|Publication number||US7706411 B2|
|Application number||US 10/812,368|
|Publication date||Apr 27, 2010|
|Filing date||Mar 29, 2004|
|Priority date||Mar 29, 2004|
|Also published as||US20050213506|
|Publication number||10812368, 812368, US 7706411 B2, US 7706411B2, US-B2-7706411, US7706411 B2, US7706411B2|
|Inventors||Shaun Kazuo Wakumoto, Ballard Claude Bare, Cetin Ersoy|
|Original Assignee||Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (20), Referenced by (2), Classifications (15), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates generally to communication networks. More specifically, the present invention relates to network switches and switch-to-switch protocols.
2. Description of the Background Art
It is common in conventional computing environments to connect a plurality of computing systems and devices through a communication medium often referred to as a network. Such networks among communicating devices permit devices (or users of devices) to easily exchange and share information among the various devices. The Internet is a presently popular example of such networking on a global scale. Individual users attach their computers to the Internet, thereby enabling sharing of vast quantities of data on other computers geographically dispersed throughout the world.
Networked computing systems may be configured and graphically depicted in a wide variety of common topologies. In other words, the particular configurations of network communication links (also referred to as paths) and devices between a particular pair of devices wishing to exchange information may be widely varied. Any particular connection between two computers attached to a network may be direct or may pass through a large number of intermediate devices in the network. In addition, there may be a plurality of alternative paths through the network connecting any two network devices. Computing networks are therefore complex and vary in their configurations and topologies.
Certain network communication media and protocols are referred to as packet oriented. A protocol or communication medium may be said to be packet oriented in that information to be exchanged over the network is broken into discrete sized packets of information. A block of information to be transferred over the network is decomposed into one or more packets for purposes of transmission over the network. At the receiving end of the network transmission, the packets are re-assembled into the original block of data.
In general, each packet includes embedded control and addressing information that identifies the source device which originated the transmission of the packet and which identifies the destination device to which the packet is transmitted. Identification of source and destination devices is by means of an address associated with each device. An address is an identifier which is unique within the particular computing network to identify each device associated with the network. Such addresses may be unique to only a particular network environment (i.e., a network used to interconnect a single, self-contained computing environment) or may be generated and assigned to devices so as to be globally unique in co-operation with networking standards organizations.
At the lowest level of network communication, such addresses are often referred to as MAC address (Media ACcess address). Network protocols operable above this lowest level of communication may use other addresses for other purposes in the higher-level communication techniques.
In many conventional commercially-available network environments, the network communication medium is in essence a bus commonly attached to a plurality of devices over which the devices exchange. In a simple networking topology, all devices may be attached to such a bus-structured common network medium. Any particular single network medium has a maximum data exchange bandwidth associated therewith. The maximum data exchange bandwidth of a medium is determined by a number of electrical and physical properties of the medium and protocols used to communicate over that medium. For example, a popular family of related network media and protocols are collectively referred to as Ethemet. Ethernet defines a standard protocol for the exchange of messages over the communication medium. A variety of communication media are also defined as part of the Ethernet family. The communication bandwidth of the Ethernet family of standards may change over time, but conventionally ranges from approximately 10 Mbit (megabits or million bits of information) per second to 1 Gbit (gigabits or billion bits of information) per second. Therefore, a single (slow) Ethernet connection, for example, has a maximum data exchange bandwidth of approximately 10 Mbit per second.
In conventional network computing environments, a number of devices are used in addition to interconnected computing systems to efficiently transfer data over the network. Routers and switches are in general network devices which segregate information flows over various segments of a computer network. A segment, as used herein, is any subset of the network computing environment including devices and their respective interconnecting communication links. As noted above, a single computer network communication link has a maximum data transfer bandwidth parameter defining the maximum rate of information exchange over that network. Where all devices on a computer network share a common network medium, the maximum bandwidth of the computer network may be rapidly reached. The overall performance of the networked computing environment may be thereby reduced because information exchange requests may have to await completion of earlier information exchange requests presently utilizing the communication link.
