US 771917 A
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Nu. 771,917. PATBNTED OCT. 11, X904.
R. L. DE MOURA. WAVE TRANSMITTER.
APPLIGATIOH FILED FEB.9.1903
n SHEETS-BREST 1. f y
MT'BNTBD OUT. 11.1904.
RfL. DE MOUBA. WAVE TRANSMITTER. minutos num rane. 1903.
2 SHEETS-SHEET 2 HD MODEL.
Y No. 771.917. Patented October 11, 1904.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
lUll'iR'iO LANDELL DE MOURA, OF NEW YORK, N. Y.
SPECIFICATION forming part oi' Letters atent No. 771,917, dated October 11, 1904. Applicare no february 9,1903. solo se. 142,440. or dem .To all, whom, nung mmf/zyn.:
' Be it known that I, Riinnirro LANDELL ne Moons, n citizen of the Republic of Brazil, and e resident of the borough of Manhatten, city of New York, county and State of New York, have invented a new \n.-'e'l`rensxnit ter, oi' which thc following is a. specification.
My invention relates to the transmission of intelligence from one point to another withont the intermediation of wires, or, in brief, to signaling through space.
.it has for its object, the production of improv ed results wit-h simplified apparatus, ntil izing certain principles of my own discovery.
Herctofore when signals were to be trans- Ywitted the transmission has been accomplished by ineens of nienunlly-opereted apparatus. in some ceses this has boei; replaced by automatic mechanism; but the managementF of such mechanism or the manipulation of e hey requires n. certain amount of skill and experience in the operator. According to m5' invention, l primarily produce electricsl oscillations and Hiolierings of light. by Ineens ol` sonorons vibrations, which may be those-of the hnnmn voice or of other sounds. i then employ these electrical or light oseillntions so produced for telegraphing or tele-- phoning through space. In such transmission, and particnlnrly in telephoning, I may use devices similar to those described in my prior applicaiou. iilcd Gcbober 4,1901, Serial No. 77.57B. In order to produce Lhetwo kinds olf oscillations mentioned, I have devised en srrengemenoi" circuits and certain apps.- rsns which i, denominate e phonetic interruptor. i
My phonetic interruptor consists, essenieliy, of r. pair of concrets responsive to the tones of Lhe solco or to vibrations connnunicated from any source controlling' the primary circuit oi' s higirwonnd induction-coil whose seid primary connected to the prininry of :i Ruhroiaoril coil for transmitting. 'i'h norons 'ri brs'ions ab the interruptor are transformed ino electric or light waves,
whioh noon ncssiug to the receiving-station er:Y here received and censed toelech suit noie apparence whereby hey may render themselves apparent through the medium of a telephone-receiver, slamp, aMorse register, or the like.
My invention is fully described in the fol lowing specification and illustrated in the nocompnnying drawings, in which Figure 1 isa sectional view of my phonetic interruptor wibhthe partsshown in full. Fig. 2 is an adjusting-key for the core of the induction-coil. Figs. 3 and 4 are diagrams showing the connections of the primary circuit o lthe interruptor. Figg is a diagram of the transmitting circuits, with the apparatus shown in piace. Fig'.| 6 is a similar diagram showing the connections of theapparsms more in detail.,
Referring' bo Fig.v l, A is a non-conducting cese or shell, and A' is a cap therefor. This cap is formed so as to inclose s resonetingchamber, at, the bottoni oi" which lies e perforated vdisk A, corresponding to the mouthpiece of the ordinary telephone and fulfilling thev same function when the cap A' is removed. Lying beneath the disk A and supported by the shell is a. diaphragm a, having at its cenbrel point, s slight depression al.'
Arranged within the shell and supported between suitable heads is an ind notion-coil D, having the primorLwinding (l and the secondary Winding with a core of soft iron d. This core is made hollow, und within it .lies e central spindle B, supported et its upper end by the perforated end of the core end at its lower end adjustably held therein by means of the nut L, threaded into. the lower end of @he core, and the guide 6*. The spindie has a head B', by which il'. maybe Inenipuluted, the function of the ad justlmenlJ be ing bo permit the air-gap between the Lip of the spindle nl; b2 nud the diaphragm a at o' to he arranged so that the vibrations of articulate speech will conse e regular, rapid, and continuous movnganrl breaking of the circuit. By meensof the key K (shown in Fig. E!) the nut may be screwed home when the spindle is adjusted, the prongs /c and il" of bhe kesfinding registering openings in the nut nl;
Fitted to the epex of the cap A' isa cxihle tube C, with a mouthpiece c. Vhen the apparatus is to be used, the user speaks according to a predetermined code or in such other manner as may be agreed upon into the mouthpiece c. The sonorous waves propagated through the tube and passing through the central apetu re of the cap A2 impinge upon the diaphragm a, producing a corresponding vibration thereof, whereby it' the adjustments have been correctly made a very rapid series of makes and breaks or successive contacts will take place between the diaphragm and the tip L2, corresponding in frequency to the waves originating them. These makes and breaks produce impulses or variations ot' cur' rent in the primary circuit 1 2, the connections of the circuit being cicarly shown in 3 and 4. In Fig. 3 the terminal wire 2 from the local battery inv is'connected to thc spindle B at its lower end or head, while. the primary wire 1 passes direct to the winding and thence to a connectie n with the d iapliragm.
