Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS7728747 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 12/041,578
Publication dateJun 1, 2010
Filing dateMar 3, 2008
Priority dateFeb 9, 2006
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS7352307, US20070182606, US20080211702
Publication number041578, 12041578, US 7728747 B2, US 7728747B2, US-B2-7728747, US7728747 B2, US7728747B2
InventorsMihu Iorgulescu
Original AssigneeMosys, Inc.
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Comparator chain offset reduction
US 7728747 B2
Abstract
Comparator chain total offset, static and dynamic, is reduced by injecting a compensation quantity in at least one point in the chain of comparator components. The compensation quantity is determined by providing the comparator chain with calibration signals having equal values and evaluating the output states of the comparator chain. The compensation quantity is adjusted until the probabilities of high and low output states are substantially equal and a calibrated value for the compensation is determined.
Images(4)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(17)
1. A calibration system for a comparator chain, comprising:
a comparator that provides digital output decisions in response to fixed calibration signals provided on a signal path of the comparator chain, wherein the fixed calibration signals are selected such that the digital output decisions provided by the comparator in response to the fixed calibration signals are expected to be evenly distributed between a first output state and a second output state;
an unbalancing element coupled to the comparator and configured to add an unbalancing quantity to the fixed calibration signals in at least one point of the signal path of the comparator chain; and
a compensation circuit coupled to the comparator and the unbalancing element, the compensation circuit configured to monitor digital output decisions provided by the comparator, determine if the digital output decisions are skewed toward the first output state or the second output state, and adjust the unbalancing quantity to force the digital output decisions provided by the comparator toward an even distribution between the first and second output states if the digital output decisions are skewed toward the first output state or the second output state.
2. A method of calibrating a comparator chain, comprising:
providing fixed calibration signals to the comparator chain, wherein the fixed calibration signals are selected such that digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain in response to the fixed calibration signals are expected to be evenly distributed between a first output state and a second output state;
determining whether digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain in response to the fixed calibration signals are skewed toward the first output state ox the second output state; and
introducing an unbalancing quantity to the fixed calibration signals if the digital output decisions are skewed toward the first output state or the second output state, wherein the unbalancing quantity is selected to force the digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain toward an even distribution between the first output state and the second output state.
3. The method of claim 2, further comprising selecting the fixed calibration signals to be equal to one another.
4. The method of claim 2, further comprising repeating the steps of determining whether the digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain are skewed and introducing an unbalancing quantity to the fixed calibration signals if the digital output decisions are skewed, until the digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain exhibit a specified distribution between the first output state and the second output state.
5. The method of claim 4, further comprising identifying and holding a value of the unbalancing quantity that causes the digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain to exhibit the specified distribution between the first output state and the second output state.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the step of identifying and holding the value of the unbalanced quantity is performed discontinuously during normal operation of the comparator chain.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the step of identifying and holding the value of the unbalanced quantity is performed only during power-up and wake-up of the comparator chain.
8. The method of claim 6, wherein the step of identifying and holding the value of the unbalanced quantity is repeated at a specified time interval.
9. The method of claim 2, further comprising:
incrementing the unbalancing quantity if the digital output decisions are skewed toward the first output state; and
decrementing the unbalancing quantity if the digital output decisions are skewed toward the second output state.
10. The method of claim 2, wherein the step of determining whether the digital output decisions are skewed toward the first output state or the second output state includes driving a counter in response to the digital output decisions over a number N of comparator clock cycles.
11. The method of claim 10, further comprising comparing a count of the counter with one or more predetermined threshold values.
12. The method of claim 10, further comprising programming the number N of comparator clock cycles.
13. The method of claim 10, further comprising modifying a count of the counter using a scale factor.
14. The method of claim 13, further comprising selecting the scale factor to control a speed at which the digital output decisions converge toward the even distribution between the first output state and the second output state.
15. The method of claim 13, further comprising selecting the scale factor to control a variance of the digital output decisions.
16. The method of claim 2, further comprising repeating the steps of determining whether the digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain are skewed and introducing an unbalancing quantity to the fixed calibration signals if the digital output decisions are skewed, such that the digital output decisions of the comparator chain converge towards a stable state in which digital output decisions having the first and second output states are equally probable.
17. A comparator chain, comprising:
means for providing fixed calibration signals to the comparator chain, wherein the fixed calibration signals are selected such that digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain in response to the fixed calibration signals are expected to be evenly distributed between a first output state and a second output state;
means for determining whether digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain in response to the fixed calibration signals are skewed toward the first output state or the second output state; and
means for introducing an unbalancing quantity to the fixed calibration signals if the digital output are skewed toward the first output state or the second output state, wherein the unbalancing quantity is selected to force the digital output decisions provided by the comparator chain toward an even distribution between the first output state and the second output state.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation of and claims priority to pending U.S. application Ser. No. 11/351,877, entitled “COMPARATOR CHAIN OFFSET REDUCTION,” filed on Feb. 9, 2006, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The disclosed implementations relate generally to electrical circuits.

