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Publication numberUS767984 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 16, 1904
Filing dateNov 25, 1903
Priority dateNov 25, 1903
Publication numberUS 767984 A, US 767984A, US-A-767984, US767984 A, US767984A
InventorsJohn Stone Stone
Original AssigneeSwan William W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Space telegraphy.
US 767984 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

PATENTET) AUG. 16, 1904.

J. S. STONE.

SPACE TELEGRAPHY.

APPLICATION FILED nov. 25, 1903.

2 BKEETS-SHBET 1 H0 MODEL.

T Nls E.

PATBNTED AUG. 16, 1904.

J. S. STONE. SPACE TBLEGRAP HY.

APPLICATION FILED NOV. 25, 1 90s.

2 BHEIITB-SHEET 2.

N0 MODEL.

INVENT \A/ITNEEEEE- M2 I UNITED STATES Patented August 16, 1904..

PATENT OFFICE.

JOHN STONE STONE, OF CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS, ASSIGNOR TO WILLIAM W. SWAN, TRUSTEE, OE BROOKLINE, MASSACHUSETTS.

'sPAcE TELEGRAPHYI SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 767,984, dated August 16, 1904. Application filed November 25, 1908. Serial No- 182,632. (No model.)

To all whom, it may concern/.-

Be it known that I, JOHN STONE STONE, a citizen of the United States, and a residentpf Cambridge, in the county of Middlesex and State of IVIassachusetts, have invented a certain new and useful Improvement in Space Letters Patent I have described systems of space telegraphy in which electromagnetic waves substantially simple harmonic in form v are transmitted by creating substantially simple harmonic vibrations or oscillations in a sonorous circuit or system of circuits and impressing such vibrations or oscillations upon an elevated conductor. In order that the electric vibrations so impressed upon the elevated con- I ductor, and consequently the electromagnetic Waves radiated therefrom, may be simple harmonic in form, I have employed means whereby the individual circuits of a complex of interrelated circuits are made capable of' vibrating as circuits of a single degree of freedom. In my Letters Patent Nos. 714,756 and 714, 831, and in my Reissued Letters Patent N o.

12.149, reissued August 25, 1903, I have described and broadly claimed means whereby such complex of interrelated circuits may be reduced to the equivalent of a number of circuits having a single degree of freedom. I have also specifically claimed therein one of the means whereby this result may be accomplished. The means broadly described and claimed consist in providing each circuit with sufficient auxiliary inductance to render the mutual inductance between it and an associated circuit small compared to the square root of the product of the ind uctances of the circuits.

' The specific means therein claimed was an auxiliary inductance-coil in each circuit, whereby the mutual inductance between said circomplished is fully set forth by me in my Letters Patent Nos. 714,832 and 714,833, dated December 2, 1902, wherein I have shown that the function of the auxiliary inductance-coil may be performed by the primary of the transformer connecting the sonorous circuit with.

theelevated conductor by so proportioning said primary that it shall supply the auxiliary inductance, which in the other specific form of my invention was supplied bymeans of the auxiliary inductance coil. This is accomplished by so designing the transformer that 12 L1 L2 which is the opposite course from that in general pursued in constructing a step-up transformer, and is only resorted to in the con struction of the so-called constant-current transformers, and it may also be accomplished in a plurality of ways set forth in my Letters Patent Nos. 717 ,467 and 717,515 in the art of wire telegraphy.

In the present specification I confine myself and limit my claims to one of these means namely, that of so designing the transformer connecting two associated circuits that the the ratio is small compared to unity,

12 L1 L2 to unity. In other words, the means herein claimed whereby the complex of circuits is reduced to the equivalent of a system of circuits each of a single degree of freedom is ispurposely made small compared ratio different from that previously claimed by me in that the ratio M212 L1 L2 to unity by making the transformer a constantcurrent transformer, Whereas in the other patents I have claimed means for rendering this ratio small compared to unity. consisting of auxiliary inductance-coils. In this case the circuits at the transmitting-station is made small compared are a sonorous circuit or closed oscillator, which is a persistently-oscillating" poor-radiating circuit, and an elevated transmittingconductor or linear oscillator, which is a good radiating-circuit, and therefore a poor oscillator. At the receiving-station the circuits are an elevated receiving-conductor or linear oscillator, which is a good absorbing-circuit and a poor oscillator, and a closed resonant circuit, which is a persistently oscillating circuit, and therefore a poor absorbing-circuit, except for the energy of currents of the frequency to which it is attuned. The particular m'eans employed for reducing the aforesaid system of interrelated circuits to the equivalent of a system of circuits each having a single degree of freedom is a transformer designed as aforesaid, so that the ratio M 12 L1 L that the transformer will have sufiicient magnetic leakage to effect the desired result.

