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Publication numberUS7711844 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 10/222,307
Publication dateMay 4, 2010
Filing dateAug 15, 2002
Priority dateAug 15, 2002
Also published asUS20030177253, US20040049596, WO2004017604A2, WO2004017604A3, WO2004017604A9
Publication number10222307, 222307, US 7711844 B2, US 7711844B2, US-B2-7711844, US7711844 B2, US7711844B2
InventorsDavid V. Schuehler, John W. Lockwood
Original AssigneeWashington University Of St. Louis
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
TCP-splitter: reliable packet monitoring methods and apparatus for high speed networks
US 7711844 B2
Abstract
A method for obtaining data while facilitating keeping a minimum amount of state is provided. The method includes receiving at a first device an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a second device to a third device wherein the first device is in a flow path between the second and third devices, the first device including at least one of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) and a Field Programmable Gate Array FPGA. The method also includes removing an embedded stream-oriented protocol frame including a header and a data packet from the received IP frame with at least one of the ASIC and the FPGA, and determining a validity of a checksum of the removed steam-oriented protocol header. The method also includes dropping the IP frame when the checksum is invalid, supplying a client application with data from the removed protocol frame when the checksum is valid, and sending an IP frame including the removed stream-oriented protocol frame to the third device from the first device when the checksum is valid.
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Claims(15)
1. A method for identifying and selectively removing data on a data transmission system, said method comprising:
receiving a data stream at a first device, said first device comprising a logic device, said data stream comprising a plurality of Internet Protocol (IP) frames sent from a second device and addressed to a third device, wherein the first device is in a flow path between the second device and the third device;
accumulating an in-order data stream at the first device by actively dropping out-of-order IP frames received from the second device;
removing an embedded protocol frame from a received IP frame;
supplying a computer-implemented client application with data from the removed protocol frame;
analyzing data supplied to the computer-implemented client application; and
sending the received IP frame including the embedded protocol frame to the third device after analyzing the data.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising:
determining validity of a checksum of a header of the removed protocol frame;
dropping the received IP frame when the checksum is invalid;
supplying a client application with data from the removed protocol frame when the checksum is valid; and
sending the received IP frame and the removed protocol frame to the third device when the checksum is valid.
3. The method in accordance with claim 2 wherein sending the received IP frame and the removed protocol frame comprises:
classifying the removed protocol frame as having a sequence number from the group of sequence numbers consisting of: greater than an expected classification, equal to the expected classification, and less than the expected classification;
sending the received IP frame and the removed protocol frame to the third device when the sequence number is not greater than the expected classification; and
dropping the received IP frame and the removed protocol frame when the sequence number is greater than the expected classification.
4. The method in accordance with claim 2 wherein removing an embedded protocol frame from the received IP frame comprises the step of the logic device removing a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) frame from the received IP frame.
5. The method in accordance with claim 2 further comprising classifying the removed protocol frame as having a sequence number from at least one of the following groups of sequence numbers: greater than an expected classification, less than the expected classification, an invalid Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) checksum classification, a non-TCP classification, a TCP synchronization (TCP SYN) classification, and an else classification.
6. The method in accordance with claim 5 wherein supplying the client application with data from the removed protocol frame comprises supplying the client application with data from the removed protocol frame when the classification is an else classification.
7. The method in accordance with claim 5 wherein sending the received IP frame and the removed protocol frame to the third device occurs when the classification is one of non-TCP, TCP SYN, the sequence number being less than the expected classification, and an else classification.
8. The method in accordance with claim 5 further comprising dropping the received IP frame when the classification is one of invalid TCP checksum and sequence number being greater than the expected classification.
9. The method in accordance with claim 5 wherein supplying the client application with data from the removed protocol frame comprises providing content of a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) stream to the client application in order.
10. The method in accordance with claim 5 wherein supplying the client application with data from the removed protocol frame comprises counting bits with data from the removed protocol frame.
11. The method in accordance with claim 5 wherein supplying the client application with data from the removed protocol frame comprises comparing the supplied data with reference data to perform content matching.
12. The method in accordance with claim 5 wherein supplying the client application with data from the removed protocol frame when the checksum is valid comprises supplying FPGA programming data.
13. An apparatus comprising:
at least one input port;
at least one output port; and
at least one logic device operationally coupled to said input port and to said output port, said logic device configured to:
receive an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a second device addressed to a third device;
remove an embedded protocol frame, said embedded protocol frame comprising a header and a data packet, from the received IP frame;
send the data packet from the removed protocol frame to a computer-implemented client application for analysis; and
send the received IP frame including the embedded protocol frame to the third device.
14. The apparatus of claim 13, further comprising at least one reprogrammable device operationally coupled to the logic device, said logic device being configured to:
determine whether the removed protocol frame includes programming data; and
reprogram said reprogrammable device when the removed protocol frame contains programming data.
15. The apparatus of claim 13, wherein the logic device is further configured to:
determine whether data within the removed protocol frame represents at least part of a quality of service (QoS) algorithm; and
supply a client application with data from the removed protocol frame when said data represents at least part of a QoS algorithm.
Description
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