BACKGROUND

A conventional latched comparator has two input signals and outputs a decision regarding the relative value of the input signals every comparator clock cycle. For example, assuming one of the inputs is a reference signal, when the non-reference input signal value is greater than the reference signal value, the output decision of the comparator is high, and when the non-reference input signal value is less than the reference signal value the output decision of the comparator is low. When the signal and reference values are equal, the comparator output enters an unpredictable state. In practice, with equal inputs, the output will dither between low and high values due to noise with high and low output values being equally probable. When the input signal value deviates from the reference signal value, the probabilities of high and low output states increase or decrease with a normal probability distribution function characterized, in some circuits, by a standard deviation equal to the input referred noise Root Mean Square (RMS) value.

In addition to noise, a comparator device can be affected by systematic and/or random unbalancing factors, so that even in the case of equal inputs, the output decisions are not evenly distributed between high and low states. These unbalancing factors can be static or dynamic. Static unbalancing factors can include offset voltages resulting from unequal threshold voltages (e.g., in CMOS related technologies), or unequal currents flowing through various circuit branches, or unequal physical dimensions of transistors.

Dynamic unbalancing factors can include unbalanced charges in the channels of transistors used as switches in the comparator chain. These unbalanced charges can be injected in various nodes into the comparator chain when the switches are turned off. Additionally, unbalanced charge transfer can occur in transistors used in feedback circuitry associated with a track-and-latch stage of a comparator chain. Due to static and dynamic unbalancing factors, a comparator device may not output a balanced probability of high and low output states when the input signals are equal. Unbalancing factors become even more problematic in practical realizations of comparator chains that include one or more preamplifier stages followed by a track-and-latch comparator or decision stage. Each stage in the comparator chain can be affected by unbalancing factors that can contribute to offsets. Accordingly, it is possible that the main contributors of static and dynamic unbalancing factors, although having unpredictable values, are fixed once a circuit is fabricated, since solid state circuits, and therefore the associated unbalancing factors, tend not to change during normal circuit operation.

There are also time variant unbalancing factors which can appear in a comparator chain. Generally, time variant unbalancing factors are random in nature and can be attributed to noise which adds to the input noise and noise generated by solid state circuit elements in the comparator chain.

SUMMARY

Comparator chain total offset, static and dynamic, is reduced by injecting a compensation quantity in at least one point in the chain of comparator components. The compensation quantity is determined by providing the comparator chain with calibration signals having equal values and evaluating the output states of the comparator chain. The compensation quantity is adjusted until the probabilities of high and low output states are substantially equal and a calibrated value for the compensation is determined.

In some implementations, a calibration system for a comparator chain includes a comparator configured for receiving a signal flow. An unbalancing element is coupled to the comparator and configured to add an unbalancing quantity to the signal flow in at least one point of the comparator chain. A compensation circuit is coupled to the comparator and the unbalancing element, and is configured to monitor output states of the comparator to determine if the output states are associated with a desired distribution. If the output states are not associated with a desired distribution, the unbalancing quantity is adjusted based on a current distribution of the output states.

In some implementations, a method of calibrating a comparator chain includes: providing a signal flow to a comparator chain; monitoring output decisions of the comparator chain; determining if the output decisions are associated with a desired distribution; if the output decisions are not associated with the desired distribution: determining an unbalancing quantity based on current distribution associated with the output decisions; adding the unbalancing quantity to the signal flow in at least one point of the comparator chain; and repeating the monitoring step.

