|Publication number||US7686859 B2|
|Application number||US 11/460,754|
|Publication date||Mar 30, 2010|
|Priority date||Aug 4, 2005|
|Also published as||CA2617177A1, CN101267871A, CN101267871B, EP1922131A1, EP1922131B1, US8512429, US20070028571, US20100146915, WO2007019127A1|
|Publication number||11460754, 460754, US 7686859 B2, US 7686859B2, US-B2-7686859, US7686859 B2, US7686859B2|
|Inventors||Thomas R. Barratt|
|Original Assignee||Johnson Controls Technology Company|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (38), Referenced by (7), Classifications (12), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/705,574 filed on Aug. 4, 2005, which Application is hereby incorporated by reference.
The present invention relates generally to a coalescing filter element for a compression system. In particular, the present invention relates to an oil coalescing filter element having a drainage mechanism to reduce the amount of oil entrained in the filter media.
Positive displacement compressors are machines in which successive volumes of air or gas are confined within a closed space and elevated to a higher pressure. The pressure of the gas is increased while the volume of the closed space is decreased. Positive displacement compressors include, for example, reciprocating compressors, rotary compressors, scroll compressors and screw compressors. These compressors rely on lubricating oil to lubricate rotating and contacting surfaces to allow for efficient operation, to prevent damage to the units and to seal the volume being compressed.
For example, a screw compressor generally includes two cylindrical rotors mounted on separate shafts inside a hollow, double-barreled casing. The side walls of the compressor casing typically form two parallel, overlapping cylinders which house the rotors side-by-side, with their shafts parallel to the ground. Screw compressor rotors typically have helically extending lobes and grooves on their outer surfaces forming a large thread on the circumference of the rotor. During operation, the threads of the rotors mesh together, with the lobes on one rotor meshing with the corresponding grooves on the other rotor to form a series of gaps between the rotors. These gaps form a continuous compression chamber that communicates with the compressor inlet opening, or port, at one end of the casing and continuously reduces in volume as the rotors turn and compress the gas toward a discharge port at the opposite end of the casing. Lubricant is introduced into the compressor at a relatively constant rate from a lubricant circulation system to lubricate the rotor shafts, bearings and seals, to help seal the clearances between the screws during operation of the compressor, and to help remove the heat of compression, thereby preventing the compressor from overheating and to help reduce the noise associated with compressor operation.
Lubricants typically are some type of oil-based liquid compound, this part of the compressor system often being referred to simply as the “lube-oil” system. Compressor lube-oil systems generally include a collection reservoir, filter, and pressure and/or temperature sensors. The lube-oil may be circulated as a result of the pressure differential in the system across the evaporator and condenser, such as in water chiller screw drive compressor systems, or the lube-oil may be circulated by a motor driven pump such as in larger reciprocating compressors. Since many lubricants degrade at high temperature by losing viscosity, compressors operating at high temperatures, such as with screw compressors, generally include specially formulated lube-oil systems and also include a cooler for reducing the temperature of the lubricant before it is recirculated to the seals and bearings. So-called “oil flooded” screw compressors may further include means for recirculating lubricant through the inside of the compressor casing. Such “lube-oil injection” directly into the gas stream has been found to help cool and lubricate the rotors, block gas leakage paths between or around the rotors, inhibit corrosion, and minimize the level of noise produced by screw compressors.
As is evident in these positive displacement type compressors, lubricant and fluid in the gaseous state are mixed as a result of compressor operation. Under these high pressures and temperatures, the lubricant forms droplets of various sizes. These droplets typically are entrained in the gas stream and must be removed before the compressed gas is transported away from the compressor. To prevent the lubricant entrained in the gas stream from moving downstream, a separator section can be used. The compressed gas may be forced to follow a tortuous path or contact a surface where larger droplets can agglomerate and can be cycled back into a sump-type device for reuse, lubricating the moving parts of the compressor. To capture the finer aerosol droplets that are not agglomerated into droplets of sufficient size to be separated, the separator section typically employs a coalescer or filter unit through which the compressed gas and aerosol must pass before being discharged downstream of the separator. However, one problem with the use of the coalescer or filter unit is that the captured lubricant remains and accumulates in the coalescer or filter unit thereby reducing the amount of area of the coalescer or filter unit that can be used to capture lubricant.
Therefore, what is needed is a mechanism for a coalescer or filter element that can facilitate the drainage of the captured lubricant from the coalescer or filter element.
One embodiment of the present invention is directed to a lubricant coalescing filter element for use in a refrigeration system. The lubricant coalescing filter element includes a cylindrical outer screen member, at least one filter element disposed inside the cylindrical outer screen member and being coaxial with the outer screen member, and a drainage arrangement disposed between the cylindrical outer screen member and the at least one filter element to drain accumulated lubricant out of the at least one filter element.