This invention relates generally to data transfer through a network and, more particularly, to the monitoring of data passing through the Internet.

At least some known protocol analyzers and packet capturing programs have been around as long as there have been networks and protocols to monitor. These known tools provide the ability to capture and save network data with a wide range of capabilities.

For example, one such program “tcpdump” available from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (http://ee.lbl.gov/) allows for the capture and storage of TCP packets. These known tools work well for monitoring data at low bandwidth rates, but the performance of these programs is limited because they execute in software. Post processing is required with these tools in order to reconstruct TCP data streams.

Accordingly, it would be desirable to provide a solution to data monitoring that is implementable at high bandwidth rates.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

In one aspect, a method for obtaining data while facilitating keeping a minimum amount of state is provided. The method includes receiving at a first device an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a second device to a third device wherein the first device is in a flow path between the second and third devices, the first device including at least one logic device. The method also includes removing an embedded stream-oriented protocol frame including a header and a data packet from the received IP frame with the logic device, and determining a validity of a checksum of the removed steam-oriented protocol header. The method also includes dropping the IP frame when the checksum is invalid, actively dropping IP frames such that the first device always has an accumulated in order content stream before the third device accumulates the in order stream, supplying a client application with data from the removed protocol frame when the checksum is valid, and sending an IP frame including the removed stream-oriented protocol frame to the third device from the first device when the checksum is valid.

In another aspect, an apparatus for facilitating keeping a minimum amount of state is provided. The apparatus includes at least one input port, at least one output port, and at least one logic device operationally coupled to the input port and the output port. The logic device is configured to receive an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a first device addressed to a second device, remove an embedded stream-oriented protocol frame including a header and data packet from the received IP frame, classify the removed protocol frame as at least one of a sequence number greater than expected classification, a sequence number equal to expected, and a sequence number less than expected classification. The logic device is also configured to send an IP frame including the removed protocol frame to the second device when the classification is one of the sequence number less than expected classification and the sequence number equal to expected and drop the received IP frame including the removed protocol frame when the classification is the sequence number greater than expected classification. The logic device is also configured to actively drop IP frames such that the apparatus always has an accumulated in order content stream before the second device accumulates the in order stream.

In yet another aspect, an apparatus includes at least one input port, at least one output port, and at least one reprogrammable device. The apparatus also includes at least one logic device operationally coupled to the input port, the output port, and the reprogrammable device. The logic device is configured to receive an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a first device addressed to a second device, remove an embedded stream-oriented protocol frame including a header and a data packet from the received IP frame, and determine if the removed protocol frame includes programming data. The logic device is also configured to reprogram the reprogrammable device when the removed protocol frame contains programming data, and send an IP frame including the removed protocol frame to the second device.

In still another aspect, an apparatus includes at least one input port, at least one output port, and at least one logic device operationally coupled to the input port and the output port. The logic device is configured to receive an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a first device addressed to a second device, remove an embedded stream-oriented protocol frame including a header and a data packet from the received IP frame, and determine if the removed protocol frame includes data representing a quality of service (QoS) algorithm. The logic device is further configured to supply a client application with data from the removed protocol frame when the removed protocol includes QoS data, and send an IP frame including the removed protocol frame to the second device.

In yet still another aspect, a network including a plurality of switching devices operationally coupled to each other is provided. At least some of the switching devices including at least one logic device configured to monitor stream-oriented network traffic for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programming data, reprogram at least one of itself and a FPGA coupled to said logic device upon receipt of the FPGA programming data, and retransmit the FPGA programming data back onto the network such that other switching devices can reprogram themselves using the FPGA programming data.