The disclosed implementations provide an advantage over conventional techniques by compensating in a global manner all the offsets in the comparator chain, static and dynamic, which are time invariant. This compensation takes place in the presence of noise (e.g., present at the input or added by the comparator chain) using the distribution characteristics of the outputs states of the comparator chain which are generated by the noise.

Other implementations are disclosed which are directed to systems, methods and devices having one or more of the various features described below.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary comparator chain calibration system.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an exemplary counter and scale factor block.

FIG. 3 is flow diagram of an exemplary comparator chain calibration process.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION Comparator Chain with Offset Compensation Circuitry

FIG. 1 is a block diagram of an exemplary comparator chain calibration system 100. In some implementations, the calibration system 100 includes a differential comparator chain 101 and an offset compensation circuit 120. The comparator chain 101 includes input switches 102, input amplifier 104, unbalancing element 106, optional preamplifier 108 and track-and-latch comparator 110. It should be apparent that the differential comparator chain 101 is one possible configuration of a comparator chain and other configurations are possible with more or fewer components. For example, in some implementations there can be more than one preamplifer 108. Although the calibration system 100 is shown configured for processing differential signals, the calibration system 100 could also be adapted for use with single-ended signaling technology.

Referring to the inputs of the input switches 102, the signals SIG+ and SIG− are differential input signals and the signals REF+ and REF− are differential reference values. In normal operation mode, the inputs to the input switches 102 are simply passed to the outputs of input switches 102, i.e., SIN+=SIG+, RIN+=REF+, SIN−=SIG− and RIN−=REF−. In calibration mode, a calibration mode signal (CALIBRATE) commands the input switches 102 to couple the reference values REF+ and REF− to the differential inputs of the input amplifier 104, i.e., SIN+=RIN+=REF+ and SIN−=RIN−=REF−. Since the comparator chain 101 is provided with equal input values, the expected digital output decisions (also referred to as “output states”) of the comparator 110 should be evenly distributed between high and low values (e.g., logic “1” and “0”). In some implementations, the calibration mode can be initiated by the calibration logic 118 during power-up, wake-up or any other suitable trigger event. In other implementations, the calibration mode can be scheduled to run at a specific time (e.g., every t time interval) or every m comparator clock cycles. Note that in calibration mode the reference values REF+ and REF− are also referred herein as “calibration signals.”

The outputs of the input switches 102 are coupled to the inputs of the input amplifier 104. In some implementations, the input amplifier 104 is a high speed, low gain circuit that can be realized with a double differential pair. The input amplifier 104 generates at its outputs differential signals DIF+ and DIF− that are proportional to the difference between the input signals received from the input switches 102, which can be expressed mathematically as follows:
DIF+−DIF−=GAIN*[(SIN+−SIN−)−(RIN+−RIN−)].  (1)

The differential signals DIF+ and DIF− are coupled to the unbalancing element 106, which can be configured to add differential unbalancing quantities UBQ− and UBQ+ to the differential signals DIF+ and DIF− to correct for total offset error in the comparator chain 101. The total offset error is composed of error contributions, static and dynamic, from all components in the comparator chain 101. The unbalancing element 106 is shown configured as an independent block for clarity purposes, but may be realized through the loads of the input amplifier 104. For example, the unbalance lines 124, 126, can be connected directly to the outputs of the input amplifier 104. In one or more configurations, the unbalancing element 106 can include one or more components (e.g., current sources, or other components). Other configurations are possible.

In some implementations, the outputs of the unbalancing element 106 are coupled directly to the inputs of the track-and-latch comparator 110. In other implementations, such as the implementation shown in FIG. 1, the outputs of the unbalancing element 106 are coupled to the inputs of a preamplifier 108 and provide compensated differential signals ROS+, ROS− to the preamplifier 108. Because the offset compensation circuitry 120 can have a limited operating range, the preamplifier 108 is inserted before the track-and-latch comparator 110, which in many cases provides the greatest contribution to the total offset of the comparator chain. The preamplifier 108 can be a high speed and relatively low gain circuit.

