US 7693228 B2
A general architecture scheme to perform channel estimation on orthogonal transmissions for any number of transmitting antennas present. Generally, the channel estimation is applicable for wireless communications in a MIMO system.
1. A method comprising:
separating data into multiple transmitting paths to transmit the data from one or more transmitting antennas by including an orthogonal preamble having training symbols, in which a training symbol is included in each time block of transmission for each transmitting antenna and in which a grouping of multiple time blocks from each transmitting antenna is determined by either a number of transmitting antennas or data streams utilized to send the data, wherein a preamble for each transmitting antenna is separated for transmission across the grouping of time blocks for each transmitting antenna by dividing subcarriers of the transmission into grouping of subcarrier indices; and
transmitting a group of subcarrier indices in a respective time block of a grouping of time blocks for each transmitting antenna, but in which a different set of subcarrier indices are transmitted from each of the transmitting antennas in a given time block, so that a complete set of subcarrier indices, although of different preambles, are sent in each time block from all of the transmitting antennas to allow a receiver that receives all of the time blocks from all of the transmitting antennas to perform channel estimation by first obtaining an interim channel estimation value which is then operated on by a weighting matrix stored in the receiver, in which the weighting matrix has coefficients corresponding to the training symbols and the weighting matrix is quantized instead of quantizing each entry in the weighting matrix, wherein results of the weighting matrix operation on the interim channel estimation value are saturated to select a predetermined number of bits to obtain channel estimation from the training symbols.
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7. A method comprising:
receiving data transmitted from one or more transmitting antennas that includes an orthogonal preamble having training symbols, in which a training symbol is included in each time block of transmission for each transmitting antenna and in which a grouping of multiple time blocks from each transmitting antenna is determined by either a number of transmitting antennas or data streams utilized to send the data, wherein a preamble for each transmitting antenna is separated for transmission across the grouping of time blocks for each transmitting antenna by dividing subcarriers of the transmission into grouping of subcarrier indices and wherein a group of subcarrier indices in a respective time block of a grouping of time blocks for each transmitting antenna are transmitted, but in which a different set of subcarrier indices are transmitted from each of the transmitting antennas in a given time block, so that a complete set of subcarrier indices, although of different preambles, are sent in each time block from all of the transmitting antennas to allow a receiver that receives all of the time blocks from all of the transmitting antennas to perform channel estimation; and
performing channel estimation by first obtaining an interim channel estimation value which is then operated on by a weighting matrix stored in the receiver, in which the weighting matrix has coefficients corresponding to the training symbols and the weighting matrix is quantized instead of quantizing each entry in the weighting matrix, wherein results of the weighting matrix operation on the interim channel estimation value are saturated to select a predetermined number of bits to obtain channel estimation from the training symbols.
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14. An apparatus comprising a receiver to receive data transmitted from one or more transmitting antennas that includes an orthogonal preamble having training symbols, in which a training symbol is included in each time block of transmission for each transmitting antenna and in which a grouping of multiple time blocks from each transmitting antenna is determined by either a number of transmitting antennas or data streams utilized to send the data, wherein a preamble for each transmitting antenna is separated for transmission across the grouping of time blocks for each transmitting antenna by dividing subcarriers of the transmission into grouping of subcarrier indices and wherein a group of subcarrier indices in a respective time block of a grouping of time blocks for each transmitting antenna are transmitted, but in which a different set of subcarrier indices are transmitted from each of the transmitting antennas in a given time block, so that a complete set of subcarrier indices, although of different preambles, are sent in each time block from all of the transmitting antennas to allow a receiver that receives all of the time blocks from all of the transmitting antennas to perform channel estimation, in which the receiver performs channel estimation by first obtaining an interim channel estimation value which is then operated on by a weighting matrix stored in the receiver, in which the weighting matrix has coefficients corresponding to the training symbols and the weighting matrix is quantized instead of quantizing each entry in the weighting matrix, wherein results of the weighting matrix operation on the interim channel estimation value are saturated to select a predetermined number of bits to obtain channel estimation from the training symbols.
15. The apparatus of
This application claims the benefit of priority to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 60/722,843; filed Sep. 30, 2005; and titled Channel Estimation For Orthogonal Preambles In A MIMO System, which is incorporated herein by reference.
1. Technical field of the invention
The embodiments of the invention relate to wireless communications and more particularly to channel estimation in a receiver of a multiple-input and multiple-output system.
