US 767980 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
PATBNTED AUG. 16, 1904.
APPLICATION FILED NOV. 25. 1903.
WITNESSES UNITED. STATES PATENT OFFICE.
Patented August 16,1904.
JQHN STONE STONE. ()F CAMBRIDHE. .\l.-\SS A-(IIITSETIS, ASSIGNOR 'I O \VILLIAM W. SWAN, 'IRI'S'IEE. OF BROOhLlNE, MASSACHUSETTSQ SPACE TELEGRAPHY.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 767,980, dated August 16, 1904.
application filed November 25, 1903. Serial No. 182,627. No model.)
To It whom if may concern:
Be it known that I. Jonx Sron: Sfroxn, a citizen ofthe United States, and a resident of Cambridge, in the county of Middlcsex and State of Massachusetts, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Space Telegraphy, of which the following is a specification.
'lle present invent-ion depends upon the fact that if in a vertical" conductor or conductors lying in a plane equidistantat all points from two other vertical conductors there he developedfelectrical oscillations, then the oscillations thereby developed in the last-named conductor or conductors will be equal in amplitude and phase. Further, if theetfects of these oscillations upon a ieceiving device be opposed to one another -their resultant etlect upon sa'd receiving device will be nil.
By my invention I utilize as a transmittingconductor a conductor or conductors lying in a plane equidistant at all points from two other vertical conductors which are utilized as re- 1 ceiving-conductorsmnd I cause the oscillations developed in the receiving-00nductors to be opposed to one another in their effect. upon a receiving or translating device associated with.
them. This may be done by means of a variety of apparatus of the nature ofinductionbalances, some forms of which will be hereinafter described. Careful consideration will show that the two vertical receivirig-conductors will be incapable of receiving signals from any transmitting-station in their. equatorial plane, but willin general be capable ofreceiving signals from stations otherwise located. In order that. they may be most sensitive to the signals from distant transmittin'g-stations,
these two conductors should be placed at a dis-.
tance apart of one-half a wave length and in the vertical plane including the distant transmitting-station to be communicated with. If it be desired to receive from more than one transmitting-station, the two receiving-wires maybe mounted upon a frame capable of rotation around a central vertical axis.
In the drawings accompanying and forming a part of this specification, Figures 1 and 2 illustrate in diagram two embodiments of my invention.
In the figures. V V V" are vertical conductors. (l is a ground connection. M M M" are induction-coils or transformers. I111 are the primaries, and I: is the secondary 0f the C are condensers.
transformer M". B is a battery. It is a resistance. T isa re lay or suitable signal-indicatingdevice. 'l" is an electromagnet with a mechanically-attuned armature 1', such as is well known in reed telegraph'y or a monotelephone i. 1 a telephone responding to impulses of current from the battery B of a detinite predetermined frequency only. K is a receiver or'wave-detector which may be a coherer. I) is a self-restoring wave-detector which may be a bolom- 5 eter. L L are inductances. I: is a key. A is an alternating-current generator or other source of periodically-varying electromotive forcej a is a sparlegap.
In my Letters Patent No. 716,955,' dated 7 December so, 1902. I have described a system for simultaneously transmitting and receiving space-telegra ih signalsidentical in every respect with the system described herein, except in this, that the clostal'circuit containing the be taken in the adjustment of the primary windings of the coil M" if the period of the circuit associated with the receiver be ditfe'rent from-that of the oscillations developed injtl e elevated conductors V V" by electromaghtetlc waves radiated by the transmitting-conductor '9 V, the frequency of said waves being determined by the electromagneticconstants of the sonorous circuit a C M L. The frequencyto which the resonant circuit I2 C L. is attuned is determined by the electromagnetic constants i of said resonant circuit and is different from the frequency of the. electrical oscillations developed by the sonorous circuit a C M L, and istherefore different from the frequency of the waves radiated by the elevated conduc- Referso 1111' with which said sonorouscircuit isasso- -ciated.
In Fig. .2 the receiver or \\2i\'(-tlttlLlOl' is diagrammatically illustrated as a holomcter.
. thcline\viresorstripsol' which forma parallelductors Y hyelect romagnetic wavestransditi'erential coils 1. 11. then the oscillations de- Xo. 119.211. in which 1 l1a\1- pointcd out th ithe thermal time constant of the line wire or st rip and therefor its mass that is. its length and section should he small compared with the thermal time constant and the mass of the line wires or strips of somcwvhat similar instrumcnts heretofore used for determining the; The holom;
wave length of waves in \vircs. ctcr dtagrammatically illustrated in Fig. 2.
vcloped in the resonant circuit 12C L1 or the resonant circuit 1 1) I11- not being of the l'rcquenc to which said circuits are made rcsonant. are of too small an amplitude to effect the response of the receiver. As an extra precaution, if the electrical oscillations developed in said resonant circuit are of sufficient amplitude to effect the response of the receiver 1) which if it he a bolometer is exceedingly sensitive to currents of very small amplitudenotwithstanding the fact that a resonant circuit strongly opposes thedevelopment therein of currents of frequencies different from that to which it is attuned. then by using the signal-indicating device '1". at-.