Another embodiment of the present invention is directed to a lubricant coalescing filter element for use in a gas compression system. The lubricant coalescing filter element includes a cylindrical outer screen member, at least one filter element disposed inside the cylindrical outer screen member and being coaxial with the outer screen member, and a drainage arrangement disposed between the cylindrical outer screen member and the at least one filter element to drain accumulated lubricant out of the at least one filter element.
Still another embodiment of the present invention is directed to a lubricant coalescing element for use in a gas compression system. The lubricant coalescing element includes a cylindrical outer screen member, at least one filter element disposed inside the cylindrical outer screen member and coaxial with the cylindrical outer screen member, and a drainage arrangement in contact with the at least one filter element to drain accumulated lubricant out of the at least one filter element.
A further embodiment of the present invention is directed to a lubricant coalescing element for use in a refrigeration system. The lubricant coalescing element includes a cylindrical outer screen member, at least one filter element disposed inside the cylindrical outer screen member and coaxial with the cylindrical outer screen member, and at least one drainage member in contact with the at least one filter element and disposed between the cylindrical outer screen member and the at least one filter element to drain accumulated lubricant out of the at least one filter element.
Another embodiment of the present invention is directed to a separator arrangement to remove entrained lubricant from a compressed gas. The separator arrangement includes a shell having an inlet port and a discharge port, a first stage disposed in the shell, a second stage disposed in the shell adjacent to the first stage, and a third stage disposed in the shell adjacent to the second stage. The first stage is configured to change a direction flow of gas entering the shell through the inlet port. The second stage is configured to remove lubricant droplets from the gas flow. The third stage is configured to remove entrained lubricant mist and aerosol from the gas flow. The third stage includes a coalescing element having a cylindrical outer screen member disposed horizontally in the third stage, at least one filter element disposed inside the cylindrical outer screen member and coaxial with the outer screen member, and a drainage arrangement in contact with the at least one filter element to drain accumulated lubricant out of the at least one filter element.
One advantage of the present invention is that an increased amount of media area of the coalescing element is available to capture lubricant.
Another advantage of the present invention is that it can easily and cost-effectively be manufactured.
Still another advantage of the present invention is that the pressure drop of the compressed gas through the coalescing element is reduced.
A further advantage of the present invention is an increase in the limit on the velocity of compressed gas flowing through the coalescing element.
Other features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following more detailed description of the preferred embodiment, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings which illustrate, by way of example, the principles of the invention.
Wherever possible, the same reference numbers will be used throughout the drawings to refer to the same or like parts.
In a preferred embodiment, the separator arrangement 30 is a horizontal separator in which the compressed fluid moves substantially axially (i.e., horizontally) through the separator arrangement 30. In another embodiment, a vertical separator arrangement may also be used. The separator arrangement 30 can include a shell 15 having a first head 32, a second head 34, and a discharge port 36. The separator arrangement 30 preferably has three stages, a first stage 23 where the direction of the fluid is changed, a second stage 25 where droplets are removed from the fluid stream and a third stage 27. In addition, the second head 34 can include a manway 48 or headway that provides ready access to components in the third stage 27.
Compressed gas with entrained lubricant traveling at high velocity enters the first stage 23 of the separator arrangement 30 through conduit 22. In this first stage 23, the compressed gas expands on exiting the conduit 22, experiencing a velocity drop. The compressed gas and entrained lubricant then strike a barrier, i.e., the first head 32, and undergo a direction change. A portion of the entrained lubricant, e.g., the larger droplets or agglomerated smaller droplets resulting from contact with first head 32, separate as liquid into a bottom portion 38 of the shell 15. This occurs as the droplets reach a critical size such that gravity draws these larger droplets from the fluid stream. A substantial portion of the remaining entrained lubricant is smaller than this critical droplet size and remains in the fluid stream. In the first stage 23, droplets and/or particles of about 70 microns or larger are agglomerated and substantially removed by gravity. The remaining fluid leaving the first stage 23 includes droplets entrained in the compressed gas as a combination of fine aerosol and a fine mist. The mist includes droplets having a size distribution with a diameter in the range above about 1.0 micron to about 70 microns, with a very large number of particles in the submicron, or aerosol, range. The agglomerated lubricant from the first stage 23 may include a small amount of dissolved refrigerant. The liquid that drops to the bottom portion or sump 38 of shell 15 acts as a main oil reservoir and is returned to compressor 10, where it lubricates the bearings and other moving parts of the compressor 10. This lubricant is filtered and cooled before returning to the main compressor, which return may be accomplished by an additional component, e.g., a pump, in some systems.
