US 769664 A
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PATENTBD SEPT. 6, 1904.
J. H. MUNRO.
SLATING. Arrnlouron FILED ma. 24. 1904.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 1L No. 769,664. PATENTED SEPT. 6, 1904. J. H. MUNRO. SLATING.
APPLIUATIO FILED IAB. 24. 1904. H0 MODEL. 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
Patented September 6, 1904.
UNiTen STATES PATENT @Erica JAMES H. MUNHO, OF NEWARK, NEXV JERSEY, ASSIGNOR OF UNEJIALF T() JOHN MILTON VAN ORDEN, OF I\'E\\"ARK, NEW JERSEY.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 769,664, dated September 6, 1904.
Original application filed October 30, 1903, Serial No. 179,221. Divided and this application filed March Z4, 1904.
` serai No. 197,782. lNq man To rtl! mlm/.1r if 711/11/ concer-n1:
Be it known that I, J .mns H. MUNRo, ot' Newark, New Jersey, have invented certain Improvements in Slating, ot' which the following description, in connection with the accom: panying drawings, is a specification, like ligures on the drawings designating like parts.
This invention relates to building construci tion, and has for its object the production of covering` means capable ot' use to great advantage as a rooling material, but also applicable to walls and in other situations where my improvements are rendered available and desirable by their nature.
In perfecting` my invention I have made possible the use ot' members ot' rooting-slate of much smaller dimensions than are required ordinarily, redeeming from the waste-pile large q uant ities ot' this material, which, accordingly, l prefer to utilize, but to which I do not, of course, limit myself.
The chietl feature of my invention is a light, waterproof, lireproo'f, and air-tight covering made out ot' exceptionally thin slate cut up into unusually small sizes to be grouped together and cemented onto a carrier ot paper or other suitable fabric or material as a unit and' cemented onto the roofs or walls of a house by a waterproof and adhesive cement, making the iinished surface of this thin slate present a flat plane. This air-tight and watei-proof slate construction cannot be obtained by the present method of nailing slates to a root` or wall, in which each slate overlaps others tilted at an angle to carry the Water from one to the other and prevent the rain getting beneath. When one of these slates works loose from its fastening by the action of the elements, as very o't'ten occurs, it slips out ot' its position and falls to the ground, not only to the danger of the passer-by, but leaving tu open joint of the underlying slates unco1. cred and unprotectedy trom the storm, letting the water penetrate and do damage inside.
Another cause for detachment of slates from their fastening' when laid by the present method of nailing slates one over the other is the tact that slate by its own nature attracts and draws moisture, although it does not absorb it, and in winter it accumulates in the air-space below each and every slate set by the present method of lapping the slate members over cach other and very often freezes, expanding and cracking the slate, which 'slides oil' when the thaw comes. These slate members weigh from three to seven pounds each, according to the size ot' the slate used, and many fatal accidents occur through detachment of the slates and their blowing ofi' the root'. To eliminate this danger, I prefer to split or cleave the slate exceptionally thin and reduce the size of the members to about one-twentieth part the size of the average slate members now used and about one-fortieth part in weight and then cement these to their support, either directly upon theboards v or upon a lining ot' slates or other material, to be described. with a waterproof` and pret'- erably an elastic cement or secure them to the support by other suitable fastening means.
Another object in reducing` the size of the slate into small members is to overcome the uneven surface ot' the natural cleavage of slate, which is in many cases so pronounced as to prevent its being practicable to embed large slates into a thin bedding of cement without having air-pockets or vacuum portions, which would make the slates break when Walked upon and unsafe by reason of their thinness.
To summarize, I propose to cut the slate into small members to insure solidity and pro- Vide a Hatter surface, with a corresponding economy in weight and material.
I prefer to assemble these small slates at the quarry into sheets or rolls, cemeuting to their surfaces or otherwise securing paper or other fabric or means to hold them together as a. unit previous to transporting them to the place where they are to be used, and while I claim as new and original the cementing ot' a layer of small slate members assembled as a unit directly to the'roofing-boards or to a layer or layers of tar-paper or the like I prefer to first cover the roof or Wall with a layer of relatively long narrow slate members, either assembled together as a unitor secured tothe roof or wall piece by piece` to form a foundation or lining for the top layer of slate members.-
The various features of my invention are illustrated and described fully in the accompanying drawings and specilication and point'- ed out in the claims.