The preamplifier 108 provides amplified differential signals AS+, AS−, which are input to the track-and-latch comparator 110 (hereinafter also referred to as “comparator 110”). In some implementations, the comparator 110 is configured to track and latch the amplified differential signal AS+, AS−, and provides a digital output decision based on the differential signal AS+, AS−, e.g., a high or low state.

Offset Compensation Circuitry

The digital output decision of the comparator 110 is input to the offset compensation circuitry 120. In some implementations, the offset compensation circuitry 120 includes an optional counter & scale factor block 112, an accumulator 114 and an n-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC) 116. The counter and scale factor block 112 determines if the output decisions have a desired probability distribution by monitoring the output decisions. For example, the counter and scale factor block 112 can include an up/down counter that can be configured to count the number of output decisions over n comparator clock cycles and then compare the count to a threshold value to determine the current probability distribution of the output decisions of the comparator 110. Differential unbalancing quantities UBQ− and UBQ+ can be determined based on the comparison and added to the differential input signals DIF+ and DIF−. If the count is skewed to low states (e.g., below a predetermined low threshold), then the counter and scale factor block 112 can issue an Up command (e.g., a u-bit digital code) to the input of the accumulator 114. The Up command causes the differential unbalancing quantity (UBQ+−UBQ−) to be incremented (e.g., higher current or voltage). The unbalancing quantities UBQ− and UBQ+ are added to the differential signals DIF+ and DIF− through the unbalancing element 106. Similarly, if the count is skewed to high states (e.g., above a predetermined high threshold), then the counter and scale factor block 112 can issue a Down command to the input of the accumulator 114. The Down command causes the differential unbalancing quantity (UBQ+−UBQ−) to be decremented (e.g., lower current or voltage). If the count is zero or within an acceptable tolerance (between the high and low thresholds), then the counter and scale factor block 112 can issue a Hold command to the input of the accumulator 114. The Hold command causes the differential unbalancing quantity (UBQ+−UBQ−) to be held at their current value. Thus, a Hold command is issued when the probabilities of high and low states are substantially equal (or within a predetermined tolerance) for a predetermined number of comparator clock cycles, indicating that the output decisions of the comparator 110 have converged to a steady state of high and low states that occur with equal or acceptable probability.

An example of a u-bit digital code that can be used to command the accumulator 114 is a 2-bit code: 00—Hold, 01—UP and 10—Down. Other codes are possible. The unbalancing quantities UBQ+ and UBQ− can be added in at any point in the comparator chain, and can also be added in at multiple points in the comparator chain.

In some implementations, the counter and scale factor block 112 includes a scale factor for controlling the speed of convergence and the variance of the output of the accumulator 114 at convergence. For simple circuit realizations, the scale factor can be set equal to one. With a scale factor of one, the counter and scale factor block 112 detects every output decision of the track-and-latch comparator 110 and issues an Up or Down command to the accumulator 114 based on the output decision. For example, during a first comparator clock cycle if the output decision is high, then the counter and scale factor block 112 issues a Low command to the accumulator 114. If the output decision is low during the next comparator clock cycle, then the counter and scale factor block 112 issues a High command to the accumulator 114. In other embodiments, the scale factor can be programmed by the calibration logic 118 on bus 122 to optimize various parameters of calibration, as described with respect to FIG. 2.

In some implementations, the n-bit DAC 116 generates the differential unbalancing quantities UBQ− and UBQ+ and is driven by an n-bit digital code generated by the accumulator 114, which develops a digital compensation value over more groups of n comparator clock cycles. The DAC 116 maps the digital code to an incremental analog quantity (e.g., currents or voltages). The mapping can be linear or non-linear. For example, digital codes having lower values can be mapped to smaller increments or decrements than higher (in absolute value) digital codes. The accumulator 114 can be implemented with a conventional up/down counter using known digital circuit designs. It should be apparent that the accumulator 114 allows the offset compensation value to be held during normal operation of the circuit. Thus, in contrast to some conventional offset compensation schemes, the calibration system 100 need only be executed in response to trigger events, such as after power-up or wake-up from a standby mode, and not continuously operated during normal circuit operation, as is required by some conventional calibration systems for comparator chains.

