|Publication number||US7721241 B2|
|Application number||US 11/192,966|
|Publication date||May 18, 2010|
|Filing date||Jul 29, 2005|
|Priority date||Jul 29, 2005|
|Also published as||CN101233518A, CN101233518B, EP1910950A2, US20070027883, WO2007016391A2, WO2007016391A3|
|Publication number||11192966, 192966, US 7721241 B2, US 7721241B2, US-B2-7721241, US7721241 B2, US7721241B2|
|Inventors||David N. Cox, Thomas J. Lanoue|
|Original Assignee||Abb Research Ltd.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (34), Non-Patent Citations (8), Classifications (6), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention relates to a transformer, and more particularly, to the automated documenting of a transformer design.
Voltage transformers are used to convert electrical energy from one voltage potential to another voltage potential. Transformers range from small 120VAC to 220VAC converters to large power transformers used to convert voltages from 1 kV (kilovolt) to 1000 kV or higher. Additionally, transformers may also be categorized as standard versus non-standard transformers. Standard transformers are those transformers having non-unique designs manufactured in large quantities. Unique or non-standard transformers are typically designed and manufactured individually.
Current design and manufacturing procedures used to build unique transformers utilize a manual documentation generation process. This manual process often results in errors in the documentation associated with the manufacture of the transformer. Such errors can create a problem in the transformer manufactured using that documentation. If the transformer is not manufactured correctly and does not conform to the particular design specifications, additional equipment within the power distribution network connected to this transformer may be adversely affected. The present invention provides an alternative to the manual documentation process. The present invention overcomes any errors associated with manually generated documentation by creating an automatic documentation process.
The voltage transformer has two main pieces, the core and the coil. The core is made from materials such as steel or iron. The core may have a single leg or multiple legs depending on the type of transformer. The legs are connected together by yokes and the connection between the legs and the yokes create a closed magnetic circuit. A stacked transformer core is formed by stacking layers of grain oriented steel sheets on top of one another. Alternatively, in a wound transformer core the sheets of steel are wrapped around the coil.
The coil of a transformer consists of conductive material wound around the leg(s) of the core. In its simplest form the coil of a transformer has a single primary winding and a single secondary winding. The primary winding is connected to the source of power (typically AC) and the secondary winding is connected to the load. As current flows through the primary winding, a resultant magnetic field within the core causes a current to be formed in the secondary winding of the coil.
Transformers are manufactured to conform to various customer requirements. Depending on the application, the utility company may need a transformer with a unique kVA rating that fits a particular footprint. The transformer manufacturer takes the customer input and designs a transformer to meet the requirements. When designing the transformer, the manufacturer tries to create a design that not only meets the customer requirements, but does so in a cost effective manner.
In order to create a cost effective design and manufacturing flow, the transformer manufacturer automates as much of the process as possible. Automated tools may be developed to assist with the design flow as well as the manufacturing flow. For example, instead of manually calculating the number of turns required for the low voltage winding, a computer program is used to perform this function. In addition, graphical displays may be developed to assist the transformer designer in creating the design.
The present invention is designed to further automate the transformer design process, by eliminating the manual steps previously performed to generate the manufacturing specifications and supporting documents. The present invention links to other processes within the transformer design flow, extracts the documentation information, and deposits it in a file. The end result is a file populated with all of the information necessary to document and build the transformer.
An automated method of documenting a transformer design, the method comprising
An automated method of designing a transformer, the method comprising
A computer readable media containing computer code instructing a processor to:
The invention is further described in the detailed description that follows, by reference to the noted drawings, by way of non-limiting illustrative embodiments of the invention, in which like reference numerals represent similar elements throughout the several views of the drawings, and wherein:
The present application incorporates by reference U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/933,535 (“the '535 application”) in its entirety. A geometrical layout of a cross section of a transformer is shown in
The physical layout of the barriers B1-B5 and windings W1-W2 can be described using the hierarchical data model described in the '535 application and is repeated herein in this and the next few paragraphs. The data model includes an abstract component called a block to arrange barriers and windings either horizontally or vertically. A block can be either a horizontal block or a vertical block. A block can also include sub-blocks. For example, in
The physical layout in
horizontal block 110
The vertical block defines the entire physical layout. The horizontal block 110 defines the middle section of the physical layout between the top and bottom barriers. Because blocks can contain sub-blocks any physical layout can be described using a hierarchical data model. Any metadata created to describe this physical layout must reflect this data model and its hierarchical nature.