In the drawings, Figure 1 illustrates in perspective a portion of a rooic to which has been Vapplied sheets or sections of covering members mounted on holding means in accordance Fig. 2 1llustrates in side with my invention. elevation a post to which my invention has been applied, parts being broken away to show the construction in section. 4 show in section composite slates o1' 'units comprising a plurality of layers, ,to be described more fully hereinafter. Figs. 5 to 8, inclusive, are views, on an enlarged scale, of slate members having rustic edgesand laid in slightly-diiferent relative positions. Fig. 9 shows: in plan and vertical section, respectively, views of sheets or sections of a moditied form, while Fig. 10 shows in plan and hori- 'Zontal section, respectively, the same sheets assembled.
In the embodiment of my invention selected for description and illustration as a convenient form 'to enable a ready and complete understanding of my improvements, referring to Fig. l, the reference-numeral 1 designates the individual covering members, which in the instance shown appear as relatively narrow pieces of slate assembled with abutting edges andconstituting a substantially integral slate layer to be laid as a unit, being provided with alining-layer of holding means 2, which may conveniently be tar-paper or, other fabric or suitable material, -an intervening layer offbituminous or other cement 8 being preferably utilized to secure .the membersl in place and to act as a waterproof layer. Such sections may b e supportedr in any convenient manner, and in Fig. 1 metal T-bars 4 are shown supported by rafters 5, the frames 6 of the T-bars having a bedding of cement 7 for the'elnds'of the slates constituting the lateral edges of the sections or units.V
An adaptation of the slati ng with elongated members. to curved surfaces is shown in Fig'.
2, in which the referencefnumeral 8 designates a post, `which for thesalze of illustration Inay be considered as a-pile to be driven in waters containing the teredo or other agencies destructive to piles. In this figure the slate members 9 are illustrated as mounted on holding means 10, taking the form in this instance of a sheet'of tar-paper, for which any vother lsuitable fabric or holding means may be substituted, as desired and found convenient.
to the tar-paper pref- 'The slates are secured Figs. 3 and erably by a layer of cement l1, bituminous or otherwise, and the holding means can be secured by nails 12 or cement 13, or both, to the pile or post, and l contemplate a plurality of layers of such protective sheets in concen-l ient for application to a roof, although in some situations the sheets would be preferred.`
Fig. 3 shows two layers of slate members 14 withV an intervening layer of tar-paper or the like 15, to which the slates are preferably secured by cement 16.
- Fig. et shows a pluralityof layers of slates 17, secured together by a layer 18, of cement, to foiima composite slate or unit section similar to that. shown in Fig. 3, but lacking the, intervening layer of paper.
In Figs. 5to 8, inclusive, I have shown sections or units of slates provided with a rustic finish beveled outwardlyand upwardly, as
appears clearly at 19 in Fig. 5, so that the edges of4 neighboring slates may be contiguous or closely Iadjacent and still present the rustic effect. When members with edges beveled in accordance with my invention are laid in'cement, the cement oozes up during the process of laying, formsa key 20, and overlaps the -adjacent beveled edges 19, and this part of the cement forrns a bond, making this joint weather-tight and substantial and aiding to retain themembers in place; but I have found thatthe cement, if elastic,
does not interfere with their expansionor contraction nor with unit, the expansion and contractionbeing reduced and distributed, Y. owing to the large number of joints, the reference-numeral 21 designating the layer of cement, which in the instance illustrated secures the slate members theA flexibilityT of ,theI I to a layer of tar-paper 22,1thewhole forming` a section to be laid as a unit in accordance with my invention. are laid with broken straight joints.A .In Fig. 7 diagonal members are shown, and yin Fig. 8 elongated 'members'. In Fig. A9 members 23 are secured between layers 24 of paper or the like by cement 25, forming indpendent substantially integral IIO In Fig. 5 the members joints; in Fig. 6 lwith slate layers to be laid as units, as shown in Fig. 10, `where the two sheets are shown as laid in abutting relation.