2. Description of related art
Communication systems are known to support wireless and wire lined communications between wireless and/or wire lined communication devices. Such communication systems range from national and/or international cellular telephone systems, the Internet and to point-to-point in-home wireless networks. Each type of communication system is constructed, and hence operates, in accordance with one or more communication standards. For instance, wireless communication systems may operate in accordance with one or more standards including, but not limited to, IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth, advanced mobile phone services (AMPS), digital AMPS, global system for mobile communications (GSM), code division multiple access (CDMA), local multi-point distribution systems (LMDS), multi-channel-multi-point distribution systems (MMDS), and/or variations thereof.
Depending on the type of wireless communication system, a wireless communication device, such as a cellular telephone, two-way radio, personal digital assistant (PDA), personal computer (PC), laptop computer, home entertainment equipment, et cetera, communicates directly or indirectly with other wireless communication devices. For direct communications (also known as point-to-point communications), the participating wireless communication devices tune their receivers and transmitters to the same channel or channels (e.g., one of the plurality of radio frequency (RF) carriers of the wireless communication system) and communicate over that channel(s). For indirect wireless communications, each wireless communication device communicates directly with an associated base station (e.g., for cellular services) and/or an associated access point (e.g., for an in-home or in-building wireless network) via an assigned channel. To complete a communication connection between the wireless communication devices, the associated base stations and/or associated access points communicate with each other directly, via a system controller, via a public switch telephone network, via the Internet, and/or via some other wide area network.
For each wireless communication device to participate in wireless communications, it typically includes a built-in radio transceiver (i.e., receiver and transmitter) or is coupled to an associated radio transceiver (e.g., a station for in-home and/or in-building wireless communication networks, RF modem, etc.). The receiver may be coupled to an antenna and the receiver may include a low noise amplifier, one or more intermediate frequency stages, a filtering stage, and a data recovery stage. The low noise amplifier receives inbound RF signals via the antenna and amplifies them. The one or more intermediate frequency stages mix the amplified RF signals with one or more local oscillators to convert the amplified RF signal into baseband signals or intermediate frequency (IF) signals. The filtering stage filters the baseband signals or the IF signals to attenuate unwanted out of band signals to produce filtered signals. The data recovery stage recovers raw data from the filtered signals in accordance with the particular wireless communication standard.
The transmitter typically includes a data modulation stage, one or more intermediate frequency stages, and a power amplifier stage. The data modulation stage converts raw data into baseband signals in accordance with a particular wireless communication standard. The one or more intermediate frequency stages mix the baseband signals with one or more local oscillators to produce RF signals. The power amplifier amplifies the RF signals prior to transmission via an antenna.
In traditional wireless systems, the transmitter may include one antenna for transmitting the RF signals, which are received by a single antenna, or multiple antennas, of a receiver. When the receiver includes two or more antennas, the receiver generally selects one of them to receive the incoming RF signals. In this instance, the wireless communication between the transmitter and receiver is a single-output-single-input (SISO) communication, even if the receiver includes multiple antennas that are used as diversity antennas (i.e., selecting one of them to receive the incoming RF signals). For SISO wireless communications, a transceiver includes one transmitter and one receiver. Currently, most wireless local area networks (WLAN) that are IEEE 802.11, 802.11a, 802,11b, or 802.11g employ SISO wireless communications.
Other types of wireless communications include single-input-multiple-output (SIMO), multiple-input-single-output (MISO), and more recently, multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO). In a SIMO wireless communication, a single transmitter processes data into radio frequency signals that are transmitted to a receiver. The receiver includes two or more antennas and two or more receiver paths. Each of the antennas receives the RF signals and provides them to a corresponding receiver path (e.g., LNA, down conversion module, filters, and ADCs). Each of the receiver paths processes the received RF signals to produce digital signals, which are combined and then processed to recapture the transmitted data.
For a multiple-input-single-output (MISO) wireless communication, the transmitter includes two or more transmission paths (e.g., digital to analog converter, filters, up-conversion module, and a power amplifier) that each converts a corresponding portion of baseband signals into RF signals, which are transmitted via corresponding antennas to a receiver. The receiver includes a single receiver path that receives the multiple RF signals from the transmitter.
For a multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communication, the transmitter and receiver each include multiple paths. In such a communication, the transmitter parallel processes data using a spatial and time encoding function to produce two or more streams of data. The transmitter includes multiple transmission paths to convert each stream of data into multiple RF signals. The receiver receives the multiple RF signals via multiple receiver paths that recapture the streams of data utilizing a spatial and time decoding function. The captured receive signals are jointly processed to recover the original data.