tuned mechanically to a given spark frequency the generation or radiation of electromagnetic waves at astatlon can be accomplished without effecting any response of the however. is merely illustrative or typical of i any suitahlc self-restoring wave-detector. and in lieu thereof l may einploy the recciverdescribed in thc British patent to Brown. No. \i.35 of 18811). which consists of a metallic tripod resting upon a metallic plate. 1 may also employ the receiver consisting of line steel needles hridging two carhon clcctrodes. whichhas heen dcscrihcd in the Russian patcnt granted to Alexandre lopotl'. .\'o: (3.066, June 14. 1H9). and also dcscrihcd hy said lop- Ull ll] lfllt" Hill/" Ins It III/I/N .l(' /I'//I;l' (/I'N AMI/Ice 'loluc 131. llcccmhct' 1.), 1900. page -nil/fluul/r/rf[l /111M377, .Attg'llts'i 15102:). 1511111, pageltitl. 'lhcsignal-indicatingdcviceinthis case is an clcctronatgnct 'l".having a reed armature r mechanically attuned to respond to a prmletcrminwl numher of impulses of l)attery-currcnt pcr sccond. corresponding to the numhcrof times pct-second the holomcter or other self-restoring \vavcdctcctor varie the flow of current from the potentiometer R The through the windings ol' the magnet '1". numher of times per second that the wave-detector changes its resistance corresponds to the group or wave-t rain frequency of the electromagnetic w'aves transmitted from a distant signal-indicating device- 1'. (a, the receiver is maintained m a condition to receive signals f P0111 a distant transmitting-station at the 1 same time that signals are hemg transmitted associated with said receiving system and operatively connected with a signal-indicating I related as to perform their functions simultadevice, mechanically attuned to a definite predetermined frequency. said systems being so ncously without mutual interference.
3. In a system of space telegraphy, a transmitting system. a receiving system, and a station and ahsorhed hy the resonant circuit 1 l: C 1) L3, as explained in my amlhcatlon Scrial No. 182.629. hisgroupor wave-train frequency, sometimes called spark frequency.
The operation of the system is as follows: If the electrical oscillations developed in conclosed resonant circuit, attuned to the freuency of the waves the energy of which is to he received and associated with said receiving system. said transmitting and receiving systems being so related as'to perform. their functions simultaneously without mutual interference. p
4. In a system of space telegraphy. a transmitting system. a receiving system and a closed resonant circuit. attuned to the frequency of the waves the energy of which is to he received, associated with said receiving system and operatively connected with a signal-indicating device mechanically attuned to a detiinte predetermined frequency, said systerns being so related as to perforn'i their functions simultaneously without mutual interference.
5. In a system of space telcgraphy, a transmitting system, a receiving system, and a receiver so connected with said receiving system as to be more responsiv. to electromagnetic waves of predetermined frequency transmitted from any direction than to the etfects produced by the generation of electromagnetic Waves at the same station at the same time. 6. In a system of space telegraphy, two elevated receiving-conductors situated a distance apart equal to a half-wave length of the waves j the energy of which is to be received, and a j resonant circuit, attuned to the frequency of I said waves, associated 'with said elevatedcon- 2 ductors. f 7. In a system of space telegraphy, a receiv' l that of the oscillations created in said tltllisnnttmg-conductor, an electroreceptive device and a signal-indicating device, said signal-indicating device beingmechanically attuned to a predetermined frequency.
10. .In a system for simultaneously transmitting and receiving space-telegraph signals, an elevated transmitting-conductor, means for creating electrical oscillations of a definite group or wave-train frequency therein, in
I combination with a receiving system comprising an electroreceptive device and a signal-indicating device, said signal-indicating device being. mechanically attuned to a group or wave-train frequency different from that of the electrical oscillations created in the transmitting-conductor.
11. in a system of space telegraphy,the combination'at a station of a transmitting system,
ing system, a transformer having two equiv-s a receiving system, a tuned circuit associated alent but oppositely-wound primaries and a t secondary, associated with said primaries and y forming part. of a closed circuit attuned to .the frequency of the waves the energy of which is to be received.
8. In a system of space telegraphy,-two elevated receiving-conductors situated a distance apart equal to a half-wave length of the waves the energy of which is to be received, and coni nected to the primary winding of a differential coil, a closed circuit, il llud to the frequency of said waves, 21SSOL lated with said differential coil and operativcly connected with a receiver, in combination with an elevated transmitting-conductor situated in a plane equidistant at all points from said receivingconductors and means for creating electrical oscillations in said transmitting-conductor differing in frequency from the Waves the energy of which is to be received.
9. In a system for simultaneously transmi tting and receiving space-telegraph signals, a transmitting-conductor, means for creating electrical oscillations of definite frequency therein,a receiving system comprisingaclosed I circuit attuned to a frequency different from with said receiving system, and means for opposing the effects on said tuned circuit produced by the generation or transmission of electromagnetic waves at the station and to conjoin the effects on said circuit produced by electromagnetic waves received at the station.
12. In a space-telegraph receiving system, two elevated receiving-conductors, an electroreceptive device, and means associated with said elevated conductors and said electroreceptive device for opposing the effects on the electroreceptive device of electrical oscillations developed in said elevated conductors by electromagnetic waves the energy of which is not intended to be received by said electroreceptive device, in combination withasignalindicating device, mechanically attuned to a definite predetermined frequency, operatively connected with said electroreceptive device.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name this 24th day of November,
JOHN STONE STONE. Witnesses:
(3r. A. HIGGINS, BRAINARD T. JUDKINS.