US 7697565 B2 Abstract A transmission apparatus for transmitting data has a table that includes a plurality of constellation versions for a 64 QAM modulation scheme. Each of the constellation versions defines at least one of (i) bit positions in a bit sequence and (ii) logical values of bits of the bit sequence. A transmission section transmits data using one of the constellation versions based on the table.
Claims(7) 1. A transmission apparatus for transmitting data comprising:
a table that includes a plurality of constellation versions for a 64 QAM modulation scheme, one of the constellation versions is produced by, with respect to a bit sequence (i_{1}q_{1}i_{2}q_{2}i_{3}q_{3}), at least one of (i) shifting bit positions to a bit sequence (i_{2}q_{2}i_{3}q_{3}i_{1}q_{1}), (ii) inverting logical values of i_{2 }and q_{2 }and (iii) inverting logical values of i_{3 }and q_{3};
a modulation section that modulates data into a 64 QAM symbol based on one of the constellation versions; and
a transmission section that transmits the modulated data to a reception apparatus.
2. A transmission apparatus according to
3. A transmission apparatus according to
4. A transmission apparatus according to
5. A transmission apparatus according to
said modulation section (i) modulates first data into a 64 QAM symbol based on one of the constellation versions and (ii) modulates second data into a 64 QAM symbol based on another constellation version of the constellation versions, and
said transmission section (i) transmits the modulated first data and (ii) transmits the modulated second data.
6. A transmission apparatus according to
7. A transmission apparatus according to
said modulation section (i) modulates first data into a 64 QAM symbol based on one of the constellation versions in a first transmission and (ii) modulates second data into a 64 QAM symbol based on another constellation version of the constellation versions in a retransmission, and
said transmission section (i) transmits the modulated first data in the first transmission and (ii) transmits the modulated second data in the retransmission.
Description This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 11/003,437 filed Dec. 6, 2004, which is a continuation of application Ser. No. 10/239,794 filed Sep. 25, 2002, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,892,341 B2, issued May 10, 2005. The present invention relates to a hybrid ARQ retransmission method in a communication system. A common technique in communication systems with unreliable and time-varying channel conditions is to correct errors based on automatic repeat request (ARQ) schemes together with a forward error correction (FEC) technique called hybrid ARQ (HARQ). If an error is detected by a commonly used cyclic redundancy check (CRC), the receiver of the communication system requests the transmitter to resend the erroneously received data packets. S. Kaliel, Analysis of a type II hybrid ARQ scheme with code combining, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 38, No. 8, August 1990 and S. Kallel, R. Link, S. Bakhtiyari, Throughput performance of Memory ARQ schemes, IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 48, No. 3, May 1999 define three different types of ARQ schemes:
Types II and III schemes are obviously more intelligent and show a performance gain with respect to Type I, because they provide the ability to reuse information from of previously received erroneous packets. There exist basically three schemes of reusing the redundancy of previously transmitted packets:
Employing soft-combining the retransmission packets carry identical symbols compared with the previously received symbols. In this case the multiple, received packets are combined either by a symbol-by-symbol or by a bit-by-bit basis as for example disclosed in D. Chase, Code combining: A maximum-likelihood decoding approach for combining an arbitrary number of noisy packets, IEEE Trans. Commun., Vol. COM-33, pp. 385-393, May 1985 or B. A. Harvey and S. Wicker, Packet Combining Systems based on the Viterbi Decoder, IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. 42, No. 2/3/4, April 1994. By combining this soft-decision values from all received packets the reliabilities of the transmitted bits will increase linearly with the number and power of received packets. From a decoder point of view the same FEC scheme (with constant code rate) will be employed over all transmissions. Hence, the decoder does not need to know how many retransmissions have been performed, since it sees only the combined soft-decision values. In this scheme all transmitted packets will have to carry the same number of symbols. Code-Combining Code-combining concatenates the received packets in order to generate a new code word (decreasing code rate with increasing number of transmission). Hence, the decoder has to be aware of the FEC scheme to apply at each retransmission instant. Code-combining offers a higher flexibility with respect to soft-combining, since the length of the retransmitted packets can be altered to adapt to channel conditions. However, this requires more signaling data to be transmitted with respect to soft-combining. Combination of Soft- and Code-Combining In case the retransmitted packets carry some symbols identical to previously transmitted symbols and some code-symbols different