The fluid then moves into the second stage 25 of the separator arrangement 30 to remove additional lubricant droplets from the compressed gas. A number of options are available for this stage, each of the options removing droplets of different sizes. One option is to utilize the length of the shell 15 to remove droplets as the compressed gas travels along the length of the shell 15. This option is of limited value in a shell 15 of relatively short length. A second option utilizes a plate pack (not shown) in which the compressed gas and entrained lubricant passes over a series of stationary plates. Lubricant droplets having a size in the range of about 15 microns to about 700 microns are removed from the stream in this option, agglomerating on the plates as the fluid passes over the plates. A few smaller particles and a few remaining larger particles may also agglomerate on the plates. Another option shown in
The fluid leaving the second stage 25 in the form of a compressed gas having entrained mist and aerosol then moves into the third stage 27 of the separator arrangement 30. The third stage 27 can include a coalescer portion 40. The coalescer portion 40 can include at least one filter, and typically a series of filters of progressively finer mesh in the form of fibers. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, these filters are incorporated into one or more coalescing elements 42. The coalescing element 42 preferably has a substantially cylindrical shape, although any suitable shape can be used. The coalescer portion 40 also includes a coalescer reservoir 44, a return line 46 from the coalescer reservoir 44 to compressor 10 and a manway 48 to provide access to the coalescer portion 40. Discharge port 36 of separator 30 is located in the coalescer portion 40 downstream of the one or more coalescing elements 42.
The purpose of the coalescer portion 40, and specifically the one or more coalescing elements 42, is to remove as much of the remaining lubricant from the compressed gas as possible, so that the lubricant can be returned to the compressor 10 to perform its lubricating function, and the compressed gas can pass downstream of the separator arrangement 30, e.g., into a condenser of an HVAC system or into a storage container of a natural gas system, with as little entrained lubricant as possible. Thus, the coalescing element 42 has to remove the remaining mist and as much of the aerosol as possible from the compressed fluid before it leaves the separator arrangement 30. As the gas with entrained mist and aerosol pass into the coalescer portion 40, the mist-like particles form droplets on the filter(s) of the coalescing element 42 and drop into coalescer reservoir 44. The filter or series of filters in the coalescing element 42 are comprised of fine mesh fibers, such as glass microfibers. These microfibers have sufficient surface area to drop the velocity of the gas and mist passing through it sufficiently so that the filters are effective to coalesce the mist into droplets that fall to the coalescer reservoir 44 as a liquid.
Once the compressed gas has passed through the at least one filter of the coalescing element 42, the gas exits the separator arrangement 30 through discharge port 36 into a conduit for transference downstream for subsequent processing. The liquid agglomerated into coalescer reservoir 44, which is substantially lubricant but may include a small amount of dissolved refrigerant, is returned via return line 46 to the compressor 10 after filtering. Because the coalescer reservoir 44 is the low pressure point of the separator arrangement 30, yet on the high pressure side of the system, the lubricant in the coalescer reservoir 44, being at a higher pressure than the pressure on the low pressure side (suction side) of the compressor 10, is returned by this pressure differential to compressor 10 where the lubricant is used to lubricate and seal moving parts of the compressor 10.
After entering the inlet 200 of the coalescing element 42, the gas passes through a first filter element 202, a second filter element 204 and an outer mesh or screen member 206. The first filter element 202, the second filter element 204 and the outer mesh or screen member 206 are substantially coaxial to one another and separated by air gaps 201. The first filter element 202 and the second filter element 204 are used to remove any entrained lubricant from the gas flow. The outer mesh or screen member 206 is preferably a perforated metal or expanded metal used to strengthen the coalescing element 42 and to assist in the drainage of the coalesced lubricant from the coalescing element 42. It is to be understood that while
Each of the first filter element 202 and the second filter element 204 have a substantially cylindrical shape and include a filter media surrounded by a mesh or screen member on each side to contain the filter media. The filter media can be held in the cylindrical shape by any suitable technique including adhesives. Similarly, the mesh or screen members can be held in the cylindrical shape by any suitable technique. Preferably, the inner mesh or screen member surrounding the filter media is perforated metal or expanded metal and the outer mesh or screen member surrounding the filter media is a wire mesh. However, in other embodiments both the inner and outer mesh or screen member can be the same type, i.e., both perforated metal, both expanded metal or both wire mesh. In still additional embodiments, the inner mesh or screen member surrounding the filter media is a wire mesh and the outer mesh or screen member surrounding the filter media is perforated metal or expanded metal.