In still yet another aspect, a method for distributing data is provided. The method including receiving at a first device an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a second device to a third device wherein the first device is in a flow path between the second and third devices, wherein the first device includes an Integrated Circuit (IC). The method also includes removing an embedded protocol frame from the received IP frame with the IC, supplying a client application with data from the removed protocol frame, analyzing the data supplied to the client application, and sending an IP frame including the removed protocol frame to the third device from the first device only after analyzing the data.

In one aspect, a method for distributing data on a network using a single TCP/IP source, a single destination and one or more intermediate hardware based monitoring nodes is provided. The method includes receiving at a first device an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a second device to a third device wherein the first device is in a flow path between the second and third devices, the first device including at least one logic device. The method also includes removing an embedded Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) frame from the received IP frame with the logic device, supplying a client application with data from the removed protocol frame and sending an IP frame including the removed protocol frame to the third device from the first device after performing an analysis on the removed frame.

In another aspect, a method for identifying and selectively removing data on a data transmission system is provided. The method includes receiving at a first device an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a second device to a third device wherein the first device is in a flow path between the second and third devices, the first device including at least one logic device, and actively dropping IP frames addressed to the third device sent by the second device such that the first device always has an accumulated in order content stream before the third device accumulates the in order content stream.

In yet another aspect, a dynamically reconfigurable data transmission system, having an apparatus including at least one input port, at least one output port, and at least one logic device operationally coupled to the input port and the output port. The logic device is configured to receive an Internet Protocol (IP) frame sent from a first device addressed to a second device, remove an embedded protocol frame from the received IP frame, and determine if the removed protocol frame includes Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) programming data. The logic device is also configured to supply a client application with data from the removed protocol frame when the removed protocol includes FPGA programming data such that the application receives a content stream in order, and send an IP frame including the removed protocol frame to the second device.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a high level view of the data flow through an embodiment of a TCP-Splitter.

FIG. 2 is a low-level view of data flow though an embodiment of a TCP-splitter.

FIG. 3 is a perspective view of a Field-programmable Port Extender (FPX) module.

FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the FPX module shown in FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 illustrates a plurality of workstations connected to a remote client across the Internet through a node including a TCP-Splitter coupled to a monitoring client application.

FIG. 6 illustrates a plurality of TCP-Splitter implemented FPX modules, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, in series between a programming device and a endpoint device forming a network.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

FIG. 1 is a high level view of the data flow through an embodiment of a TCP-Splitter 10. A plurality of Internet Protocol (IP) frames 12 enter into TCP-Splitter 10 from a source device 14, and frames 12 are addressed to a destination device 16. IP frames 12 each include an IP header 18 and a TCP frame including a TCP header and a data packet. The TCP header is removed, the packet is classified to retrieve Flow State, and then the packet is sent as a byte stream to a client application 20. An IP frame including the embedded TCP frame is also sent to destination device 16. Accordingly, the splitting of the TCP frame from the IP frame is transparent to devices 14 and 16. In one embodiment, client application 20 counts how many bits are being transferred in a TCP exchange. Additionally, client application 20 is provided with TCP header information and/or IP header information, and in one embodiment, the header information is used to bill a user on a bit transferred basis. In another embodiment, client application 20 has access to reference data and, in real time, compares the byte stream of TCP transferred data provided to client application 20 with the reference data to provide a content matching such as, for example but not limited to, content matching as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/52,532 (which issued on Aug. 15, 2006 as U.S. Pat. No. 7,093,023) and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/037,593, which two patent documents are hereby incorporated by reference into the instant patent application in their entireties. In one embodiment, upon finding a particular match with a predefined reference data, TCP-splitter 10 stops all data flow from a particular IP address, all data flow to a particular IP address, and/or all data flow though TCP-splitter 10. In other embodiments, client application 20 monitors data through TCP-Splitter 10 for security purposes, for keyword detection, for data protection, for copyright protection, and/or for watermark detection (and/or other types of embedded digital signatures). In one embodiment, a delay is utilized such that the data is analyzed as described above before an IP frame including the removed TCP frame is sent to the destination device. Accordingly, TCP-Splitter 10 allows for actions to be taken in real time processing. In other words, TCP-Splitter 10 allows for arbitrary actions to be taken by the client application before the IP frame is sent to the destination device. These actions include delaying transmission of the IP frame and stopping transmission of the IP frame. Additionally, in some placements, IP frames 12 can be wrapped with other protocol wrappers such as an ATM Adaptation Layer 5 (AAL5) frame wrapper 22 and an Asynchronous transmission mode (ATM) Cell wrapper 24.