` In Fig. 4 the primarywirc 1 passes through the coil to the diaphragm, and wire 2 is conneeted to the tiplfof tbespindle. Obviously in either case the eti'ect of makes and breaks will be to cause pulsations ot' current in the primary winding corresponding very closely to the tones ot' tliespcecli or sounds which caused them. It is ot' course impossible to get any adjustment short ot' a perfect contact that will give all ot' the overtones and will render the articulation perfect; Ybut, on the other hand, in order to obtain the discharge effects, to which l shall prcsentlyallude, I lind it is better to have positive breaks than incre changes in resistance in the circuit. lt goes without sayingtliai l can adjust tliccontacts so as to produce constant contacts and variable pressure, whicliarc thc requisites for perfectiiiicrophonicworking; but l'or practical purposes l lind it is better to produce the impulses in the. manner i have described.
Referring' now to Fig. ii, l will describe the coiinei-.tions ot' my apparatus to produce an operative system. As Fig. (S shows the saine partsiu inoreiletail re ference may also be had thereto l'roin thedetail connections. intlicsc ligures F is a ltuhinkortl'or other higlrpowcr induction-coil adjusted to prod ucc a 1spark of some lcngth -say from one-quarter inch upward. The pi-iiiiary winding l1"'ol' this coil is connected iii a circuit l5 i6, containing the main batter)I M and the phonetic interruptor 'lhc siaroiidary winding oi' the coil F. which is marked j", is connected by wires 7 and 8 to the terniinalsli and 2|) for the, radiating bodiesor wires, which may be tbe usual or any special desired i'orin of aerial conductor, with or without earth on one side. Adapted to bo bridged across this circuiti' 8 by tlieclosing ol'ilic switch S' ori its contact s' is a pair ot' sparking terminals Il i2, the bridge-wires being marked 9 10. A condenser G of suitable capacity is also connected across the secondary circuit by means of wires 13 and 14. The primary circuit 15 lfpasses from the Ruhmkorif coil to the primary terminals of the induction-coil D in the phonetic inter-j riipter. The secondary winding d'. is connect- 70 switch S' is closed, the switch Sis opened, andthe operator proceeds to produce sounds in the desired manner into the mouthpiece c of the phonetic interrupter. A succession of impulses is thus produced inthe primarycireuit ot' the coil F, whose effect is increased by the presence of the condenser (ii, which takes up the extra current, assists in the rapid demagnetization of thc core of the induction-coil, and also prevents sparking between the diaphragm and the tip-terminal. These impulses iii the primary, which' are very rapid, with proper adjustment reaching between tive hundred and nine hundred per second, produce very high potential impulses in the secondary. To produce oscillations of light by means of the interruptor in the sending-station, I use the natural human voice. preferably because the .'tlickei'ings produced corresponding in form and frequency tothe initial sounds and being properly retranslated through the agency of suitable apparatus at the receivingstation4 enable the original sounds to be recognized more or less perfectly, and while many words or tones can berecognizdfortheiroivn intrinsic value, as well as for any arbitrary code value that may bc assigned to them apart from this, asutlicient nuniber of distinctive words can be selected to maken complete and very eil'ieicnt code. 4
Obviously as a substitute for the human voice other sources. of sonorons vibrations may be employed. Thus to produce eiecv trical oscillations by means of the same iiitcrrupter l may use at the sending-station a source ot sound consisting of a musical instrument similar to a small orgamhiiving a set ot' reeds or pipes with controlling device@y and one or more acoustic tubes connected to the mouthpiece of the interruptor-tube. The diaphragm ol the interruptor being thus strongly vibrated causes oscillations of light or electricity which may be received after transmission by means of any suitable. sensi` tive device. ln addition to this method of transmitting by means et' electric or luminous waves, as l have said, certain ot the tentures herein may be utilized in connection with my other systems. In one of those systems I employ waves or ilickerings of light for the purpose of transmitting code-signals. In the present case I muy employ the lamp E in a similar manner, producing the initial changes in current by the phonetic interrupter. Should the pulsations of light be too rapid, the adjustment, of the fixed terminal and the diaohregm may be changed until the amplitude oE vibration is great enough to eliminate all but the fundamental tones. In feet, the die phragm muy be weighted, if desired, or its pulsations may he otherwise returdedlH Vin onse of transmitting by light-Waves I 11s,!! thereflector and may also use screens of vellous materiels, such us slides of colored glasslf'ymd, il' desired, I may substitute for the lampslic'wn a cethodic lump of the kind described in my other application or other kind of light.