The filter media of both the first filter element 202 and the second filter element 204 can be a fine material fiber or microfiber material, such as fiberglass, which causes the remaining mist and aerosol lubricant to coalesce into droplets on or in the filter media, after which, by gravity, the droplets fall into a coalescer reservoir 44. In another embodiment of the present invention, the filter media can be in a pleated or convoluted arrangement instead of a fibrous arrangement. Furthermore, the specific arrangement of the filter media can be selected based on desired performance characteristics and the ability to withstand operating conditions. In a preferred embodiment, the filter media in the first filter element 202 is a “roughing” filter media and the filter media in the second filter element 204 is “finish” filter media.
As discussed above, the lubricant coalesces on the filter media of the first filter element 202 and the second filter element 204. The coalesced lubricant can accumulate in the filter media, thereby reducing the amount of available filter media that can be used to coalesce lubricant from the gas stream. To remove this accumulated coalesced lubricant, a drainage mechanism is located in the air gaps 201 between the second filter element 204 and the outer screen 206 and/or between the first filter element 202 and the second filter element 204. In other embodiments having additional filter elements, the drainage mechanism can be located in the corresponding air gaps between filter elements. The drainage mechanism is located in the lower half and preferably at the bottom of the coalescing element 42, i.e., the “6 o'clock position” when mounted horizontally, and is in contact with the corresponding filter element with which the drainage mechanism is draining. The drainage mechanism is preferably a single member or piece that extends along the entire length of the coalescing element 42. However, in other embodiments, the drainage mechanism can include more than one member or piece, arranged either radially, longitudinally, or both. The drainage mechanism operates to drain or wick the accumulated lubricant out of the filter media and into the coalescer reservoir 44. Specifically, the drainage mechanism operates to remove or drain liquid from the filter media by reducing the surface tension along the line of contact between the filter media and the drainage mechanism. By draining the accumulated lubricant out of the filter media, the drainage mechanism reduces the saturation zone of the filter media and increases the available amount of filter media for coalescing lubricant out of the gas stream. The drainage mechanism can have any desired shape that maintains contact with the filter element including the filter media and can drain away the accumulated lubricant. Further, the drainage mechanism can be made of any suitable material including metals, rubber or plastic materials.
In one embodiment of the present invention, the compression system 2 can be incorporated in a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), refrigeration or liquid chiller system. In addition to the compressor 10, the system also includes a condenser, an expansion device and a water chiller or evaporator. Compressor 10 compresses a refrigerant vapor and delivers the vapor to the condenser, after passing through the separator arrangement 30, using discharge port 36. The refrigerant vapor delivered to the condenser enters into a heat exchange relationship with a fluid, e.g., air or water, and undergoes a phase change to a refrigerant liquid as a result of the heat exchange relationship with the fluid. The condensed liquid refrigerant from the condenser flows to the evaporator after passing through the expansion device. The liquid refrigerant with possibly some vapor refrigerant enters the evaporator and enters into a heat exchange relationship with a fluid, e.g., air or water, and undergoes a phase change to a refrigerant vapor as a result of the heat exchange relationship with the fluid. The vapor refrigerant in the evaporator exits the evaporator and returns to the compressor 10 by a suction line to complete the cycle.
The compression system 2 includes a motor or drive mechanism 20 to drive the compressor 10. While the term “motor” is used with respect to the drive mechanism for the compressor 10, it is to be understood that the term “motor” is not limited to a motor, but is intended to encompass any component that can be used in conjunction with the driving of motor 10, such as a variable speed drive and a motor starter. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the motor or drive mechanism 20 is an electric motor and associated components. However, other drive mechanisms, such as steam or gas turbines or engines and associated components can be used to drive the compressor 10.
While the invention has been described with reference to a preferred embodiment, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes may be made and equivalents may be substituted for elements thereof without departing from the scope of the invention. In addition, many modifications may be made to adapt a particular situation or material to the teachings of the invention without departing from the essential scope thereof. Therefore, it is intended that the invention not be limited to the particular embodiment disclosed as the best mode contemplated for carrying out this invention, but that the invention will include all embodiments falling within the scope of the appended claims.
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|U.S. Classification||55/423, 55/498, 55/486|
|Cooperative Classification||B01D46/2411, B01D46/0031, F04B39/02, B01D46/0024|
|European Classification||B01D46/00F20D, B01D46/24F4, F04B39/02, B01D46/00D4A|
|Jul 28, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: JOHNSON CONTROLS TECHNOLOGY COMPANY, MICHIGAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BARRATT, THOMAS R.;REEL/FRAME:018019/0641
Effective date: 20060728
Owner name: JOHNSON CONTROLS TECHNOLOGY COMPANY,MICHIGAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:BARRATT, THOMAS R.;REEL/FRAME:018019/0641
Effective date: 20060728
|Sep 12, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4