In my Letters Patent Nos. 717,467 and 717,515 in the art of wire telegraphy I have described and claimed several specific means of reducing a complex of circuits to the equivalent of a system of circuits each of a single degree of freedom. The underlying principle for accomplishing this result is in all instances that the mutual energy of each circuit with all of the interrelated circuits of the system 2 is made small compared to unity, so

shall be small compared with the self-energy of said circuit. a

The relation of the specific invention herein to be claimed to the broad principle hereinbefore stated may be best understood by having reference to the drawings which accompany and form a part of the present specification.

In the drawings, Figure 1, 3, and 5 represent in diagram apparatus and arrangements of circuits constituting transmitting systems. Figs. 2, 4, and 6 represent in diagram apparatus and arrangements of circuits constituting receiving systems.

In the figures, V is an elevated conductor. M M are transformers. L L L1 are inductances. G C C1 C are condensers. I1'I2 are respectively the primary and secondary windings of the transformer M. s is a spark-gap. Avis an alternating-current generator or other source of peridocally-varying electromotive force. B is a battery. R is a relay. receiver, herein illustrated as a coherer. a key.

In the'system illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 the sonorous circuit .9 C L and the resonant circuit C C I2 are each associated with an elevated conductorV by means of a transformer M with magnetic leakageq. e. a transformer in which the primary and secondary windings 11 and I2 have such spatial interrelation lais . as to so reduce the mutual inductance between M 12 L1 L2 K is a small compared to unity, where L L2 represent the s'elf-inductances of the associated circuits and M12 the mutual inductance between said circuits. It will be found that when the primary I1 is in close inductive relation with the secondary I; and is then separated there from the amplitude of the oscillations developed in said secondary gradually rises to a maximum and that at this point-any further separation of the transformer-windings will have the eifect of decreasing this amplitude.

The operation of the apparatus shown in Fig. 1 is the same as that of the apparatus shown in Fig. 5 of my hereinbefore mentioned patent, No'. 714,756, and reference may also be had to the description of the operation of the apparatus shown in the figure of myLetters Patent No. 714,832, the function of the auxiliary inductance-coil (designated by the letter L, shown in those drawings) being performed by the primary coil L of Fig. 1 of the present case. Similarly the operation of the apparatus shown in Fig. 2 is the same as that of the apparatus shown in Fig. 6 of my Letters Patent No. 714,756, the function of the auxiliary inductance-coil (designated by the letter L in that drawing) being performed by the secondary coil 12 of Fig. 2 of the present case.-.

In Fig. 3 the elevated conductor is conductively associated with a sonorous circuit .9 C L L. In order to impress a simple harmonic electromotive force upon the elevated conductor V, electrical oscillations are produced in the sonorous circuit. These give rise to a corresponding difference of potential at the corresponding difierence of potential is set up at the terminals of the inductance-coil L, and corresponding forced simple harmonic electric vibrations result in the resonant circuit. If the frequency of these vibrations is the same as that to which the resonant circuit is attuned, said resonant circuit responds energetically and has electrical oscillations of relatively great amplitude developed in it, whereas if the frequency of these vibrations be different from that to which the resonant circuit is attuned the resonant circuit responds but feebly and has electric vibrations of relatively small amplitude developed in it. The inductance of the coil L being small compared to that of the coil L the oscillations in the resonant cir- IIO ITS

cuit are not materially affected by the association of this circuit with the elevated conductor.

In Fig. 5 the elevated conductor is again conductively connected to a sonorous circuit A U C L. in order to impress a simple harmonic electromotive force upon the elevated conductor V, electrical oscillations are produced in the sonorous circuit. These give rise to a corresponding difference of potential at the terminals of the condenser C in the elevatedconductor system V C L! E and corresponding forced simple harmonic electric oscillations result therein. The capacity of the condenser (J being large compared to that of the condenser (J, the oscillations in the sonorous circuit are not materially affected by the association of this circuit with the elevated-conductor system.

In Fig. 6 the elevated conductor is conductively associated with a resonant circuit C L When simple harmonic electric oscillations are set up in the elevated conductor, a corresponding difference of potential is set up at the terminals of the condenser C and corresponding forced simple harmonic electrical vibrations result in the resonant circuit. If the frequency of these vibrations is the same as that to which the resonant circuit is at-' tuned, said resonant circuit responds energetically and has electrical oscillations of relatively great amplitude developed in it, whereas if the frequency of these vibrations be different from that to which the resonant circuit is attuned the resonant circuit responds but feebly and has electric oscillations of relatively small amplitude developed in it. The capacity of the condenser C being great compared to that of the condenser C, the oscillations in the resonant circuit are not materially affected by the association of this circuit with the elevated conductor.

