|Publication number||US7675529 B1|
|Application number||US 10/374,248|
|Publication date||Mar 9, 2010|
|Filing date||Feb 25, 2003|
|Priority date||Feb 25, 2003|
|Publication number||10374248, 374248, US 7675529 B1, US 7675529B1, US-B1-7675529, US7675529 B1, US7675529B1|
|Inventors||Ralph T. Brunner, Kristin Webster|
|Original Assignee||Apple Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Referenced by (25), Classifications (14), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The invention relates to graphical user interfaces, and more particularly to scaling components of graphical user interfaces.
Typical graphical user interfaces are designed for display devices of standard resolutions. Until recently a “high resolution” display device typically had a large number of pixels on a large display area, when compared to a standard resolution display device. Thus, most display devices have similar numbers of pixels in a given size of a display area. However, recent developments in display devices, especially in high resolution LCD display panels, allow significantly more pixels to be displayed on an area of a fixed size. The pixel size of a high resolution display device is typically smaller than the pixel size of a low resolution display device. Thus, graphical user interfaces may appear too small to be interacted with when displayed on a high resolution display device without any modification. To enable legacy (existing) applications to run graphical user interfaces on high resolution displays, it is often desirable to scale the user interface components by an arbitrary non-integer factor.
When a window is scaled up by an arbitrary non-integer factor (e.g., 4/3≈1.3333), the boundaries of the components of the window may not align with the lines of pixels. The coordinates for the boundaries of the scaled up components may be real numbers instead of integer numbers (e.g., an original component of 100 pixels long may be scaled to 133.33 pixels long). Application developers typically lay out the original view hierarchy to align the boundaries of the components to the pixel lines in order to enable a number of optimizations, such as independent redrawing of views. If a scaled component of a view hierarchy is no longer aligned to pixel lines, drawing glitches can appear on view boundaries.
Methods and apparatuses to scale components of user interfaces are described here.
To scale a view component according to an arbitrary transformation, which may be represented by a scaling factor, a coordinate transformation, or other parameters, at least one embodiment of the present invention determines a new transformation for the view component so that, when the new transformation is used, the boundaries of the view components are aligned with pixel lines (and/or, other conditions are satisfied).
In one aspect of the invention, a method to scale a view component of a Graphical User Interface includes: receiving a first transformation to scale the view component; determining first layout parameters (e.g., coordinates of an origin of the view component, a width of the view component, a height of the view component, a coordinate of a boundary of the view component, and others) for the view component using the first transformation; adjusting the first layout parameters to generate second layout parameters for the view component; and computing a second transformation from the second layout parameters to scale the view component. In one example according to this aspect, the view component is scaled using the second transformation; and a Current Transformation Matrix (CTM) is set according to the second transformation. After first coordinates for drawing a portion of the view component is received, second coordinates are computed from the first coordinates and the Current Transformation Matrix; and the portion of the view component is drawn using the second coordinates. According to the second layout parameters, the boundaries of the view component are aligned with pixel lines so that there is no rounding error for the boundaries of the view component when the second transformation is used. In one example, the first layout parameters are rounded from real values to integer values to align boundaries of the view components with pixel lines in adjusting the first layout parameters. Parameters, such as a size or a position of the view component, are adjusted to satisfy a geometric relation for the child view components of the parent view component of the view component. In one exemplary embodiment, this method may be performed by a computer's operating system for an application program's GUI components such that the transformation is transparent to the application program; the CTM transforms are in this case performed by the operating system rather than one or more application programs and the CTM allows an older application program (having GUI components designed for a lower resolution output device) to cause the output (e.g., display) to appear on a higher resolution output device.
The present invention includes methods and apparatuses which perform these methods, including data processing systems which perform these methods, and computer readable media which when executed on data processing systems cause the systems to perform these methods.
Other features of the present invention will be apparent from the accompanying drawings and from the detailed description which follow.
The present invention is illustrated by way of example and not limitation in the figures of the accompanying drawings in which like references indicate similar elements.
The following description and drawings are illustrative of the invention and are not to be construed as limiting the invention. Numerous specific details are described to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. However, in certain instances, well known or conventional details are not described in order to avoid obscuring the description of the present invention.