TCP-Splitter 10 is not implemented in software, rather TCP-Splitter 10 is implemented with combinational logic and finite state machines in a logic device. As used herein a logic device refers to an Application Specific IC (ASIC) and/or a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and excludes processors. In the FPGA prototype, TCP-splitter 10 processes packets at line rates exceeding 3 gigabits per second (Gbps) and is capable of monitoring 256 k TCP flows simultaneously. However, TCP-Splitter 10 is not limited in the number of simultaneous TCP flows TCP-Splitter 10 is capable of monitoring and while 256 k flows was implemented in the prototype built, additional flows can easily be monitored by increasing the amount of memory utilized. Additionally, TCP-splitter 10 delivers a consistent byte stream for each TCP flow to client application 20. As explained in greater detail below, TCP-splitter 10 processes data in real time, provides client application 20 the TCP packets in order, and eliminates the need for large reassembly buffers. Additionally, by providing the TCP content in order, TCP-Splitter facilitates keeping a minimal amount of state.

FIG. 2 is a low level view of data flow though an embodiment of a TCP-splitter 30 illustrating a TCP input section 32 and a TCP output sections 34. Input section 32 includes a Flow classifier 36, a Checksum Engine 38, an Input State Machine 40, a Control First In-First Out (FIFO) buffer 42, a Frame FIFO buffer 44, and an Output State Machine 46. TCP output section 34, includes a Packet Routing engine 48 operationally coupled to a Client Application 50 and an IP output stack 52.

In use, data is delivered to an input stack 54 operationally coupled to TCP input section 32. Flow Classifier 36, Checksum Engine 38, Input State Machine 40, Control FIFO 42, and Frame FIFO 44 all process IP packet data received from the IP protocol wrapper. Output State Machine 46 is responsible for clocking data out of the control and frame FIFOs 42 and 44, and into output section 34. The input interface signals to TCP-Input section 32 are as follows:

IN 1 bit clock

IN 1 bit reset

IN 32 bit data word

IN 1 bit data enable

IN 1 bit start of frame

IN 1 bit end of frame

IN 1 bit start of IP payload

IP frames are clocked into input section 32 thirty-two data bits at a time. As data words are clocked in, the data is processed by Input State Machine 40 and buffered for one clock cycle. Input State Machine 40 examines the content of the data along with the control signals in order to determine the next state.

The output of Input State Machine 40 is the current state and the corresponding data and control signals for that state. This data is clocked into Flow Classifier 36, Checksum Engine 38, and Frame FIFO 44.

Flow Classifier 44 performs TCP/IP flow classification, verifies the sequence number, and maintains state information for this flow. Output signals of Flow Classifier 44 are (1) a 1 bit indication of whether or not this is a TCP packet, (2) a variable length flow identifier (currently eighteen bits), (3) a 1 bit indication of whether of not this is a new TCP flow, (4) a 1 bit indication of whether or not this packet should be forwarded, (5) a 1 bit indication of whether the sequence number was correct, and (6) a 1 bit indication of the end of a TCP flow.

Checksum Engine 38 verifies the TCP checksum located in the TCP header of the packet. The output of the checksum engine is a 1-bit indication whether of not the checksum was successfully verified. Frame FIFO 44 stores the IP packet while Checksum Engine 38 and Flow Classifier 36 are operating on the packet. Frame FIFO 44 also stores a 1 bit indication of the presence of TCP data, a 1 bit indication of the start of frame, a 1 bit indication of the end of frame, a 1 bit indication of the start of the IP packet payload, a 1 bit indication of whether or not there is valid TCP data, and a 2 bit indication of the number of valid bytes in the data word. The packet is stored so that the checksum and flow classifier results can be delivered to the outbound section 34 along with the start of the packet.