It is often the case, however, that particular subsets of devices attached to the network have requirements for voluminous communication among members of the same subset but less of a requirement for information exchange with other devices outside their own subset. Though standard switch features generally do not include identifying such logical groupings of devices, some enhanced switching features do permit such logic to be performed within a switch device. For example, some enhanced switch features include the concept of defining and routing information based on virtual LAN (VLAN) definitions. In a VLAN, a group of devices may be defined as logically being isolated on a separate network although physically they are connected to a larger network of devices. VLAN features of enhanced switches are capable of recognizing such VLAN information and can route information appropriately so that devices in a particular VLAN are logically segregated from devices outside the VLAN.
For example, the financial department of a large corporation may have significant information exchange requirements within the financial department but comparatively insignificant needs for data exchange with other departments. Likewise, an engineering group may have significant needs for data exchange within members (computing systems and devices) of the same engineering group but not outside the engineering group. There may in fact be multiple of such subsets of devices in a typical computing network. It is therefore desirable to segregate such subsets of devices from one another so as to reduce the volume of information exchange applied to the various segments of the computer network.
In particular, a switch device is a device that filters out packets on the network destined for devices outside a defined subset (segment) and forwards information directed between computing devices on different segments of a networked computing environment. The filtering and forwarding of such information is based on configuration information within the switch that describes the data packets to be filtered and forwarded in terms of source and/or destination address information (once address locations are “learned” by the switch(es)).
Network switch devices and protocols associated therewith are also used to manage redundant paths between network devices. Where there is but a single path connecting two network-devices, that single path, including all intermediate devices between the source and destination devices, represent a single point of failure in network communications between that source and destination device. It is therefore common in network computing environments to utilize a plurality of redundant paths to enhance reliability of the network. Having multiple paths between two devices enhances reliability of network communication between the devices by allowing for a redundant (backup) network path to be used between two devices when a primary path fails.
One embodiment of the invention relates to a method of handling oversubscribed ports between switches. An oversubscribed port is detected at a detecting switch. A set of paths exiting at the oversubscribed port is selected for retagging, and tags for the set of paths are invalidated. When packets with the invalidated tags are received, the received packets are retagged with a tag associated with a detour path.
Another embodiment disclosed relates to a packet switch apparatus with oversubscribed port handling capability for use in a switching mesh. The apparatus includes at least a plurality of ports and a switch controller coupled to the plurality of ports. The switch controller is configured using procedures stored in memory to (a) detect an oversubscribed port, (b) select a set of paths exiting at the oversubscribed port for retagging, (c) invalidate tags for the set of paths, (d) receive packets with the invalidated tags, and (e) retag the received packets with a tag associated with a detour path.
Another embodiment disclosed relates to a switching mesh including a capability to handle oversubscribed ports between switches. Each switch in the mesh is configured to detect an oversubscribed port, select a set of paths exiting at the oversubscribed port for retagging, invalidate tags for the set of paths, receive packets with the invalidated tags, and retag the received packets with a tag associated with a detour path.
A. Prior Handling of Over-Subscribed Mesh Ports
For purposes of illustration, consider the diagram of a switching mesh in
Building 108 the alternate path and assigning 110 the diverted addresses thereto involves a cumbersome procedure. Such a procedure 108/110 is now discussed in reference to
The above discussion in reference to
B. Switching Mesh and Path Tagging
In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, mesh tagging is utilized to advantageously identify paths within the mesh from a source switch to a destination switch. In one implementation, each source/destination pair may be configured with up to fifteen different paths. This is because four bits are used for the path identifier in a path tag and the zero value is considered invalid in this specific implementation. One example of such a path tag is described further below in relation to
Consider, for example, the mesh depicted in
For instance, a first path may go directly from A to D by exiting port 2 of switch A and entering port 11 of switch D. A second path may travel from A to D via switch C by exiting port 3 on switch A, entering port 7 of switch C, exiting port 9 of switch C, and entering port 12 of switch D. And so on for other possible paths. Each path is associated with a unique path identifier.