With the various types of wireless communications (e.g., SISO, MISO, SIMO, and MIMO) and standards (e.g., IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, IEEE 802.11g, IEEE 802.11n in, extensions and modifications thereof), a large number of combination of types and standards is possible. However, when a wireless communication utilizes MIMO format for communicating between a receiver and a transmitter, complexities result due to the multiple transmission and receive paths for a given signal. For example, estimating channels at the receiver for a received signal generally requires taking into account the multiple signal paths from the transmitter. Accordingly, by providing a particular transmitting technique to allow channel estimation to be performed in a receiver when multiple signal transmission paths are present, wireless communication standards may be advanced for a multiple transmission path system(s).
The present invention is directed to apparatus and methods of operation that are further described in the following Brief Description of the Drawings, the Detailed Description of the Embodiments of the Invention, and the Claims. Other features and advantages of the present invention will become apparent from the following detailed description of the embodiments of the invention made with reference to the accompanying drawings.
The embodiments of the present invention may be practiced in a variety of settings that implement baseband processing in a wireless communication device.
Wireless communication devices 22, 23, and 24 are shown located within an independent basic service set (IBSS) area 13 and these devices communicate directly (i.e., point to point). In this example configuration, these devices 22, 23, and 24 typically communicate only with each other. To communicate with other wireless communication devices within system 10 or to communicate outside of system 10, devices 22-24 may affiliate with a base station or access point, such as BS/AP 17, or one of the other BS/AP units 15, 16.
BS/AP 15, 16 are typically located within respective basic service set (BSS) areas 11, 12 and are directly or indirectly coupled to network hardware component 30 via local area network (LAN) couplings 32, 33. Such couplings provide BS/AP 15, 16 with connectivity to other devices within system 10 and provide connectivity to other networks via WAN connection 31. To communicate with the wireless communication devices within its respective BSS 11, 12, each of the BS/AP 15, 16 has an associated antenna or antenna array. For instance, BS/AP 15 wirelessly communicates with wireless communication devices 20, 21, while BS/AP 16 wirelessly communicates with wireless communication devices 25-28. Typically, the wireless communication devices register with a particular BS/AP 15, 16 to receive services within communication system 10. As illustrated, when BS/AP 17 is utilized with IBSS area 13, LAN coupling 17 may couple BS/AP 17 to network hardware component 30.
Typically, base stations are used for cellular telephone systems and like-type systems, while access points are used for in-home or in-building wireless networks (e.g., IEEE 802.11 and versions thereof, Bluetooth, and/or any other type of radio frequency based network protocol). Regardless of the particular type of communication system, each wireless communication device includes a built-in radio and/or is coupled to a radio.
As illustrated, host 40 includes a processing module 50, memory 52, radio interface 54, input interface 58 and output interface 56. Processing module 50 and memory 52 execute corresponding instructions that are typically done by the host device. For example, for a cellular telephone host device, processing module 50 may perform the corresponding communication functions in accordance with a particular cellular telephone standard.
Generally, radio interface 54 allows data to be received from and sent to radio 60. For data received from radio 60 (such as inbound data 92), radio interface 54 provides the data to processing module 50 for further processing and/or routing to output interface 56. Output interface 56 provides connectivity on line 57 to an output device, such as a display, monitor, speakers, et cetera, in order to output the received data. Radio interface 54 also provides data from processing module 50 to radio 60. Processing module 50 may receive outbound data on line 59 from an input device, such as a keyboard, keypad, microphone, et cetera, via input interface 58 or generate the data itself. For data received via input interface 58, processing module 50 may perform a corresponding host function on the data and/or route it to radio 60 via radio interface 54.
Radio 60 includes a host interface 62, a baseband processing module 63, memory 65, one or more radio frequency (RF) transmitter units 70, a transmit/receive (T/R) module 80, one or more antennas 81, one or more RF receivers 71, a channel bandwidth adjust module 66, and a local oscillation module 64. Baseband processing module 63, in combination with operational instructions stored in memory 65, executes digital receiver functions and digital transmitter functions. The digital receiver functions include, but are not limited to, digital intermediate frequency to baseband conversion, demodulation, constellation demapping, decoding, de-interleaving, fast Fourier transform, cyclic prefix removal, space and time decoding, and/or descrambling. The digital transmitter functions include, but are not limited to, scrambling, encoding, interleaving, constellation mapping, modulation, inverse fast Fourier transform, cyclic prefix addition, space and time encoding, and digital baseband to IF conversion.