from these, the identical code-symbols are combined using soft-combing as described in the section titled “Soft Combining” while the remaining code-symbols will be combined using code-combining. Here, the signaling requirements will be similar to code-combining. As it has been shown in M. P. Schmitt, Hybrid ARQ Scheme employing TCM and Packet Combining, Electronics Letters Vol. 34, No. 18, September 1998 that HARQ performance for Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) can be enhanced by rearranging the symbol constellation for the retransmissions. There, the performance gain results from the maximizing the Euclidean distances between the mapped symbols over the retransmissions, because the rearrangement has been performed on a symbol basis. Considering high-order modulation schemes (with modulation symbols carrying more than two bits) the combining methods employing soft-combining have a major drawback: The bit reliabilities within soft-combined symbols will be in a constant ratio over all retransmissions, i.e. bits which have been less reliable from previous received transmissions will still be less reliable after having received further transmissions and, analogous, bits which have been more reliable from previous received transmissions will still be more reliable after having received further transmissions. The varying bit reliabilities evolve from the constraint of two-dimensional signal constellation mapping, where modulation schemes carrying more than 2 bits per symbol cannot have the same mean reliabilities for all bits under the assumption that all symbols are transmitted equally likely. The term mean reliabilities is consequently meant as the reliability of a particular bit over all symbols of a signal constellation. Employing a signal constellation for a 16 QAM modulation scheme according to In contrast thereto, bits i_{2 }and q_{2 }have a low mean reliability, as their reliability depends on the fact of whether they transmit a one or a zero. For example, for bit i_{2}, ones are mapped to outer columns, whereas zeros are mapped to inner columns. Similarly, for bit q_{2}, ones are mapped to outer rows, whereas zeros are mapped to inner rows. For the second and each further retransmissions the bit reliabilities will stay in a constant ratio to each other, which is defined by the signal constellation employed in the first transmission, i.e. bits i_{1 }and q_{1 }will always have a higher mean reliability than bits i_{2 }and q_{2 }after any number of retransmissions. The object underlying the present invention is to provide a hybrid ARQ retransmission method with an improved error correction performance. This object is solved by a method as set forth in claim 1. The method subject to the invention is based on the recognition that in order to enhance the decoder performance, it would be quite beneficial to have equal or near to equal mean bit reliabilities after each received transmission of a packet. Hence, the idea underlying the invention is to tailor the bit reliabilities over the retransmissions in a way that the mean bit reliabilities get averaged out. This is achieved by choosing a predetermined first and at least second signal constellation for the transmissions, such that the combined mean bit reliabilities for the respective bits of all transmissions are nearly equal. Hence, the signal constellation rearrangement results in a changed bit mapping, wherein the Euclidean distances between the modulation symbols can be altered from retransmission to retransmission due to the movement of the constellation points. As a result, the mean bit reliabilities can be manipulated in a desired manner and averaged out to increase the performance the FEC decoder at the receiver. For a more in depth understanding of the present invention, preferred embodiments will be described in the following with reference to the accompanying drawings. For a better understanding of the embodiments, in the following the concept of a Log-Likelihood-Ratio (LLR) will be described as a metric for the bit reliabilities. First the straight forward calculation of the bit LLRs within the mapped symbols for a single transmission will be shown. Then the LLR calculation will be extended to the multiple transmission case. Single Transmission The mean LLR of the i-th bit b_{n} ^{i }under the constraint that symbol s_{n }has been transmitted for a transmission over a channel with additive white gaussian noise (AWGN) and equally likely symbols yields It can be seen from Equation (1) that the LLR depends on the signal-to-noise ratio E_{S}/N_{0 }and the Euclidean distances d_{n,m }between the signal constellation points. Multiple Transmissions Considering multiple transmissions the mean LLR after the k-th transmission of the i-th bit b_{n} ^{i }under the constraint that symbols s_{n} ^{(j) }have been transmitted over independent AWGN channels and equally likely symbols yields If no constellation rearrangement is performed the Euclidean distances d_{n,m} ^{(j)}=d_{n,m} ^{(1) }are constant for all transmissions and, hence, the bit reliabilities (LLRs) after k transmissions will be defined by the observed signal-to-noise ratio at each transmission time and the signal constellation points from the first transmission. For higher level modulation schemes (more than 2 bits per symbol) this results in varying mean LLRs for the bits, which in turn leads to different mean bit reliabilities. The differences in mean reliabilities remain over all retransmissions and lead to a degradation in decoder performance. 