|Publication number||US7681459 B1|
|Application number||US 11/539,028|
|Publication date||Mar 23, 2010|
|Filing date||Oct 5, 2006|
|Priority date||Apr 12, 2006|
|Publication number||11539028, 539028, US 7681459 B1, US 7681459B1, US-B1-7681459, US7681459 B1, US7681459B1|
|Inventors||Dehua Yang, Thomas J. Wyrobek|
|Original Assignee||Hysitron, Incorporated|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (23), Non-Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (21), Classifications (13), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This is a regular application filed under 35 U.S.C. §111(a) claiming priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e)(1) of U.S. Prov. Appl. Ser. No. 60/791,350 filed Apr. 12, 2006 and incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
The present invention generally relates to mechanical test systems, more particularly, to systems, instruments, and/or devices for the application of force to test specimens in furtherance of dynamic testing of same, more particularly still, to a small specimen tensile instrument platform.
A tensile test is arguably the most useful single mechanical test that can be performed to evaluate the utility of an engineering or engineered material. Both elastic modulus and yield strength are measured by performing a tensile test.
Small scale material applications, i.e., those implicating materials having a dimensional tolerance within the range of about 10−2 to 10−9 meters, are proliferating, with nanoscience and nanotechnology being a well known area of particular focus, and discovery. Nanotechnology, or, as it is sometimes called, molecular manufacturing, is a branch of engineering that deals with the design and manufacture of extremely small devices built at the molecular level of matter. The Institute of Nanotechnology in the U.K. expresses it as “science and technology where dimensions and tolerances in the range of 0.1 nanometer (nm) to 100 nm play a critical role.”
As there is no clear correlation between macroscopic and microscopic material properties, the ability to assess the mechanical properties of nano-scale devices or materials would no doubt reveal at least subtle properties of materials previous thought to be well defined. Initial design and prototype phases of nanotechnological product development are direct beneficiaries of instruments and/or systems for assessing mechanical properties of micro/nano materials.
Unlike other mechanical test regimes, tensile tests have the advantage of uniform stress and strain fields, which is why they are used to determine mechanical properties at larger scales. However, conventional tensile tests have disadvantages at smaller scales in that smaller forces are required, and specimen gripping, which is a function of specimen type and geometry, is often difficult.
A variety of challenges are manifest in the testing of small specimen, i.e., those in the millimeter to sub-millimeter range, especially alignment of such specimens with a tensile axis. Peer-reviewed tensile test literature recommends that a given specimen be aligned within a 3-degree range of the tensile axis so as to achieve accurate stress-strain data. As should be readily appreciated, for a specimen of a nominal 1 mm length, a non-Z-axis error of less than 53 μm, or less than 530 μm for a 10 mm specimen is required.
As is well known, there exists a variety of ever increasing small-specimen tensile testing applications, for example, and without limitation: single and multi-component nanocomposite fibers, textiles and plastics; biomedical materials (e.g., sutures, guidewires, signal wires, prosthetic and implantable material); biological materials (e.g., blood vessels, muscles, tendons, organ tissue, skin, etc.); and, biomimetic investigations (e.g., spider silk). Furthermore, and likewise, small-scale pull applications abound, and include, without limitation, stiction, adhesion, deflection and deformation of thin film systems comprising micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS); microelectronics interconnection components (e.g., wire conductors, PCB traces, and solder, pad and wirebond adhesion); and, biomedical coating, component and system interface adhesion assessments. With this backdrop, it remains imperative, among other things, to reduce test related set up time, to improve accuracy and repeatability of small-specimen tensile testing and small-scale pull tests, and to acquire non-tensile axis test data in furtherance of automated specimen assessment and alignment, as well as in connection to additional failure mode assessment.
The instrument and system of the subject invention is advantageously used to apply and measure forces along a tensile axis (i.e., Z-axis) of a test specimen. The instrument/system enables measurement of material properties at multiple scales, with the range of forces being in the nano-Newton to Newton range. Similarly, displacement and measurement of the specimen are well within the range of nanometers to tens of millimeters.