Counter and Scale Factor Circuit Operation

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of an exemplary counter and scale factor block 112. In some implementations, the block 112 includes an up/down counter 200, a multiplication block 202, a test block 206, an Up code generator 208, a Hold code generator 210 and a Down code generator 212. The counter 200 can be a conventional up/down counter composed of flip flops and other logic devices for counting high and low pulses on a input line. The multiplication block 202 can be a conventional shift register or other logic device that can perform binary multiplication. The test block 206 can include logic (e.g., AND gates, OR gates, etc.) for comparing the contents of the counter 200 (i.e., the current count) against high and low threshold values (TLow, THigh). In some implementations, the count can be compared against a single threshold value (e.g., zero). The code generators 208, 210 and 212 can include logic and other electronic components for distinguishing between values less than, greater than and equal to respective thresholds and for applying suitable signal conditioning to generate the Up, Down and Hold codes to the accumulator 114 (e.g., comparators, drivers, transistors, pull-up resistors, etc.).

During calibration mode, the output decisions of the comparator 110 drives the counter 200, which performs counting cycles having a number of n counting steps. The number of counting steps can be fixed or programmed by, for example, the calibration logic 118 using bus 122. After a number of counting steps have completed, the counter 200 passes its register contents (i.e., the current count) to the multiplication block 202, and the counter 200 is reset to begin a new counting cycle. At limit, the count cycle can have only one clock cycle. In some implementations, the counter 200 is reset by a RESET signal generated by the calibration logic 118 and transmitted over bus 122.

In the multiplication block 202, the contents of counter 200 is multiplied by a fixed or programmable scale factor 204 (μ). In some implementations, the scale factor can be in the form of 2−k and can be implemented with a shift register that can be configured to shift by k positions (e.g., right shift). After the multiplication block 202, the register content is tested in a test block 206 to determine which of the signal generators 208, 210, 212, will be triggered. In some implementations, the test block 206 tests for three conditions. If the contents of the counter 200 (Count) is less than the low threshold value (Count<TLow), the Up signal generator 208 generates an Up code. If the contents of the counter 200 is between the high and low threshold values (THigh>Count>TLow), the Hold signal generator 210 generates a Hold code. If the contents of the counter 200 is greater than the high threshold value (Count>THigh), the Down code generator 212 is triggered. Although the signal generators 208, 210 and 212 are shown in FIG. 2 as separate components they can be combined in a single block and share one or more components. In some implementations, some or all the thresholds can be replaced with threshold bands. For example, if the contents of the counter 200 is between counts X and Y (e.g., between +3 and −3), the Hold signal generator 210 generates a Hold signal.

The output of comparator 110 drives the counter 200 in such a manner that a negative feedback loop formed by the unbalancing block 106, the comparator 110 and the offset compensation block 120 causes the output decisions of the comparator 110 to converge towards a stable state in which high and low output decisions are equally probable. The scale factor 204 can be used to control the convergence speed of the negative feedback loop and can be set to an initial value (e.g., one or 20) for a predetermined number of counting cycles to accelerate the initial phase of the convergence process. Because the scale factor 206 can also control the variance of the feedback loop at convergence, it can then be adjusted or replaced in later phases of convergence to reduce the variance of the accumulator 114 contents at convergence. The optimal values for the number of steps in a counting cycle and for the scale factor 206 are dependent on the DAC 116 increment and noise on the comparator chain 101, which can be computed based on measurements, knowledge or some assumption about the noise on the comparator chain 101. It should be apparent that other forms of scale factors are possible depending on the design of the negative feedback loop.

Comparator Chain Compensation Process

FIG. 3 is flow diagram of an exemplary comparator chain calibration process 300. The steps of the process 300 need not occur in any specific order and at least some steps can occur in parallel. The process 300 begins by providing calibration signals to the comparator chain (302). In some implementations, the calibration signals can be set equal to each other, as described with respect to FIG. 1. The process 300 then monitors the output decisions of the comparator chain (304). In some implementations, monitoring includes counting output decisions using an up/down counter over a predetermined number comparator clock cycles (i.e., a counting cycle), as described with respect to FIG. 2. For example, for each high state the counter can increment and for each low state the counter can decrement. Thus, if the count is zero after completion of the counting cycle, then it can be reasonably assumed that an equal or acceptable distribution of high and low states has been achieved (i.e., a balanced comparator chain).