Once the flow has been classified and the TCP checksum has been computed, information about the current frame is written to Control FIFO 42. This data includes the checksum result (pass or fail), a flow identifier (currently 18 bits), an indication of whether or not this is the start of a new flow, an indication of whether or not the sequence number matched the expected sequence number, a signal to indicate whether or not the frame should be forwarded, and a 1 bit indication of whether or not this is the end of a flow. Control FIFO 42 facilitates holding state information of smaller frames while preceding larger frames are still being clocked out of Frame FIFO 44 for outbound processing.

Output State Machine 46 is responsible for clocking data out of the Control and Frame FIFOs 42 and 44, and into output section 34 of TCP-Splitter 30. Upon detecting a non-empty Control FIFO 42, output state machine 46 starts clocking the next IP frame out of Frame FIFO 44. This frame data along with the control signals from Control FIFO 42 exit TCP-Input section 32 and enter TCP-Output section 34.

TCP-Splitter 30 uses a flow classifier that can operate at high speed and has minimal hardware complexity. In an exemplary embodiment a flow table with a 256 k element array contained in a low latency static RAM chip is used. Each entry in the table contains thirty-three bits of state information. An eighteen-bit hash of the source IP address, the destination IP address, the source TCP port, and the destination TCP port are used as the index into the flow table. The detection of a TCP FIN flag signals the end of a TCP flow and the hash table entry for that particular flow is cleared. Other classifiers can be used to identify traffic flows for TCP-Splitter 30. For example, SWITCHGEN (as described in “Pattern Matching in Reconfigurable Logic for Packet Classification”, ACM Cases, 2001, A. Johnson and K. Mackenzie) is a tool which transforms packet classification into reconfigurable hardware based circuit design and can be used with TCP-splitter 30. A Recursive Flow Classification (RFC) algorithm can also be used with TCP-Splitter and is another high performance classification technique that optimizes rules by removing redundancy. The design of TCP-Splitter 30 does not impose any restrictions on the flow classification technique utilized and can be used with any flow classifier.

In an exemplary embodiment, output-processing section 34 of TCP-Splitter 30 is responsible for determining how a packet should be processed. The input interface signals to output section 34 are as follows:

IN 1 bit clock

IN 1 bit reset

IN 32 bit data word

IN 1 bit data enable

IN 1 bit start of frame

IN 1 bit end of frame

IN 1 bit start of IP payload

IN 1 bit TCP data enable

IN 2 bit number of valid data bytes

IN 1 bit TCP protocol indication

IN 1 bit checksum passed

IN 18 bit flow identifier

IN 1 bit new flow indication

IN 1 bit forward frame indication

IN 1 bit correct sequence number

IN 1 bit data is valid

IN 1 bit end of flow

There are three possible choices for packet routing. Packets can be (1) passed on to the outbound IP stack only, (2) passed both to the outbound IP stack and to client application 50, or (3) discarded (dropped). The rules for processing packets are as follows:

All non-TCP packets (i.e., classified as non-TCP) are sent to the outbound IP stack.

All TCP packets with invalid checksums (i.e., classified as invalid TCP checksum) are dropped.

All TCP packets with sequence numbers less than the current expected sequence number (i.e., classified as sequence number less than expected) are sent to the outbound IP stack.

All TCP packets with sequence numbers greater than the current expected sequence number (i.e., classified as sequence number greater than expected) are dropped (i.e., discarded and not sent to either client application 50 or the outbound IP stack).

All TCP synchronization (TCP-SYN) packets are sent to the outbound IP stack.

All other packets (classified as else) are forwarded both to the outbound IP stack and client application 50. Note that when the TCP packet has a sequence number equal to expected and has a valid checksum, then that packet is classified as else and sent to the outbound IP stack as well as to client application 50.