A data model for defining a geometry of a physical layout of the electrical device of
<barrier name=“B1” />
<barrier name=“B3” />
<property name=“DESCRIPTION” type=“TEXT”
value=“L V WINDING ” />
<property name=“DESCRIPTION” type=“TEXT”
value=“H V WINDING ” />
<barrier name=“B5” />
<barrier name=“B2” />
The data model includes a metadata element for each block and a metadata element (referred to herein as a child metadata element) for each sub-block associated with a respective block. Within the metadata elements are tags used by software code to interpret the information contained in the element. Interpretation of the metadata information describing each element is described in greater detail in subsequent paragraphs.
The metadata elements are arranged in a hierarchical format. For example, indented under the metadata element <block layout=“horizontal”> are the child metadata elements for barrier B3, winding W1, barrier B4, winding W2, and barrier B5, in that order, as shown in
Initially, the left pane 210 contains only a single block, called “Physical Layout,” and the right pane 220 contains no barriers, windings, or blocks. As a user adds block identifiers in the left pane 210, the associated blocks are displayed in the right pane 220. The block identifiers are positioned sequentially according to the geometry of the physical layout. When the block contains a sub-block, a sub-block identifier representing the sub-block is added. For example, B3, W1, B4, W2, and B5 are sub-block identifiers. They are collectively identified in left pane 210 by 250. The sub-block identifier is positioned sequentially in the left pane 210 according to the geometry of the physical layout within the block, in this case, left-to-right. Each block or sub-block can have characteristics (e.g., shape which, in an exemplary embodiment, can be assumed to be a particular shape, such as rectangle, position, orientation and size) stored in a file that is accessed by a drop down menu (not shown) when a block or sub-block is selected by a user. The corresponding file is accessed from the memory of the computer to render an image of the block or sub-block in the pane 220.
Additional information relating to the blocks may also be entered using the drop down menu in the left pane 210 of the GUI. For example, winding W1 may be assigned a unique name such as “L V Winding.” This is reflected in Example #1 as “<property name=“DESCRIPTION” type=“TEXT” value=“L V WINDING” />. Other information such as the winding type, the conductor type, the barrier type and so forth may be added to the design via the drop down menu. The metadata file is updated as each of these properties is added to the transformer design.
The associated metadata text file is saved by the transformer design program. This occurs when the user launches a command (not shown in
When the user determines that the design of the physical layout is complete and wants to generate a manufacturing document, the user selects a command in the GUI (not shown). The command automatically generates the manufacturing documentation reflecting the physical layout of the transformer coil. The manufacturing documentation is used by manufacturing personnel to assemble the coil. Ideally, the manufacturing documentation reflects the image of the physical layout shown in the right pane 220 of the window 200. In one embodiment of the present invention, a software routine creates the physical layout documentation. A flow chart outlining the steps performed by the physical layout software routine 300, which is stored on computer readable media and runs on the user's computer, is shown in
The automatic creation of a document populated with transformer design information begins with step 301 in
Within step 304, the software routine 300 extracts functional and relational information from the metadata file. Referring to Example #1, the metadata element “<physicalLayout layout=vertical>” identifies that this particular metadata file (Example #1) is to be used to generate the drawing 400 of the physical layout of the transformer coil. Additionally, the metadata element contains two pieces of information. The first piece “physicalLayout” identifies that any information following this tag contained within the brackets “< >” provides orientation information for the physical layout. The second part, “layout=vertical” defines that any subsequent elements are to be stacked vertically.
