|Publication number||US7691245 B2|
|Application number||US 11/316,414|
|Publication date||Apr 6, 2010|
|Filing date||Dec 21, 2005|
|Priority date||Apr 15, 1993|
|Also published as||DE69333601D1, DE69333601T2, EP0620432A1, EP0620432B1, EP1296134A2, EP1296134A3, EP1296134B1, US6280589, US6423198, US6491804, US6699377, US6699378, US6706164, US6730202, US6960286, US20010004963, US20010004964, US20010008213, US20010023824, US20010025793, US20020027075, US20020036140, US20060272945|
|Publication number||11316414, 316414, US 7691245 B2, US 7691245B2, US-B2-7691245, US7691245 B2, US7691245B2|
|Inventors||Andreas Manz, D. Jed Harrison, Carlo S. Effenhauser|
|Original Assignee||Andreas Manz, Harrison D Jed, Effenhauser Carlo S|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (25), Non-Patent Citations (17), Classifications (13), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/995,554 filed Nov. 28, 2001, now abandoned, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/657,772 filed on Sep. 8, 2000, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,423,198 issued on Jul. 23, 2002, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 08/226,605 filed Apr. 12, 1994, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,280,589 issued on Aug. 28, 2001, which claims priority to EP Patent Application No. 93810272.0, filed Apr. 15, 1993, published as EP 0 620 432, all of which are incorporated herein by reference in their entirety.
The present invention concerns a method for controlling sample introduction in microcolumn separation techniques according to the precharacterizing clause of patent claim 1. The invention also concerns a respective sampling device according to the precharacterizing clause of patent claim 12.
Microcolumn separation techniques, in particular capillary electrophoresis has become a very interesting separation technique which is used as part of a sensor or a chemical analysis system. One major reason for this is the great efficiency of the method as a separation technique. The sampling methods usually applied in capillary electrophoresis are:
injection of a sample with a syringe, via a septum, in an injection block,
the use of injection valves with/without a sample loop, and
dipping one end of the capillary tube into the sample reservoir, whereby the sample is introduced by gravity flow, by over- or underpressure, or by electroendosmosis and/or electromigration.
While it is mentioned in Journal of Chromatography, 452, (1988) 612-622, that sample valves are the most suitable sampling method for capillary electrophoresis, there also is described a valveless device for the injection of a sample. The described arrangement comprises a cast capillary block which is connected between an electrode compartment and a sampling device. In the electrode compartment electrolyte solutions contact electrodes. The capillary tube contains measuring electrodes which are connected with an evaluation electronics. The sampling device consists of a broadened part of the capillary tube connected with two feeders which extend perpendicular to the capillary tube. The arrangement of the two feeders off-set from each other along the longitudinal extension of the capillary tube is such, that the sampling device has the shape of a capillary double T structure.
The sample is introduced into the sampling device via a syringe. The injection volume is defined geometrically by the distance which the two feeders are spaced apart along the capillary tube. The transport of the electrolyte solution and the sample in the capillary tube is accomplished by electric fields that are applied between the respective electrodes along the capillary tube. An advantage of the double T shape sampling device, as is also obtained with the use of injection valves, is the concentration effect of dilute sample ionic species. However, it is possible that, although no electric field gradient over the feeders exists, sample components from the feeders may diffuse into the capillary tube when the sample has already left the sampling position. The amounts of sample components that uncontrollably enter the capillary tube depend on the diffusion coefficients and the mobilities of the respective sample components. Thus, at the detector there not only arrives a more or less broadened plug of injected sample fluid, depending on the diffusion coefficients and the mobilities of the respective components in the electrolyte and the electric field, but also the electrolyte in front and after or between individual plugs of sample fluid is “polluted” with unpredictable amounts of sample components. These unpredictable amounts of sample components reaching the detector are highly undesirable and result in a high noise of the detected signal, thus reducing the limits of detection considerably.
In Analytical Chemistry, 1992, 64, pages 1926-1932 a capillary electrophoretic device is described in which the sample is injected electrokinetically dipping one end of a capillary into the sample reservoir and applying a voltage across the ends of the capillary. In the electric field the sample is transported electrokinetically and is injected at a T-junction into the channel system of the capillary electrophoretic device. This method, however, leads to a well-known bias of the actual sample composition due to the differences in the electrophoretic mobilities of the sample components. Thus, the sample introduced often does not have the same composition as the original sample. In addition, the volume of the introduced sample is very often unknown such, that internal standards have to be used for quantitative analyses.
It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a method for controlling sample introduction in microcolumn separation techniques, and more particularly in capillary electrophoresis (CE), and a sampling device which overcomes the aforementioned disadvantages of the prior art. The sample volume shall be geometrically defined. The composition of the sample which is injected shall not differ from the original composition of the sample in the reservoir. The uncontrolled introduction of sample fluid into the capillary tube shall be reduced considerably. If the unwanted leakage of sample fluid into the capillary tube cannot be totally avoided, provisions shall be made that at least it only occurs in a predictable and controllable manner.