As shown in
It will be apparent from this description that aspects of the present invention may be embodied, at least in part, in software. That is, the techniques may be carried out in a computer system or other data processing system in response to its processor, such as a microprocessor, executing sequences of instructions contained in a memory, such as ROM 107, volatile RAM 105, non-volatile memory 106, cache 104 or a remote storage device. In various embodiments, hardwired circuitry may be used in combination with software instructions to implement the present invention. Thus, the techniques are not limited to any specific combination of hardware circuitry and software nor to any particular source for the instructions executed by the data processing system. In addition, throughout this description, various functions and operations are described as being performed by or caused by software code to simplify description. However, those skilled in the art will recognize what is meant by such expressions is that the functions result from execution of the code by a processor, such as the microprocessor 103.
A machine readable medium can be used to store software and data which when executed by a data processing system causes the system to perform various methods of the present invention. This executable software and data may be stored in various places including for example ROM 107, volatile RAM 105, non-volatile memory 106 and/or cache 104 as shown in
Thus, a machine readable medium includes any mechanism that provides (i.e., stores and/or transmits) information in a form accessible by a machine (e.g., a computer, network device, personal digital assistant, manufacturing tool, any device with a set of one or more processors, etc.). For example, a machine readable medium includes recordable/non-recordable media (e.g., read only memory (ROM); random access memory (RAM); magnetic disk storage media; optical storage media; flash memory devices; etc.), as well as electrical, optical, acoustical or other forms of propagated signals (e.g., carrier waves, infrared signals, digital signals, etc.); etc.
At least one embodiment of the present invention seeks to determine new transformations for the child view components in scaling up the parent view so that, when the new transformations are used, the boundaries of the child view components are aligned with pixel lines and geometric constraints for the sizes and the positions of the child view components are preserved.
In one embodiment of the present invention, a view component makes system calls to instruct the window system, which may be considered part of the computer's operating system, to draw the contents of the view component using the original coordinates (e.g., n1˜n5 in
In one embodiment of the present invention, the window system further tunes the positions and the sizes of the child view components of a view component to satisfy certain geometric constraints (geometric relations) for the child view components. For example, text window 421 and scroll bar 427 have equal left and right margins (from the boundaries of the view components to the corresponding other nearest boundaries). Thus, the window system may further adjust the positions of boundaries 721-727 to x=k1, k2, . . . , k4 respectively in
For example, in
After operation 901 receives a first scale factor (e.g., an arbitrary non-integer scale factor) to scale a window from a first size to a second size, operation 903 determines the coordinates in pixel numbers for the boundaries of the window at the second size (e.g., by rounding the real value coordinates of the boundaries computed from the first scale factor to integer value coordinates). Operation 905 computes a third size of the window from the coordinates in pixel numbers for the boundaries of the window. Operation 907 determines second scale factors (e.g., for width and for height) such that, when the window is scaled by the second scale factors, the window is scaled from the first size to the third size and the boundaries of the window are aligned with pixels without rounding errors.
Once the transformation for the window is determined, operation 909 determines pixel coordinates of the origin of a view component of the window when the window is scaled by the second scale factors. Operation 911 determines sizes (e.g., width and height) in pixel numbers for the view component of the window when the window is scaled by the second scale factors. Operation 913 determines a transformation for the view component from: a) the origin and the sizes of the view component when the window is in the first size; and, b) from the pixel coordinates of the origin and the sizes of the view component when the window is scaled by the second scale factors. Operation 915 performs coordinate transformations using the transformation for the view component.
Operations 909-915 can be performed repeatedly for all the child view components of the window and, recursively, for the children of the child view components. Further, geometric relations for the child view components can be considered in determining the origins and the sizes of the child view components in operations 909-911.
In the foregoing specification, the invention has been described with reference to specific exemplary embodiments thereof. It will be evident that various modifications may be made thereto without departing from the broader spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the following claims. The specification and drawings are, accordingly, to be regarded in an illustrative sense rather than a restrictive sense.
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|U.S. Classification||345/661, 715/254, 715/244, 715/252, 715/249, 715/246, 345/660|
|International Classification||G06F17/20, G09G5/00, G06F17/00|
|Cooperative Classification||G09G2340/0407, G06F17/211, G09G2340/045|
|Feb 25, 2003||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: APPLE COMPUTER, INC.,CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:BRUNNER, RALPH T.;WEBSTER, KRISTIN;REEL/FRAME:013816/0964
Effective date: 20030220
|Apr 24, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: APPLE INC.,CALIFORNIA
Free format text: CHANGE OF NAME;ASSIGNOR:APPLE COMPUTER, INC., A CALIFORNIA CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:019214/0106
Effective date: 20070109
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