In step 306, the software routine 300 determines the total number of horizontal barriers. In Example #1, there are two horizontal barriers, B1 and B2. Next in step 308, the software routine 300 determines the number of blocks, the number of sub-blocks within the blocks, the number of sub-blocks within the sub-blocks and so forth. For Example #1, the software routine determines that there is one block (240 of
After the number of horizontal barriers, blocks and sub-blocks are determined, the software routine 300 allocates space for each of the pieces. In the present invention, the software routine 300 is programmed to display the components using actual assembled proportions. For example, when assembled, each of the horizontal barriers B1, B2 of the coil described in
In step 308, the software routine 300 determined that there are two windings W1 and W2 and three barriers B3, B4 and B5 in the block 240. Based on this configuration of the block and sub-blocks, the software routine 300 assigns 10% of the available horizontal display to each of the barriers (B3, B4 and B5) and 35% of the horizontal display to each of the windings (W1 and W2) in step 312 (also illustrated in
In step 314, the software routine 300 opens a document that will be populated with the drawing 400 and associated text. For example, the document may be a Word™ document, an Excel™ document, a Word Perfect™ document or a Power Point™ document. After the document is opened, the software routine 300 determines in step 316 how large to make the drawing. The software routine 300 is programmed to vary the size of the drawing based on the format of the document the drawing is exported into. For example, the drawing may be formatted to fit into a 400×400 pixel ActiveX window if it is imported into an 8½″×11″ portrait oriented document. Those skilled in the art appreciate that the use of an ActiveX window to import information into a document is common in the software application industry. In
After the drawing size is determined, in step 318, the software routine 300 creates the drawing 400 in the ActiveX window. The software routine 300 starts at a reference point in the top left corner 402 of the window 400 and draws the blocks. For the metadata file of Example #1, a rectangular box comprising 10% of the vertical display and 100% of the horizontal display is drawn representing the first barrier layer B1. Once the box for B1 is drawn, the label “B1” is inserted in the box. The software routine 300 then draws the horizontal block comprising the five sub-blocks (B3, W1, B4, W2, and B5) according to the determined percentages as previously described in steps 310 and 312. The block 240 is drawn in the following order: barrier layer B3, winding W1, barrier layer B4, winding W2 and barrier B5. After each sub-block is drawn, the software inserts the appropriate label into the respective section. The software then draws the last barrier B2, inserts the label “B2” and closes the ActiveX window. The drawing is complete. The drawing 400 reflects the GUI representation as shown in the right pane 230 of
After the drawing is completed in step 318, the software routine 300 retrieves any additional textual information embedded within the metadata file in step 320. Examples of text stored within the metadata file include, but are not limited to, barrier or winding names, electrical tolerances, insulation characteristics, and so forth. Once extracted from the metadata file, this information is inserted into the document in predetermined locations. Once all of the information is inserted into the document, the document is closed in step 322 and the software routine ends at step 324.
An example page 500 of a document automatically populated with transformer physical design information is shown in
In another embodiment of the present invention, documentation relating to the electrical connectivity of the transformer is automatically generated. When describing a hierarchical model for the electrical connectivity of the coil, the top of the hierarchy is the entire circuit layout for the coil. The next level of hierarchy consists of the windings and the circuits. Under the hierarchy of the windings are the segments and below the segments are the start lead and the finish lead. Under the hierarchy of the circuits are the nodes. Below each node is the source and destination of the node.
The present invention extracts the connectivity information from a metadata file corresponding to the transformer electrical design and populates a document with both drawing figures and textual information. An example of such a metadata file is shown below:
<Winding name=“Winding 1”>
<Src Winding=“Winding 1” Segment=“S1” Lead=“s” />
<Dst Winding=“Winding 1” Segment=“S1” Lead=“f” />
For ease of explanation, the circuit description of Example #2 contains only the description of a single low voltage winding. The low voltage winding of Example #2 can be the low voltage winding of a single phase transformer or one of the three low voltage windings of a three phase transformer. If a three phase transformer were described in a metadata file, there would be a low voltage winding entry for each phase. There would also be associated entries for the segments and circuits for each low voltage winding for each phase.