l/Vhere the 4slate members are associated with a layer of elastic cement, either applied to single members or to the covering melmbers assembled in sections, as illustratedxlin various figures of my application, an extremely important feature of my invention presents itself. vSlate thus reinforced will not split or crack when a nail or the like is v of slate in each composite slate, b
driven through it and the thinner the slate of layers of relatively small members of slate thus reinforced the less is found to be the danger of splitting, and this capability, which is new with me and made possible only by my invention, enabling slate to be nailed .ifitboul. previous drilling of holes to receive the nefs, and this capability dilferei'itiates the slate from vitreous tiles or other covering members of lirtile material and seems to be due largely to thi4v homogeneous quality of slate a natural product reinforced by the cement.
Having thus illustrated and described fully my invention and the manner in which it may be carried .into effect, it will be understood that 'l do not limit myself to the specilic means illustrated and described herein nor in gew eral otherwise than as set forth in my claims read in connection with this specilication.
lt is to be noted that this application has been divided from an application, Serial No. ibdh tiled Uc'tober 230, 1903.
"what .l claim, and desire to secure by Letters 1iatent, isW
l. A coveringl for roofs or the like composed of a plurality of composite slateseacli comprisa plurality of smaller pieces of slate havim;I rusticv edges chipped on an upwardlyturned bevel. and means to Vunite said pieces y setting in ceinent in such a manner that the cement oozes up into the joints between adjacent slates under the pressure of laying, forming a bond overlying said beveled edges, cach said composite slate constituting a segregable unit to be set as .such in a bedding' of cement, substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth.
A covering' for roofs or the like composed of a plurality of compositer` slates having rustic chipped on an upwardly-turned bevel, ear-li comprising a plurality of `small pieces of siate and means to unite said pieces of slate in each composite slate by setting Iin elastic cement in such a manner that the cement oozes .p into the joints between adjacent slates under the pressure oi' laying, forming' a bond overlying said beveled edges, each said composite siate being set asa unit in a bedding of cement, substantially in the manner and for the purpose set forth.
'l composite slate or section for rooting purposes, comprising' a plurality joined together and to be leid as a.unit, substantially as described.
4. A composite slate or section for roofing' and similar purposes, comprising a plurality of layers of slate or similar material lioined togcther and to be laid as a unit, one layer having' broken joints relatively to the adjacent layer.
5. A composite slate or section for roofing' orsimilar purposes, comprising a layer of slate and a plurality of layers of lining material, said layer of slate beingformed of a number of relatively small members of slate assembled with abutting edges and constituting a substantially integral slate-layer to be laid as a unit, substantially as described.
t3. A waterproof, non-absorbent lining of the class described comprising a backing, and a plurality of elongated slate members cemented thereto by elastic cement and having out wardly-beveled edges to permit conformation of said lining to the periphery of a post or the like. said lining comprising sections each to be laid as a unit, cach section having a plurality of slates, substantially as described.
T. A covering for roofs r the like comprising slate members secured by a waterproof cement on both sides of a laycri paper or other fabric or suitable material, substantially as described.
S. As an article of manufacture slate or the like having :i reinforcing layer of elastic cement applied thereto and serving' to prevent splitting of said slate when pierced by anail, said slate constituting; a segrcgablc unit for rooting or similar purposes.
t). A waterproof, non-absorbent lining of the class de.' ri'bed comprising a backing and a plurality o 'elongated slate members cemented thereto and having beveled edges to permit conformatiorl of said lining'to the periphery of a post or the like, said lining comprising sections each to be laid as a. unit, each section having' a plurality of slates, substantially as described.
Signed at New York, in the county of New York and State of New York, this 15th day of March, A. l). 1904.
JAMES H. MUNRQ.
ALEXANDER C. PnoUDFIT, @Hannes F. GEHRMANN.