A client interface (not shown) is between client application 50 and TCP output section 34. The client interface provides a hardware interface for application circuits. Only data that is valid, checksummed, and in-sequence for each specific flow is passed to client application 50. This allows the client to solely process the consistent stream of bytes from the TCP connection. All of the packet's protocol headers are clocked into client application 50 along with a start-of-header signal so that the client can extract information from these headers. This eliminates the need to store header information, but still allows the client access to this data. Client application 50 does not sit in the network data path and therefore does not induce any delay into the packets traversing the network switch. This allows the client application to have arbitrary complexity without affecting the throughput rate of TCP-splitter 30. The client interface contains the following signals:

IN 1 bit clock

IN 1 bit reset

IN 32 bit data word

IN 1 bit data enable

IN 1 bit start of frame

IN 1 bit end of frame

IN 1 bit start of IP payload

IN 1 bit TCP data enable

IN 2 bit number of valid data bytes

IN 18 bit flow identifier

IN 1 bit new flow indication

IN 1 bit end of flow

OUT 1 bit flow control

Client application 50 can generate a flow control signal that will stop the delivery of cells. In one embodiment, this signal is not processed by TCP-Splitter 30, but is passed on to the IP wrapper driving the ingress of IP packets. In another embodiment, this signal is processed by TCP-Splitter 30.

In the embodiment where TCP-Splitter 30 does not process the flow control signals, there is a delay in the cessation of the flow of data words into client application 50 while the flow control signal is being processed by the lower protocol layers. Since TCP-Splitter 30 does not act upon the flow control signal, data continues to flow until all buffers of TCP-Splitter 30 are empty. Client application 50 is configured to either handle data at line rates or is capable of buffering 1500 bytes worth of data after the flow control signal is asserted.

Because Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is the most commonly used protocol on the Internet, it is utilized by nearly all applications that require reliable data communications on a network. These applications include Web browsers, FTP, Telnet, Secure Shell, and many others. High-speed network switches currently operate at OC-48 (2.5 Gb/s) line rates, while faster OC-192 (10 Gb/s) and OC-768 (40 Gb/s) networks are on the horizon. New types of networking equipment require the ability to monitor and interrogate the data contained in packets flowing through this equipment. TCP-Splitter 30 provides an easily implementable solution for monitoring at these increased bandwidths.

In one embodiment, and as explained in greater detail below, TCP-Splitter 30 provides a reconfigurable hardware solution which provides for the monitoring of TCP/IP flows in high speed active networking equipment. The reconfigurable hardware solution is implemented using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hard-ware Description Language (VHDL) for use in ASICs or Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). The collection of VHDL code that implements this TCP/IP monitoring function is also called TCP-Splitter in addition to the hardware itself (i.e., 10 and 30). This name stems from the idea that the TCP flow is being split into two directions. One copy of each network data packet is forwarded on toward the destination host. Another copy is passed to a client application monitoring TCP/IP flows. In an alternative embodiment, the copy that is passed to the client application is rewrapped with an IP wrapper to form an IP frame that is forwarded to the destination host. In order to provide for the reliable delivery of a stream of data into a client application, a TCP connection only needs to be established that transits through the device monitoring the data. The bulk of the work for guaranteed delivery is managed by the TCP endpoints, not by the logic on the network hardware. This eliminates the need for a complex protocol stack within the reconfigurable hardware because the retransmission logic remains at the connection endpoints, not in the active network switch.

TCP-Splitter 30 is a lightweight, high performance circuit that contains a simple client interface that can monitor a nearly unlimited number of TCP/IP flows simultaneously. The need for reassembly buffers is eliminated because all frames for a particular flow transit the networking equipment in order. Because there is no guarantee that TCP frames will traverse the network in order, some action will have to take place when packets are out of order. As explained above, by actively dropping out of order packets, a TCP byte stream is generated for the client application without requiring reassembly buffers. If a missing packet is detected, subsequent packets are actively dropped until the missing packet is retransmitted. This ensures in-order packet flow through the switch. Therefore a monitoring device always has an accumulated in order content stream before a destination device accumulates the in order content stream.

This feature forces the TCP connections into a Go-Back-N sliding window mode when a packet is dropped upstream of the monitoring node (e.g., the node where TCP-Splitter is positioned). The Go-Back-N retransmission policy is widely used on machines throughout the Internet. Many implementations of TCP, including that of Windows 98, FreeBSD 4.1, and Linux 2.4, use the Go-Back-N retransmission logic. The benefit on the throughput is dependent on the specific TCP implementations being utilized at the endpoints. In instances where the receiving TCP stack is performing Go-Back-N sliding window behavior, the active dropping of frames may improve overall network throughput by eliminating packets that will be discarded by the receiver.