In Example #2, Winding 1 is defined as consisting of segment S1 that has a start lead s and a finish lead f. A winding may have multiple segments, but for ease of illustration, only one segment is described in Example #2. The connectivity of the segment S1 is defined under the circuit description. The circuit C1 associated with Winding 1 has two nodes N1 and N2. Node N1 is defined as the source for segment S1 and is connected to start lead s. Node N2 is defined as the destination and is connected to the finish lead f of segment S1.
The XML file of Example #2 may be generated using a transformer design tool similar to the physical layout tool shown in the previously described
The present invention utilizes an electrical layout software routine similar to the physical layout software routine 300 described in
After the software routine 700 has determined the number of elements in the circuit, it then establishes the connectivity in step 712. For Example #2, the software routine 700 determines that Node 1 (N1) is the source for the start lead s and Node 2 (N2) is the destination for the finish lead f.
Next in step 714, the software routine 700 allocates space for displaying each winding in the drawing. In the embodiment of
Should there be more than one winding, the software routine 700 in step 714 allocates the horizontal display space 606 evenly between each of the windings. For instance, if a coil electrical design contained three windings, all three windings would be drawn in the winding space 602 but each winding would be allocated roughly 33% of the horizontal display space 606.
In step 716, the software routine 700 allocates space within the windings for the segments. The segments are overlaid on the winding in the drawing 600. For Example #2, there is only one segment S1. Because there is only one segment S1, the software routine 700 will allocate the entire segment space 608 (
The software routine 700 allocates space for the nodes in step 718. After determining the number of nodes and the connectivity, the software routine is ready to begin creating the drawing 600 in a document.
In step 720, the software routine 700 opens the document that will be populated with the transformer electrical circuit information. Similar to step 314 of
After the drawing size has been determined in step 722, the software routine 700 begins to draw the components in the window 610 in step 724. The software routine 700 first draws the body of Winding 1 and then overlays the segment S1 on Winding 1. As discussed previously, the body of Winding 1 will encompass the entire winding space 602 of the drawing 600. The segment leads s and f of Winding 1 are attached to the segment S1. Finally the nodes N1 and N2 are added into the node space 604 and are connected by arrowed lines 612 depicting the flow of current to the leads s and f. When determining the position of the nodes N1 and N2, the software routine 700 positions them at the edges of the node space 604 as shown in
In step 726, the software routine 700 retrieves any textual information embedded within the phase circuit metadata file and displays the text in predetermined locations within the document. Some examples of text information include, but are not limited to, the winding name, the electrical characteristics of the winding, the winding material and so forth. After all of the information for the electrical characteristics have been inserted into the document, the document is closed in step 728. The software routine 700 ends at step 730.
It is to be understood that the foregoing description has been provided merely for the purpose of explanation and is in no way to be construed as limiting of the invention. Where the invention has been described with reference to embodiments, it is understood that the words which have been used herein are words of description and illustration, rather than words of limitation. Further, although the invention has been described herein with reference to particular structure, materials and/or embodiments, the invention is not intended to be limited to the particulars disclosed herein. Rather, the invention extends to all functionally equivalent structures, methods and uses, such as are within the scope of the appended claims. Those skilled in the art, having the benefit of the teachings of this specification, may effect numerous modifications thereto and changes may be made without departing from the scope and spirit of the invention in its aspects.
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|Cooperative Classification||G06F17/50, H01F41/00, H01F38/00|
|Jul 29, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ABB RESEARCH LTD.,SWITZERLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:COX, DAVID N.;LANOUE, THOMAS J.;REEL/FRAME:016805/0001
Effective date: 20050726
|Nov 15, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4