16-QAM Strategy In the following, the case of a 16-QAM system will be exemplarily considered resulting in 2 high reliable and 2 low reliable bits, where for the low reliable bits the reliability depends on transmitting a one or a zero (see Level 1 (High Reliability, 2 bits): Bit mapping for ones (zeros) separated into the positive (negative) real half space for the i-bits and the imaginary half space the q-bits. Here, there is no difference whether the ones are mapped to the positive or to the negative half space. Level 2 (Low Reliability, 2 bits): Ones (zeros) are mapped to inner (outer) columns for the i-bits or to inner (outer) rows for the q-bits. Since there is a difference for the LLR depending on the mapping to the inner (outer) columns and rows, Level 2 is further classified: Level 2a: Mapping of i_{n }to inner columns and q_{n }to inner rows respectively. Level 2b: Inverted mapping of Level 2a: Mapping of i_{n }to outer columns and q_{n }to outer rows respectively. To ensure an optimal averaging process over the transmissions for all bits the levels of reliabilities have to be altered by changing the signal constellations according to the algorithms given in the following section. It has to be considered that the bit-mapping order is open prior initial transmission, but has to remain through retransmissions, e.g. bit-mapping for initial transmission: i_{1}q_{1}i_{2}q_{2} bit-mapping all retransmissions: i_{1}q_{1}i_{2}q_{2}.For the actual system implementation there are a number of possible signal constellations to achieve the averaging process over the retransmissions. Some examples for possible constellations are shown in
Moreover, Table 2 provides some examples how to combine the constellations for the transmissions 1 to 4 (using 4 different mappings).
Two algorithms are given which describe schemes using 2 or 4 mappings overall. The approach using 2 mappings results in less system complexity, however has some performance degradation with respect to the approach using 4 mappings. The mapping for i- and q-bits can be done independently and, hence, in the following the mapping for the i-bits only is described. The algorithms for the q-bits work analog. 16-QAM Algorithms A. Using 2 Mappings 1. Step (1. Transmission) Choose Level 1 for i_{1} Level 2 for i_{2}—free choice if 2a or 2b1. Mapping Defined 2. Step (2. Transmission) Choose Level 1 for i_{2 } Level 2 for i_{1}—free choice if 2a or 2b2. Mapping Defined 3. Step Options: (a) Go to 1. Step and proceed with alternating between 1. and 2. Mapping (b) Use 2. Mapping and proceed with using 2 times 1. Mapping, 2 times 2. Mapping and so on . . . B. Using 4 Mappings 1. Step (1. Transmission) Choose Level 1 for i_{1 } Level 2 for i_{2}—free choice if 2a or 2b1. Mapping Defined 2. Step (2. Transmission) Choose Level 1 for i_{2 } Level 2 for i_{1}—free choice if 2a or 2b2. Mapping Defined 3. Step (3. Transmission) Options:
In case of a 64-QAM system there will be 2 high reliable, 2 medium reliable and 2 low reliable bits, where for the low and medium reliable bits the reliability depends on transmitting a one or a zero (see Level 1 (High Reliability, 2 bits): Bit mapping for ones (zeros) separated into the positive (negative) real half space for the i-bits and the imaginary half space for the q-bits. Here, there is no difference whether the ones are mapped to the positive or to the negative half space. Level 2 (Medium Reliability, 2 bits): Ones (zeros) are mapped to 4 inner and 2×2 outer columns for the i-bits or to 4 inner and 2×2 outer rows for the q-bits. Since there is a difference for the LLR depending on the mapping to the inner or outer column/row Level 2 is further classified: Level 2a: Mapping of i_{n }to 4 inner columns and q_{n }to 4 inner rows respectively. Level 2b: Inverted mapping of 2a: i_{n }to outer columns and q_{n }to outer rows respectively Level 3 (Low Reliability, 2 bits): Ones (zeros) are mapped to columns 1-4-5-8/2-3-6-7 for the i-bits or to rows 1-4-5-8/2-3-6-7 for the q-bits. Since there is a difference for the LLR depending on the mapping to columns/rows 1-4-5-8 or 2-3-6-7 Level 3 is further classified: Level 3a: Mapping of i_{n }to columns 2-3-6-7 and q_{n }to rows 2-3-6-7 respectively Level 3b: Inverted mapping of 2a: i_{n }to columns 1-4-5-8 and q_{n }to rows 1-4-5-8 respectively To ensure an optimal averaging process over the transmissions for all bits the levels of reliabilities have to be altered by changing the signal constellations according to the algorithms given in the following section. It has to be considered that the bit-mapping order is open prior initial transmission, but has to remain through retransmissions, e.g. bit-mapping for initial transmission: i_{1}q_{1}i_{2}q_{2}i_{3}q_{3} bit-mapping all retransmissions: i_{1}q_{1}i_{2}q_{2 }i_{3}q_{3}.Analog to 16-QAM for the actual system implementation there are a number of possible signal constellations to achieve the averaging process over the retransmissions. Some examples for possible constellations are shown in
Moreover Table 4 provides some examples how to combine the constellations for the transmissions 1 to 6 (using 6 different mappings).