Consider the case where switch D learns a new MAC address and informs the rest of the mesh of the new MAC address associated with switch D. Switch A can then assign to that MAC address a path tag corresponding to one of the aforementioned paths from A to D (for example, path tag 0xB382 discussed above). Subsequently, every packet destined for that MAC address that enters switch A may be forwarded through the mesh based on that assigned path tag.
C. Example Packet Switch
A central processing unit (CPU) 602 performs overall configuration and control of the switch 600 operation. The CPU 602 operates in cooperation with switch control 604, an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) designed to assist CPU 602 in performing packet switching at high speeds required by modern networks.
The switch control 604 controls the “forwarding” of received packets to appropriate locations within the switch for further processing and/or for transmission out another switch port. Inbound and outbound high speed FIFOs (606 and 608, respectively) are included with the switch control 604 for exchanging data over switch bus 652 with port modules. In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, the switch control ASIC 604 is configured to insert, remove, and analyze a path tag within a fixed location in a packet.
Memory 610 includes a high and low priority inbound queue (612 and 614, respectively) and outbound queue 616. High priority inbound queue 612 is used to hold received switch control packets awaiting processing by CPU 602 while low priority inbound queue 614 holds other packets awaiting processing by CPU 602. Outbound queue 616 holds packets awaiting transmission to switch bus 620 via switch control 604 through its outbound FIFO 608. CPU 602, switch control 604 and memory 610 exchange information over processor bus 652 largely independent of activity on switch bus 620.
The ports of the switch may be embodied as plug-in modules that connect to switch bus 620. Each such module may be, for example, a multi-port module 618 having a plurality of ports in a single module or may be a single port module 636. A multi-port module provides an aggregate packet switch performance capable of handling a number of slower individual ports. For example, in one embodiment, both the single port module 636 and the multi-port module 618 may be configured to provide, for example, approximately 1 Gbit per second packet switching performance. The single port module 636 therefore can process packet switching on a single port at speeds up to 1 Gbit per second. The multi-port module 618 provides similar aggregate performance but distributes the bandwidth over, preferably, eight ports each operating at speeds, for example, of up to 100 Mbit per second.
Each port includes high speed FIFOs for exchanging data over its respective port. Specifically, each port, 620, 628, and 637, preferably includes an inbound FIFO 622, 630, and 638, respectively for receiving packets from the network medium connected to the port. Further, each port 620, 628, and 637, preferably includes a high priority outbound FIFO 624, 632, and 610, respectively, and a low priority outbound FIFO 626, 634, and 642, respectively. The low priority outbound FIFOs are used to queue data associated with transmission of normal packets while the high priority outbound FIFO is used to queue data associated with transmission of control packets. Each module (618 and 636) includes circuits (not specifically shown) to connect its port FIFOs to the switch bus 620.
As packets are received from a port, the packet data is applied to the switch bus 620 in such a manner as to permit monitoring of the packet data by switch control 604. In general, switch control 604 manages access to switch bus 620 by all port modules (i.e., 618 and 636). All port modules “listen” to packets as they are received and applied by a receiving port module to switch bus 620. If the packet is to be forwarded to another port, switch control 604 applies a trailer message to switch bus 620 following the end of the packet to identify which port should accept the received packet for forwarding to its associated network link.
D. Over-Subscribed Mesh Port Recovery with Re-tagging
As described above, by using mesh tagging (i.e. tags identifying different paths through the mesh), each switch may maintain a set of multiple paths to each of the other switches in the mesh. For example, in one implementation described above, each mesh switch may maintain a set of up to 16 identified paths to each of the other mesh switches.
For purposes of illustration, consider the switching mesh and tagged paths depicted in
Switches C 402-C and D 402-D are intermediate switches along that original path 802 to switch B 402-B (the destination switch). The following discussion considers an example wherein switch C 402-C has the oversubscribed mesh port (port 9 of switch C).