The method and the sampling device according to the invention shall also allow an easy realization of miniaturized analysis concepts, such as the ones described, for example, in Sensors and Actuators B, 10 (1993) 107-116. There the concept of a multi-manifold flow system integrated on a silicon substrate, with valveless switching of solvent flow between channels and electro-kinetic pumping of an aqueous solvent, is described. A similar concept is described, for example, in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 64, No. 17, Sep. 1, 1992, 1926-1932. The described miniaturized chemical analysis system on the basis of capillary electrophoresis comprises a complex manifold of capillary channels, which are micromachined in a planar glass substrate. The transport of the solvent and the sample occurs due to electro-kinetic effects (electro-osmosis and/or electrophoresis).
The objects of the invention are met by a method for controlling sample introduction in capillary electrophoresis (CE) which involves the process steps according to the characterizing part of patent claim 1. More particularly, a method for controlling sample introduction in microcolumn separation techniques, in especially in capillary electrophoresis (CE) is provided, wherein an electrolyte buffer and a more or less concentrated sample are transported through a system of capillary channels. The sample is injected as a sample plug into a sampling device which comprises at least a channel for the electrolyte buffer and a supply and drain channel for the sample. The channel for the electrolyte buffer and the supply and drain channels for the sample intersect each other. The supply channel and the drain channel for the sample, each discharge into the channel at respective supply and drain ports. The distance between the supply port and the drain port geometrically defines a sample volume. The supply and the drain channels each are inclined to the electrolyte channel. The injection of the sample plug into the electrolyte channel is accomplished electro-kinetically by applying an electric field across the supply and drain channels for a time at least long enough that the sample component having the lowest electrophoretic mobility is contained within the geometrically defined volume. By this measure the composition of the injected sample plug will reflect the actual sample composition.
In a further preferred process step, immediately after the injection of the sample plug, the electrolyte buffer is allowed to advance into the supply channel and into the drain channel at the respective supply and drain ports for a time period, which amounts to at least the migration time of a slowest component within the sample plug from the supply port to the detector. Thus, the sample is pushed back into the respective supply and drain channels and substantially prevented from uncontrollably diffusing into the electrolyte buffer which is transported past the supply and drain ports. In addition the method allows for control of the sample composition within the electrolyte buffer.
The sampling device according to the invention comprises an electrolyte channel, and a supply channel and a drain channel for the sample, which discharge into the electrolyte channel at respective supply and drain ports. The ports are arranged with respect to each other such that a sample volume is geometrically defined. The supply and drain channels each are inclined to the electrolyte channel. Means are provided for electrokinetically injecting a sample into the sample volume. The resistance to flow of the source and drain channels with respect to the electrolyte buffer is at least about 5% lower than the respective resistance to flow of the electrolyte channel. Preferred variants of the method according to the invention and preferred embodiments of the sampling device according to the invention are subject of the respective dependent claims.
The invention will become apparent from the following description with reference to the schematic drawings in which:
The transport of the electrolyte buffer and of the more or less concentrated sample is preferably accomplished by means of electric fields, which are created by switching electric potentials between electrodes of a respective reservoir R and waste receptacles W for the electrolyte buffer and between electrodes associated with respective source S and drain receptacles D for the sample.
As already mentioned before the transport of the fluids, i.e. the electrolyte buffer and the sample, is accomplished with electric fields, which are a result of different electric potentials at the reservoir R and the waste receptacle W for the electrolyte buffer, and the respective source receptacle S and the drain receptacle D for the sample. By applying, for example, a positive electric potential to the reservoir R and a negative electric potential to the waste receptacle, the electrolyte buffer is electro-kinetically transported from the reservoir R through the capillary channel system to the waste receptacle W. In order to introduce the sample into the channel piece 22, for example, the source receptacle S for the sample is maintained at a positive potential and the drain receptacle D is kept on a negative potential. In the resulting electric field the sample is transported electro-kinetically from the source receptacle S to the drain receptacle D. The direction of flow is indicated in
In order to assure that the composition of the sample in the sample volume 27 reflects the actual sample composition in the reservoir R the electric field across the supply and drain channels 23, 24 must be maintained for at least for a time period long enough that the geometrically defined sample volume is filled and contains the component of the sample which has the lowest electrophoretic mobility. This minimum time period tmin is given by the equation tmin=d/μi·E. In this equation d stands for the distance, which the source and drain port are spaced apart; μi is the total mobility of the slowest component i of the sample, which will be referred to in more detail hereinafter, E is the field strength across the source and drain channels, which results from the difference in potentials.