Baseband processing module 63 may be implemented using one or more processing devices. Such processing device(s) may be a microprocessor, micro-controller, digital signal processor, microcomputer, central processing unit, field programmable gate array, programmable logic device, state machine, logic circuitry, analog circuitry, digital circuitry, and/or any device that manipulates signals (analog and/or digital) based on operational instructions.
Memory 65 may be a single memory device or a plurality of memory devices. Such a memory device may be a read-only memory, random access memory, volatile memory, non-volatile memory, static memory, dynamic memory, flash memory, and/or any device that stores digital information. Note that when processing module 63 implements one or more of its functions via a state machine, analog circuitry, digital circuitry, and/or logic circuitry, the memory storing the corresponding operational instructions may be embedded with the circuitry comprising the state machine, analog circuitry, digital circuitry, and/or logic circuitry.
In operation, radio 60 receives outbound data 93 from host 40 via host interface 62. Baseband processing module 63 receives outbound data 93 and based on a mode selection signal 91, produces one or more outbound symbol streams 95. Mode selection signal 91 typically indicates a particular mode of operation that is compliant with one or more specific modes of the various IEEE 802.11 standards. For example, in one embodiment mode selection signal 91 may indicate a frequency band of 2.4 GHz, a channel bandwidth of 20 or 22 MHz and a maximum bit rate of 54 megabits-per-second. In this general category, mode selection signal 91 may further indicate a particular rate ranging from 1 megabit-per-second to 54 megabits-per-second, or higher.
In addition, mode selection signal 91 may indicate a particular type of modulation, which includes, but is not limited to, Barker Code Modulation, BPSK, QPSK, CCK, 16 QAM and/or 64 QAM, as well as others. Mode selection signal 91 may also include a code rate, a number of coded bits per subcarrier (NBPSC), coded bits per OFDM symbol (NCBPS), and/or data bits per OFDM symbol (NDBPS). Mode selection signal 91 may also indicate a particular channelization for the corresponding mode that provides a channel number and corresponding center frequency. Mode select signal 91 may further indicate a power spectral density mask value and a number of antennas to be initially used for a MIMO communication.
Baseband processing module 63, based on mode selection signal 91, produces one or more outbound symbol streams 95 from outbound data 93. For example, if mode selection signal 91 indicates that a single transmit antenna is being utilized for the particular mode that has been selected, baseband processing module 63 produces a single outbound symbol stream 95. Alternatively, if mode selection signal 91 indicates 2, 3 or 4 antennas, baseband processing module 63 produces respective 2, 3 or 4 outbound symbol streams 95 from outbound data 93.
Depending on the number of outbound symbol streams 95 (e.g. 1 to n) produced by baseband processing module 63, a corresponding number of RF transmitters 70 are enabled to convert outbound symbol stream(s) 95 into outbound RF signals 97. Generally, each RF transmitter 70 includes a digital filter and up sampling module, a digital to analog conversion module, an analog filter module, a frequency up conversion module, a power amplifier, and a radio frequency bandpass filter. RF transmitters 70 provide outbound RF signals 97 to T/R module 80, which provides each outbound RF signal 97 to a corresponding antenna 81.
When radio 60 is in the receive mode, T/R module 80 receives one or more inbound RF signals 96 via antenna(s) 81 and provides signal(s) 96 to respective one or more RF receivers 71. RF receiver(s) 71, based on settings provided by channel bandwidth adjust module 87, converts inbound RF signals 96 into a corresponding number of inbound symbol streams 94 he number of inbound symbol streams 94 corresponds to the particular mode in which the data was received. Baseband processing module 63 converts inbound symbol streams 94 into inbound data 92, which is provided to host 40 via host interface 62.
The wireless communication device of
The various embodiments of the wireless communication device of
It is appreciated that the more advanced communication protocols may utilize multiple channels when transmitting data in order to increase the transmitted bandwidth. For example, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) utilize multiple tones in which each of the tones correspond to a data channel. The multiple signals are of equal energy and duration and the signal frequencies are equally separated, so that the signals orthogonal to one another.
In SISO systems, it is readily simple for the receiver to estimate the transmitted channels since there is only one transmit antenna and one receive antenna. Generally, the practice is to use a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) so that each subchannel k is represented as:
For example, in a typical multi-channel communication where receivers estimate the channels for a received signal, a training sequence(s) may be sent by the transmitter to train the receiver to estimate the channels. By utilizing one of a variety of techniques, such as an adaptive algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation, a receiver may converge toward an estimate of a given channel. For example, coefficients of a receiver equalizer may converge to a best estimate value for a channel during receiver training and then use the estimated values obtained from the training to recover subsequently transmitted payload data.