When switch C detects 702 that its mesh port 9 is oversubscribed (for example, due to port 9 dropping packets), then switch C 402-C selects 704 a set of paths from amongst the paths going from switch A (the owner switch) to switch B (the destination switch). This set of paths includes those paths to be retagged with tags for paths originating from switch C (the detecting switch) and destined for switch B (the destination switch). In this instance, consider that switch C 402-C selects 704 the path with tag 0xB285 802 to be retagged. Switch C (the detecting switch) then informs 706 switch A (the owner switch) of the set of tags that is going to be retagged.
Switch A (the owner switch) may then begin moving 708 some (or all) of MAC addresses associated with the path(s) that are going to be retagged. As discussed above, moving MAC addresses is a relatively slow and cumbersome process.
Meanwhile, in order to avoid or substantially reduce packet loss during the moving of MAC addresses by switch A, switch C determines 710 a detour path 804 (or detour paths) with associated path tag(s). For example, the detour path 804 may correspond to the direct path from switch C (port 8) to switch B (port 5) with path tag 0xA531, as shown in
Switch C (the detecting switch) invalidates 712 tags for the set of paths to be retagged. In our example, the tag 0xB285 802 is invalidated. When switch C (the detecting switch) receives 714 packets with the invalidated path tag(s), switch C retags 716 these packets with a tag for a detour path (or with tags for more than one detour path).
Note that while the specific instance discussed above involves retagging packets from a single owner switch, packets from more than one owner switch may be retagged to the detour path(s).
Further note that, in accordance with a preferred embodiment, a two-mode operation may be implemented. When an oversubscribed port is detected 702, a determination is first made as to the number of tags associated with that port.
In a first mode, if the number of tags is large, then some of the tags are changed (retagged) by the detecting switch to a new path tag, and the owner switch(es) of the changed tags are informed that their tag is no longer being used.
In a second mode, if there are not that many tags associated with the oversubscribed port, then the detecting switch does not do the retagging. Instead, the detecting switch chooses a tag or set of tags and informs the owner switches of the oversubscription condition. When the owner switches receive this notification, they reassign one or more of the MAC addresses associated with those tags to new, less costly path tags.
In addition to the steps shown in
In the above description, numerous specific details are given to provide a thorough understanding of embodiments of the invention. However, the above description of illustrated embodiments of the invention is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed. One skilled in the relevant art will recognize that the invention can be practiced without one or more of the specific details, or with other methods, components, etc. In other instances, well-known structures or operations are not shown or described in detail to avoid obscuring aspects of the invention. While specific embodiments of, and examples for, the invention are described herein for illustrative purposes, various equivalent modifications are possible within the scope of the invention, as those skilled in the relevant art will recognize.
These modifications can be made to the invention in light of the above detailed description. The terms used in the following claims should not be construed to limit the invention to the specific embodiments disclosed in the specification and the claims. Rather, the scope of the invention is to be determined by the following claims, which are to be construed in accordance with established doctrines of claim interpretation.
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|U.S. Classification||370/475, 370/237, 370/389|
|International Classification||H04L12/16, H04J3/24, H04L12/56, G06F11/00|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L47/10, H04L45/28, H04L45/22, H04L47/215|
|European Classification||H04L45/22, H04L45/28, H04L47/21A, H04L47/10|
|Mar 29, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HEWLETT-PACKARD DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, L.P., TEXAS
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Owner name: HEWLETT-PACKARD DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, L.P.,TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WAKUMOTO, SHAUN KAZUO;BARE, BALLARD CLAUDE;ERSOY, CETIN;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040323 TO 20040326;REEL/FRAME:015171/0320
|Sep 24, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Nov 9, 2015||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: HEWLETT PACKARD ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT LP, TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:HEWLETT-PACKARD DEVELOPMENT COMPANY, L.P.;REEL/FRAME:037079/0001
Effective date: 20151027