Typically, TCP-Splitter 30 is placed in the network where all packets of monitored flows will pass. All packets associated with a TCP/IP connection being monitored then passes through the networking node where monitoring is taking place. It would otherwise be impossible to provide a client application with a consistent TCP byte stream from a connection if the switch performing the monitoring only processed a fraction of the TCP packets. In general, this requirement is true at the edge routers but not true for interior nodes of the Internet. This strategic placement of TCP-Splitter can be easily accomplished in private networks where the network has been designed to pass traffic in a certain manner.

FIG. 3 is a perspective view and FIG. 4 is a schematic view of a Field-programmable Port Extender (FPX) module 60 configured to implement a TCP-Splitter as described above. Module 60 includes a Network Interface Device (NID) 62 operationally coupled to a Reprogrammable Application Device (RAD) 64. NID 62 is configured to program and/or reprogram RAD 64. Module 60 also includes a plurality of memories including a static RAM 66, a Synchronous DRAM 68, and a PROM 70 operationally coupled to at least one of NID 62 and RAD 64. In an exemplary embodiment, NID 62 includes a FPGA such as a XCV600E FPGA commercially available from Xilinx, San Jose Calif., and RAD 64 includes a FPGA such as a XCV2000E FPGA also available from Xilinx.

In use, module 60 monitors network traffic and send TCP data streams to a client application in order. Because module 60 implements the TCP-Splitter in a FPGA, upon receipt of FPGA programming data the TCP-Splitter can reprogram itself and send the FPGA programming data to other TCP-splitters in a flow path between a sending device and a destination device. Additionally, module 60 can reprogram the router to process the traffic flow differently than before. Also, because the data is passed along to other TCP-Splitters, the overall QoS of a network is quickly and easily changeable. In other words, QoS policies, as known in the art, are easily and quickly changed in networks including a TCP-Splitter as herein described. Accordingly, the reprogrammed router prioritizes network traffic based on the flow. Additionally, the TCP-Splitter can include a plurality of reprogrammable circuits such as FPGAs and can monitor the TCP flows for different things substantially simultaneously. For example, one flow contains data in order for a client application to count bits, while another flow contains data in order for another client application to perform content matching, while another flow contains data for reprogramming an FPGA. Also, a plurality of FPGAs can be coupled to each other such that upon receipt by at least one of an ASIC and a FPGA of FPGA programming data, the ASIC or FPGA receiving the data uses the data to reprogram the FPGAs.

FIG. 5 illustrates a plurality of workstations 80 connected to a remote client 82 across the Internet 84 through a node 86 including a TCP-Splitter (not shown in FIG. 4) coupled to a Monitoring client application 88. All traffic from remote client 82 or any other device on the Internet 84 to or from workstations 80 passes through node 86 and is monitored with the TCP-Splitter coupled to client application 88.

FIG. 6 illustrates a plurality of TCP-Splitter implemented FPX modules 60 (Shown in FIGS. 3 and 4) in series between a programming device 90 and an endpoint device 92 forming a network 94.

In use, programming device 90 transmits programming data via a stream-oriented protocol using the Internet Protocol (IP) to send the data to endpoint device 92. Each FPX module 60 receives a plurality of IP frames addressed to endpoint device 92, removes the embedded stream-oriented protocol frame from the IP frame, and provides a client application the removed stream-oriented protocol frame. Each FPX module 60 sends an IP frame including the removed protocol frame back onto network 92. Accordingly, with one transmission stream made from programming device 90 to endpoint device 92, a plurality of intermediate devices (modules 60) receive programming data either to reprogram themselves (modules 60) or to reprogram any attached devices. Because the programming data is split (i.e., sent to the client application and sent back on network 94 addressed to endpoint device 92), TCP-Splitter imparts the ability to easily and quickly reconfigure a network of any size. As used herein, a stream-oriented protocol refers to all protocols that send data as a stream of packets such as TCP as opposed to non-stream-oriented protocols such as UDP where a single packet contains the entire message.

While the invention has been described in terms of various specific embodiments, those skilled in the art will recognize that the invention can be practiced with modification within the spirit and scope of the claims.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification709/238, 709/223, 709/236, 709/224
International ClassificationH04L29/06, G06F15/173
Cooperative ClassificationH04L69/163, H04L69/16, H04L43/18
European ClassificationH04L29/06J7, H04L43/18, H04L29/06J
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