When a electrophoretic analysis of a sample is to be carried out, first an electric field between the reservoir R and the waste receptacle W is established such, that the electrolyte buffer is transported from the reservoir R to the waste receptacle W. After the channel system of the chemical analysis system has been filled with the electrolyte buffer, the injection of the sample into the channel piece 22 is initiated. For that purpose an electric field is established between the source receptacle S and the drain receptacle D such, that the sample is electro-kinetically transported from the source receptacle S through the supply channel 23 via the channel piece 22 into the drain channel 24 and on to the drain receptacle D. It is understood that during the time period, in which the sample is injected, the electric field between the reservoir R and the waste receptacle W is switched off, or that the potentials are chosen such, that the sample only is transported along the path described above. After the injection time period which is chosen such, that it is ensured that the sample volume 27 between the supply port 25 and the drain port 26 is filled with the sample, the electric field between the source receptacle S and the drain receptacle D is switched off. At the same time the electric field between the reservoir R and the waste receptacle W is activated again such, that the sample contained within the sample volume 27 is transported on into the direction of the detector(s) and the waste reservoir. While it is transported through the channel system the sample is separated electrophoretically in the electric field.
The problem of leakage or diffusion of sample components into the electrolyte buffer while it is transported past the supply and drain ports 23 and 24, even though no electric field is applied between the source receptacle S and the drain receptacle D, is solved by allowing the electrolyte buffer to advance into the supply channel 23 and into the drain channel 24 at the respective supply and drain ports 25 and 26 for a time period, which amounts to at least the migration time ti of the slowest component i within the sample plug from the supply port 25 to the respective detector. Thus, the sample is pushed back into the supply and drain channels 23, 24 and substantially prevented from uncontrollably diffusing into the electrolyte buffer which is transported past the supply and drain ports 25, 26. The migration time ti of the slowest component i of the sample is defined as the quotient between the separation length L and the product of the total mobility μ; of the slowest component i of the sample and the electric field strength E′ acting on it along its path L, and is given by the equation Ti=L,/(μi·E′). In this equation the separation length L (
In order to allow the electrolyte buffer to advance into the supply and drain channels 23 and 24, in the exemplary embodiment of the sampling device depicted in
Preferably the potential difference between the reservoir R and the source and drain receptacles S, D is chosen such, that the resultant electric field has a field strength which amounts to at least about 0.1 V/cm.
Another approach to allow an advancement of the electrolyte buffer into the supply and drain channels 3, 4 is depicted in
The sampling device 3 is part of an electrophoretic chemical analysis system and basically functions in the same way as the sampling device depicted in
While it is possible that the supply and drain channels 13, 14 empty directly into the channel piece 12 such, that their ends, which are located right next to the channels piece 12 are the respective source and drain ports 15, 16, from where the width of the channels gradually increases over a respective intermediate piece 13′, 14′ from the width p of the ports to the final width w of the channels, the supply and drain ports also have longitudinal extensions 1. These longitudinal extensions correspond at least to the width p of the respective supply and drain ports 15, 16. It is advantageous, if the widths p of the supply and drain port 15, 16 are kept constant along their longitudinal extension 1. In a preferred embodiment the widths p of the supply and drain port 15, 16 are chosen such, that they about correspond to the width b of the channel piece 12.
The depth of the channel piece 12 (which should correspond to the depth of the channel system that it is part of) and of the supply and drain channels 13, 14 typically amounts to from about 0.1 μm to about 100 μm. The depths of the bottle-neck-like supply and drain port 15, 16 about corresponds to the depth of the channels.
The sampling device 3 according to the invention has been explained with reference to exemplary embodiments which are part of micro-analysis chips. It can as well be an arrangement of capillary tubes, which is part of an electrophoretic chemical analysis system made of capillary tubes. In the most preferred embodiment, however, the sampling device is integrated into a system of capillary channels which are established in a small planar sheet of glass, semiconductor material, or a suitable polymer. Advantageously the channel system including the supply and drain channels and the respective supply and drain ports are etched or micromachined or casted (in case of a polymer base part), or otherwise established in the planar substrate. Most suitable for its manufacture are techniques which are well established in semiconductor production or in the manufacture of micromechanical elements.
The combination of a structure that geometrically defines the injected sample volume with an electro-kinetic injection of the sample over a defined minimum time period allows to reliably control the sample volume and to assure that the composition of the sample contained within the sample volume reflects the original composition of the sample in the reservoir. A further improvement of the method and the sampling device according to the invention allows a considerable reduction of uncontrolled leakage or diffusion of sample components into the electrolyte buffer. Thus, it is possible to reduce the leakage or diffusion such, that the still occurring leakage results in a concentration of the sample in the electrolyte buffer, that is less than 3% of the original concentration of the sample. By this measure the noise of the detected electrophoretic signal is reduced and the detection limits are increased.
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|U.S. Classification||204/453, 204/604|
|International Classification||G01N1/10, G01N1/00, G01N37/00, G01N27/447, G01N27/453|
|Cooperative Classification||G01N27/44791, G01N27/44743, C07K1/26|
|European Classification||G01N27/447B4, G01N27/447C7, C07K1/26|