-No mention has heretofore been made of the function of the condensers C", as these condensers are not essential to the tuning of the circuits in which they are placed, but merely serve to shunt the relays R out of the resonant circuits. In order that these condensers may not appreciably affect the tuning of the circuits in which they are included, and thereby lower the resonant rise of potential at the plates of the condenser C, they are so constructed as to have large capacities compared to the capacities of the condenser C.

No mention has heretofore been made of the function of the condensers Q1 and inductance-eoils 1/1, as the functions of these elements have been fully described in my applications Serial NOS. 193,371 and 193,372, filed February 13, 1904, and as they form no essential part of the present invention.

I claim' 1. In a system of space telegraphy, an elevated transm itting-cond uctor serially connected with one winding of a transformer and a sonorous circuit including the other winding of said transformer, said windings being so spatially interrelated as to reduce the complex of interrelated circuits to the equivalent of a system of circuits each having a single degree of freedom.

2. In a system of space telegraphy, an elevated receiving-00nductor serially connected with one winding of a transformer. and a resonant circuit including the other winding of said transformer, said windings being so spatially interrelated as to reduce the complex of interrelated circuits to the equivalent of a system of circuits each having a single degree of freedom.

3. In asystem of space telegraphy, an elevated conductor serially connected with one winding of a transformer and a persistentlyoscillating circuit including the other winding of said transformer, the separation of said windings being suflicient to reduce the complex of interrelated circuits to the equivalent of a system of circuits each having a single degree of freedom.

4. In a system of space telegraphy, a transmitting system comprising a sonorous circuit inductively associated with an elevated conductor by means of a transformer, in combination with a receiving system comprising a resonant circuit attuned to the frequency of the electric oscillations developed in said sonorous circuit and inductively associated with an elevated conductor by means of a transformer, the windings of each of said transformers being so spatially interrelated as to reduce the complex of interrelated circuits constituting the transmitting and receiving systems each to the equivalent of a system of circuits having a single degree of freedom.

5. In a system of space telegraphy, a good oscillator connected with a good radiator or absorber by means of a transformer having suflicient magnetic leakage to reduce the com plex of circuits to the equivalent of a system of circuits each having a. single degree of freedom.

6. In a system of space telegraphy, a persistently-oscillating circuit, a good radiating or absorbing circuit. and a transformer inductively associating said circuits, the mutual inductance between the windings of said transformer being sufliciently-small to reduce the complex of interrelated circuits to the equivalent of a system of circuits each having a single degree of freedom.

7 In a system of space telegraphy, a per- Correctibn in Letters Patent No. 767.984.

or absorbing circuit, and means for so inductively associating said circuits that the complex of interrelated circuits is reduced to the equivalent of a system of circuits each having a single degree of freedom Without the interposition of auxiliary means.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name this 24th day of November, 1903.

JOHN S"ONE STONE.

Witnesses:

(.ir. A. HIGGINs, BRAINERD T. JUDKINs.

It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. 767,984, granted August 16, 1904,

upon the application of John Stone Stone, of Cambridge, Blassachusetts, for an improvement in Space Telegraphy, an error appears in the printed specification requiring correction, as follows: On page 2, line 66, the symbol L should read L and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

Signed and sealed this 11th day of July, A. D., 1905.

[SEAL] F. I. ALLEN,

Cmmn'issioner of Patents.

Correctibn in Letters Patent No. 767.984.

or absorbing circuit, and means for so inductively associating said circuits that the complex of interrelated circuits is reduced to the equivalent of a system of circuits each having a single degree of freedom Without the interposition of auxiliary means.

In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name this 24th day of November, 1903.

JOHN S"ONE STONE.

Witnesses:

(.ir. A. HIGGINs, BRAINERD T. JUDKINs.

It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. 767,984, granted August 16, 1904,

upon the application of John Stone Stone, of Cambridge, Blassachusetts, for an improvement in Space Telegraphy, an error appears in the printed specification requiring correction, as follows: On page 2, line 66, the symbol L should read L and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

Signed and sealed this 11th day of July, A. D., 1905.

[SEAL] F. I. ALLEN,

Cmmn'issioner of Patents.

It is hereby certified that in Letters Patent No. 767,984, granted August 16, 1904,

1 upon the application of John Stone Stone, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, for an improvement in Space Teiegraphy, an error appears in the printed specification 1 requiring correction, as follows: On page 2 line 66, the symbol L should read L and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Oflice.

Signed zinrl'sezileri this 11th day of July, A. D., 1905.

[SEAL] F. I. ALLEN,

Commissioner of Palcnts.

Correction in Letters Patent No. 767.984.

Classifications
Cooperative ClassificationH03B11/02