it will be observed that the most importent and, in fact, the essential feature of my in-Y vention consists in the employment of. unieke and-breek transmitter worked by.4 sonoro',v vibrations, causing the trsnsmit'te'delecti magnetic or light waves to correspond closely to the soundwaves by which they are pro; duced.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim, end desire to secure by Letters Petent, is Y i. In esystern of signaling withouteounecting-wires, en induction-coil, a discharge-circuit connected to the secondary ofseidV coil, with e. circuit-interrupter und a source of current connected to the primary of seid coil and means to actunte said circuit-interrupter to innlce and breuk the primary circuit in accoi-dance with Asonni-ous vibrations, whereby currentpulsations may be produced in the primary corresponding or approximating to, the sounds by which they nrc produced, suli--` stantielly asdcsci'gibed.
2. In e system of electriesiignslmg'w'it ou c;
connectingwires, an induction-coil, indis-r churge-circuit having a terminal radiatingwire connected to the secondary of said coil, a. suitable source of current, connected to the primary of the coil; and means for making and breaking the primary circuit adapted to be actuated by sonorous vibrationssubstantially as described.
3. ln n system of electric signnlingwithout connecting-wires, e primary energizing-circuit, a. secondarydischarge-circuit, means for rapidly and repeatedly making und breaking the primary circuit, said means arranged and adapted to be brought into operation by sonni-ous vibrations, substantially :is described.
4. ln n systemot' electric signaling without wires-,nn induction-:anita secondary dischargeci rcuit therefor, :i prinmry circuit and n source of current, n. phonetic device having contacts y included in .said primary circuit, and means to periodically open and close seid contacts, 65
and thereby to produce corresponding current-pulsations in the primary and secondary circuits, substantially as described.
D 5. In e system of electric signaling without wires, an induction-coil and a. secondary discharge circuit therefor, a primary circuit therefor with a. source of current and a periodic circuit-interrupter therein, together with means connected to seid primary circuit for producing' light-reysof variable intensity correspondingv to the current-pulsations in the primary und secondary circuit, substantially as described.
6'. A phoneticV interrupter or make-andbrcek transmitter for signaling-circuits, cornprising ceasing or shell, an induction-coil therein, e pair of contacts mounted thereon, circuit connections to the secondary circuit and other circuit connections th rough the primary to the pair of contacts, substantially es ntalities; .nin induction-colta. secondary disi barge-circuit for said coil, adjustable dis charge terminals and a condenser bridged 'across seid lcircuit, e primary circuit and e source of current therein, a periodic circuitintel-runter in said primary circuit, an'electric lamp bridged across sidlprimary circuit and a condenser -also bridged across the primary circuit, substentiellyas described.
8. A phonetic interrupter for wireless telegraphy comprising `n shell or casing, a diaphragm, e perforated lccp covering the diaphragm, a sound-.chamber `formed within a second cap, with a conductin g-tube and mouthpiece therefor; an adjustable contact-spindle lextending intoj close'` `proximity to the dis.- "phragm and forming therewith the terminals oi .e primary circuit, lockssifl'sp substantially 9. In a system of 'electric signaling without wires, an electric lamp, n circuit and e source of current therefor, and a periodic circuit-interruptcr in scid circuit adapted when actuated to Ineke and breakthe same, with means to actuete said interrupter by sonorous vibrationsor musical tones, whereby variations in the radiation from said lump may be produced, corresponding to the Suid vibrations or tones, substantially as described.
10. In asystem of electric signaling Without wires, :in Yelectric lamp,'a circuit and a source of current therefor, n. periodic intcrrufltcr in said circuit adapted when actuated to mailto and brezil-1 tlies:unc,n condenser bridged tierces the circuit, und means to uctuntc the interruptor 'by sonorous vibrations or illusioni tones, where-'uy a series oi' currcnt-pulszitions Wires'the combination ofthe following mstru- IOO muy be produccd with corresponding,A vuriamary und secondary circluus respccbive'ly, and IO tions in the radiation from thc lamp, subtzmmcxuw Loactuutc said circmt-inLei-rupter bysotially :u: described. norouu vibrations, substantially as described. 11. lna transmitting' apparatus for wireless y.in Lcstimony whereof I have hereunto subsignuling systems, u primary circuit, a. periscrbd my namc. odic interruptor and un electric lump Lhcrcin, ROBERT() LAN DELL DE MOLINA. asccondary circuit. imvingdisclmrge-tcrminnls Witnesses: adapted to produrre clcctronmgnelzic waves, an DANIEL B. TAMAGNO, induction-coil having its windings in the pri- EUGENE M. BERARD.