changes, substitutions and alterations can be made herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. For example, many of the controllers discussed hereinabove can be implemented in different methodologies and replaced by other processes, or a combination thereof, to form the devices providing improved efficiency for a power converter as described herein.
Moreover, the scope of the present application is not intended to be limited to the particular embodiments of the process, machine, manufacture, composition of matter, means, methods and steps described in the specification. As one of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate from the disclosure of the present invention, processes, machines, manufacture, compositions of matter, means, methods, or steps, presently existing or later to be developed, that perform substantially the same function or achieve substantially the same result as the corresponding embodiments described herein may be utilized according to the present invention. Accordingly, the appended claims are intended to include within their scope such processes, machines, manufacture, compositions of matter, means, methods, or steps.
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|Cooperative Classification||H02M2001/007, H02M3/33507, Y02B70/126, H02M1/4225, H02M3/33592, Y02B70/1475|
|European Classification||H02M3/335S2S, H02M3/335C, H02M1/42B5|
|Jun 10, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: COLDWATT, INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ARTUSI, DANIEL A.;FOSLER, ROSS;ROZMAN, ALLEN F.;REEL/FRAME:021075/0052;SIGNING DATES FROM 20080506 TO 20080610
Owner name: COLDWATT, INC.,TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:ARTUSI, DANIEL A.;FOSLER, ROSS;ROZMAN, ALLEN F.;SIGNING DATES FROM 20080506 TO 20080610;REEL/FRAME:021075/0052
|Feb 4, 2009||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: FLEXTRONICS INTERNATIONAL USA, INC.,CALIFORNIA
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNOR:COLDWATT, INC.;REEL/FRAME:022206/0162
Effective date: 20080407
|Jun 8, 2010||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Jul 24, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4