The instrument of the subject invention generally includes an X-Y automated stage and a first specimen holder for holding a first portion of the specimen and transferring tensile force thereto, the first specimen holder operatively supported by the X-Y automated stage. A Z-automated stage and a multi-function nanotensile transducer head assembly is further provided. Finally, a second specimen holder, for holding a second portion of the specimen and transferring tensile force thereto is provided, the second specimen holder operatively linked to the Z-automated stage via the nanotensile transducer head assembly.
The configuration of a transducer of the multi-function nanotensile transducer head assembly permits select decoupling of a Z displacement sensor, three plate capacitive technology, from the force and motion generator functionality of the assembly so as to enable unrestrained motion and force generation for nanoscale testing of the specimen. Furthermore, via incorporation of additional sensing means, the multi-function nanotensile transducer head assembly permits measurement of forces normal to the tensile axis, i.e., in X and Y directions within a select Z-plane. The subject data acquisition is advantageously made with the specimen mounted in the instrument so as to permit an alignment assessment, i.e., X and Y forces are indicia of misalignment of the tensile axis, i.e., Z-axis, and correction, i.e., via integration of the sensors with X, Y, Z stage motion. Finally, X and Y forces are readily measured as functions of time, with X and Y positions, or Z-displacement providing significant information on failure mechanisms, and associated processes thereof, of the specimen under tensile load.
The subject instrument and system further contemplates microgripping and nano-scale imaging of the specimens under test. Depending upon the testing application, the subject instrument/system may be operated in both open and closed loop scenarios, the latter enabling displacement, strain rate or force-controlled pulling. In addition, dynamic/fatigue testing and automated specimen alignment capabilities are offered. Advantageously, an observation record of the specimen during force and/or motion application is thereby provided. Additional items, advantages and features of the various aspects of the present invention will become apparent from the description of its preferred embodiments, which description should be taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings, like reference characters generally refer to the same parts throughout the different views. Also, the drawings are not necessarily to scale, emphasis instead generally being placed upon illustrating the principles, elements and interrelationships there between of the invention.
The contemplated tensile testing instrument/system is characterized by a three part functionality or modality, namely: (1) large displacement; (2) small displacement; and, (3) micro displacement. With reference to
The instrument 12 further includes a Z-automated stage 22, with displacement sensor 24, supported by the frame 14, more particularly a vertical arm 26 therefore, for select vertical positioning of a multi-function transducer head assembly 28, over the base 16. Depending or otherwise extending from head assembly 28 is a further specimen holder, more particularly an upper specimen holder 18 b.
In connection with the system 10 of
The transducer head assembly 28 advantageously includes a piezo-actuator 34, first displacement sensor/transducer 36, and second displacement sensor/transducer 38, all of which reside in assembly housing 39. The first displacement sensor 36 is operatively linked to springs 40, rod or shaft 42, and housing 39 so as to delimit a load cell assembly 44, more particularly, precision springs 40 are coupled to the first displacement sensor 36 through shaft 42. The second displacement sensor/transducer 38, as will be later detailed, is operatively disengageable from the load cell assembly.
In connection to the first displacement sensor of the subject instrument, advantageously a Hysitron, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn., standard transducer, see U.S. Pat. No. 5,869,751 (Bonin), incorporated herein by reference, is utilized. While the contemplated transducer includes a capacitive displacement sensor with electrostatic actuation into a three parallel plate system, a reversibly coupleable shaft is further, and more particularly, provided for engaging/disengaging the piezo-actuator and load cell (i.e., the load cell assembly), and the transducer. The shaft, or more generally linkage, is operatively engageable so as to link or couple the piezo-actuator and load cell and second displacement sensor/transducer in the large and small displacement modes, whereas, in the micro displacement mode the shaft is decoupled.