Thus, by utilizing a training signal in a preamble portion of a transmitted data stream from the transmitter, the receiver is able to configure itself to an estimated value of the channel for recovering the data. Applying the above equations, a known value may be transmitted with the training signal (which is noted as S) so that estimation of H may be determined. Once H estimation is calculated for each channel, H estimation is then utilized to operate on subsequent received signal Y to obtain a subsequent unknown data transmission.
When multiple channels are transmitted from TX unit 100, H estimation is more complex, since there are now four potential H values (H00-H11) to decipher due to the multiple antenna paths. That is, in reference to
One technique of separating the outbound data into more than one transmitted data stream to train the receiver is illustrated in the example embodiment of
It is to be noted that TX0 sends both even and odd indices of the subcarriers shown in
The odd and even preamble mapping includes a training symbol for each antenna and for each time block. The four training symbols are used to train the receiver to configure the receiver to the protocol utilized by the transmitter in sending the data. For a receive antenna p (p=0 or 1 for RX0 and RX1), the received signal may be written as:
As noted above in solving for estimation of H, estimated H00, H01, H10 and H11, may be calculated as follows:
Thus, each tone k for each receiver antenna p may be operated on by the conjugate of S(k). Accordingly,
In the embodiment of
It is to be noted that the technique described above, in which Yp 1 or Yp 2 indicates a vector of size N, where N is the number of tones, is based on the number of Q transmitting antennas and P receive antennas. The number of receive antennas may be one or more than one. In the example described above, two transmitting antennas are present having a single signal stream at each transmitting antenna. When two transmitting antennas are present, two training symbols are utilized in the preamble with each block of data transmitted. However, the channels may be categorized into various other configurations and need not be necessarily indexed into even-odd indices. Accordingly, a general case for channel estimation is exemplified in table 150 of
Similar to table 130 of
Subsequently, the receiver processes the received signal on each antenna and performs the channel estimation as follows:
Although H may be solved directly, in some instances, an intermediary operation is performed in which a weighting operation is applied to the received signal. For example,
For example, in one embodiment of even/odd tones, b(2k)=c(2k)=0, and a(2k+1)=d(2k+1)=0 for integer k. The nonzero entries of the abcd matrix are [sqrt(2)] for even tones (block 1 of
In matrix form
One example implementation to obtain H for the above example is illustrated in
As described in the above examples, in a multi-transmit antenna system, a subcarrier index of a transmitted signal may be separated into separate transmission paths for transmission by corresponding antennas. This is typically performed by a baseband processor, such as baseband processing module 63 of
Therefore, either the number of transmit antennas Q, or the number of streams to be transmitted, determine the total number of training symbols that are to be sent. The receiver may have one antenna or a multiple of antennas to receive the transmitted data, since each receiver antenna signal path performs similar calculations to estimate the channels and recover the data. In the above described example embodiment, a 4Χ4 system is shown in which each transmitting antenna transmits a single stream. However, in other embodiments, multiple transmitting antennas may transmit a single stream. In general, the number of streams is less than or equal to the number of transmitting antennas. For example, four transmitting antennas transmitting two streams functions equivalently to the two transmit antenna system described above. Accordingly, the various embodiments of multiple antenna systems may be adapted for multiple streams, whether one transmitting antenna or multiple transmitting antennas are present.
It is to be noted that various other embodiments may be readily implemented to practice the invention. For example, in the transmission of the subcarrier index, each frequency map may send N, 2N or higher multiplier of samples for each symbol, where N indicates the number of subchannels used for the transmission. With multiple symbols (RN) being sent, where R is some integer value, the FFT points for each symbol may be averaged first and combined or the FFT points may be combined first and then averaged in the receiver. Furthermore, in the described example pertaining to
Additionally, the invention is not limited to just two transmitting antennas.
Accordingly, for Q number of transmitting antennas or streams, the number of entries in the matrix is Q2. Thus, in a four transmit antenna (or stream) system, 4Χ4 matrix is applicable.
Thus, a scheme to provide channel estimation when a transmitter has multiple transmitting antennas (or stream) is described. The techniques is applicable to transmission of orthogonal preambles in a wireless communication to train a receiver to identify and estimate the channels. In one technique, tone interleaving is used to map the subcarrier indices. Other techniques, such as cyclic delay with orthogonal mapping, may be readily employed as well to practice the invention.
The technique described may be implemented in a variety of transmission and receiving devices that utilize multiple antennas. In one embodiment, the technique described may be implemented in radio 60 shown in
Thus, channel estimation for orthogonal preambles in a MIMO system is described.