Two algorithms are given which describe schemes using 3 or 6 mappings overall. The approach using 3 mappings results in less system complexity, however has some performance degradation with respect to the approach using 6 mappings. The mapping for i- and q-bits can be done independently and, hence, in the following the mapping for the i-bits only is described. The algorithms for the q-bits work analog. 64-QAM Algorithms A. Using 3 Mappings 1. Step (1. Transmission) 1. Step (1. Transmission) Choose Level 1 for i_{1 } Choose Level 2 for i_{2 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{3}—free choice if 3a or 3b1. Mapping Defined 2. Step (2. Transmission) Options: (a) Choose Level 1 for i_{2 } Choose Level 2 for i_{3 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{1}—free choice if 3a or 3b(b) Choose Level 1 for i_{3 } Choose Level 2 for i_{1 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{2}—free choice if 3a or 3b2. Mapping Defined 3. Step (3. Transmission) if (a) in 2. Step Choose Level 1 for i_{3 } Choose Level 2 for i_{1 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{2}—free choice if 3a or 3bif (b) in 2. Step Choose Level 1 for i_{2 } Choose Level 2 for i_{3 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{1}—free choice if 3a or 3b3. Mapping Defined 4. Step (4., 7., 10, . . . Transmission) Choose one out of 3 defined mappings 5. Step (5., 8., 11, . . . Transmission) Choose one out of 3 defined mappings except the mapping used in previous transmission 6. Step (6., 9., 12, . . . Transmission) Choose one out of 3 defined mappings except the mapping used in last 2 transmissions 7. Step Go to 4. Step B. Using 6 Mappings 1. Step (1. Transmission) Choose Level 1 for i_{1 } Choose Level 2 for i_{2 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{3}—free choice if 3a or 3b1. Mapping Defined 2. Step (2. Transmission) Options: (a) Choose Level 1 for i_{2 } Choose Level 2 for i_{3 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{1}—free choice if 3a or 3b(b) Choose Level 1 for i_{3 } Choose Level 2 for i_{1 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{2}—free choice if 3a or 3b2. Mapping Defined 3. Step (3. Transmission) if (a) in 2. Step Choose Level 1 for i_{3 } Choose Level 2 for i_{1 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{2}—free choice if 3a or 3bif (b) in 2. Step Choose Level 1 for i_{2 } Choose Level 2 for i_{3 }(free choice if 2a or 2b) Level 3 for i_{1}—free choice if 3a or 3b3. Mapping Defined 4. Step (4. Transmission) Choose Level 1 for one bit out of i_{1}, i_{2 }or i_{3 } Choose Level 2 for one out of two remaining bits with following restrictions
If the received data packets are erroneous, the same are stored in a temporary buffer 22 for subsequent soft combining with the retransmitted data packets. A retransmission is launched by an automatic repeat request issued by an error detector (not shown) with the result that an identical data packet is transmitted from the transmitter 10. In the combining unit 21, the previously received erroneous data packets are soft-combined with the retransmitted data packets. The combining unit 21 also acts as a demodulator and the same signal constellation pattern stored in the table 15 is used to demodulate the symbol which was used during the modulation of that symbol. As illustrated in As mentioned before, the method underlying the invention rearranges the signal constellation patterns for the individual (re)-transmissions according to a predetermined scheme, such that the mean bit reliabilities are averaged out. Hence, the performance of the FEC decoder 23 is significantly improved, resulting in a low bit error rate (BER) output from the decoder. Patent Citations
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