With regard to functionality, large displacement mode operation is characterized by Z-automated stage displacement of the transducer head assembly, more particularly, displacement of the assembly away from the stationary lower specimen holder/base so as to impart a force upon a specimen held between the specimen holders. Commensurate with displacement of the subject head assembly is shaft displacement. The applied force of the Z-automated stage to the specimen is measured through the load cell assembly, with tensile of the specimen measured as the excursion distance of the Z-automated stage/transducer head assembly using methods appropriate for either a stepper, or servo motor. The subject mode is generally, but not necessarily, characterized as having a 10N maximum load, and 150 mm displacement range.
Small displacement mode operation essentially eliminates the Z-automated stage which is selectively set or locked after the appropriate specimen holder spacing is determined with respect to a given specimen. Actuation and measurement exclusively occurs within the head assembly, more particularly, the piezo-actuator pulls the shaft so as to impart a force and displacement on the specimen as the load cell measures force, and the second displacement sensor/transducer, acting again only as a displacement sensor, measures tensile displacement of the specimen. The subject mode generally maintains the 10N maximum load, but scales down the displacement range to 80 μm with a greatly improved resolution of about 0.2 nm.
Finally, the micro displacement mode or operation is utilized to test the smallest of specimens, and exclusively utilizes the second displacement sensor/transducer of the head assembly. The shaft is decoupled from the load cell and piezo-actuator assembly so as to effectively isolate the transducer from the other elements of the nanotensile head assembly. As to specimen testing, the three-plate transducer applies, and measures both the displacement and the force imparted on the specimen during the tensile test using the Hysitron patented technology.
Among several differentiating features of the subject instrument/system is an automated specimen alignment functionality. The subject functionality is achieved via employment of X/Y displacement sensors 46 and a second set of precision springs 41 within the head assembly 28 in a feedback loop to sense any non-Z axis displacement forces, and adjust the X, Y, Z automated stages in such a manner as to eliminate the out-of-axis signals, and effectively aligning the specimen. The alignment assessment, and subsequent adjustments occur without operator intervention. Such feature has particular utility in connection with testing single fibers, see e.g., “Tensile Characteristics and Measurement of Micro/Nano Fiber,” Xiao, Tsuchiya & Yang, incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. In addition, the three axis sensing capability can be enabled during the entire tensile test. The display and correlation of the X, Y, Z, displacement provides additional and significant information on failure mechanisms and failure process of the specimen under load. This kind of information may include, for example, crack initiation and propagation, initial failure site location, inhomogeneity of materials, etc.
Furthermore, throughout each of the described modalities, the subject instrument likewise contemplates further capabilities, e.g., application of a time-varying signal on top of the applied load. This dynamic/fatigue tensile testing capability is provided via the head assembly as applied to the piezo-actuator. More complex or advanced tests may be carried out through combination and mixing the testing and operating modes of the subject instrument to maximize the coverage of the specimen size, force or displacement, or to achieve optimal resolutions, e.g., testing a specimen of large size using large displacement mode for most of the test and using small or micro displacement mode to study a portion for detail. A further type of combined test may be run as a combination and mixture of displacement, load or strain rate controlled test, creep, fatigue, stress relation, etc.
Finally, and as previously alluded to, structural and morphological observation of the specimen under test can be examined by incorporation of an optical microscope with a CCD camera or a SPM to further increase dimensional resolution. Such microscopes may be used to provide cross-section dimensional information of the specimen in real time for true stress-strain analysis as well.
There are other variations of this invention which will become obvious to those skilled in the art. It will be understood that this disclosure, in many respects, is only illustrative. Although the various aspects of the present invention have been described with respect to various preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood that the invention is entitled to protection within the full scope of the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||73/856, 73/760|
|Cooperative Classification||G01N2203/0016, G01N3/38, G01N2203/0647, G01N2203/0069, G01N2203/0017, G01N2203/0051, G01N2203/0286, G01N3/08|
|European Classification||G01N3/38, G01N3/08|
|Oct 5, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HYSITRON, INCORPORATED,MINNESOTA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:YANG, DEHUA, PH.D;WYROBEK, THOMAS J.;REEL/FRAME:018355/0073
Effective date: 20061003
|Sep 3, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4