Based on the count generated in step (304), the process 300 determines if a desired probability distribution has been reached (306). If the desired probability distribution has be reached (e.g., register count=0), then the offset compensation value is maintained at its current value (312). If the desired probability distribution has not been reached, then the process 300 generates a compensation value based on the current distribution of the output decisions (308) and adds the compensation value to the signals in at least one point of the comparator chain (310). In some implementations, the current probability distribution can be determined by comparing the count of output decisions generated by an up/down counter against a threshold value (e.g., zero). For example, if the count is greater than zero, then the probability distribution is skewed to high states and the current compensation value can be decremented to balance the offset. Similarly, if the count is less than zero, then the current probability distribution is skewed to low states and the current compensation value can be incremented to balance the offset. After the new compensation value is determined, the monitoring step 304 can be repeated. The process 300 continues until the output of the comparator chain has converged to a stable state in which the probabilities of high and low output states are equal or acceptable. In some implementations, a scale factor is used to control the speed of convergence and the variance of the negative feedback loop at convergence, as described with respect to FIG. 2.

It will be understood by those skilled in the relevant art that the above-described implementations are merely exemplary, and many changes can be made without departing from the true spirit and scope of the present invention. Therefore, it is intended by the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications that come within the true spirit and scope of this invention.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4251803Jun 2, 1978Feb 17, 1981International Business Machines CorporationDynamic zero offset compensating circuit for A/D converter
US4380005Apr 11, 1980Apr 12, 1983International Business Machines Corp.Dynamic zero offset compensating circuit for A/D converter
US4996529Apr 10, 1989Feb 26, 1991Motorola, Inc.Auto-zeroing circuit for offset cancellation
US5001726 *Feb 22, 1989Mar 19, 1991Fujitsu LimitedCircuit for generating discrimination voltage level
US5017805Nov 17, 1989May 21, 1991Motorola, Inc.Offset cancel latching comparator
US5061900Jun 19, 1989Oct 29, 1991Raytheon CompanySelf-zeroing amplifier
US5920273Jul 31, 1997Jul 6, 1999Yamaha CorporationDigital-to-analog converter
US5990814Sep 5, 1997Nov 23, 1999Cirrus Logic, Inc.Method and circuit for calibration of flash analog to digital converters
US6507241Oct 3, 2000Jan 14, 2003International Business Machines CorporationMethod and circuit for automatically correcting offset voltage
US6794920May 11, 2000Sep 21, 2004Maxtor CorporationSampled analog DC offset correction for data bus structures
US6822501Oct 30, 2003Nov 23, 2004Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd.Apparatus for correcting offset voltage
US6847320Mar 30, 2004Jan 25, 2005National Semiconductor CorporationADC linearity improvement
US6900750Apr 16, 2004May 31, 2005Analog Devices, Inc.Signal conditioning system with adjustable gain and offset mismatches
US6982664Nov 4, 2004Jan 3, 2006Analog Devices, Inc.Timing enhancement methods and networks for time-interleaved analog-to-digital systems
US20030117205Apr 23, 2002Jun 26, 2003Cahalane Aidan J.Offset calibration system and method for a high gain signal channel
US20030132867 *Jan 15, 2002Jul 17, 2003Ostrom Kenneth A.Statistically based cascaded analog-to-digital converter calibration technique
US20030154045Jul 29, 2002Aug 14, 2003Sung Eric C.System and method of DC calibration of amplifiers
US20050219090Feb 24, 2003Oct 6, 2005Telefonaktiebolaget Lm Ericsson (Publ)Comparator offset calibration for a/d converters
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1Richard Fung, "Improving Accuracy of Analog-to-Digital Converters," Nov. 14, 2002, [retrieved on Oct. 10, 2007]; Retrieved from the Internet .
2Richard Fung, "Improving Accuracy of Analog-to-Digital Converters," Nov. 14, 2002, [retrieved on Oct. 10, 2007]; Retrieved from the Internet <URL:http://www.eecg.utoronto.ca/˜kphang/papers/2002/rfung—AccuracyXofXADCs.pdf>.
3Wong, et al., "Offset Compensation in Comparators With Minimum Input-Referred Supply Noise", IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, No. 5, May 2004 [online], [retrieved on Oct. 10, 2007]; Retrieved from the Internet .
4Wong, et al., "Offset Compensation in Comparators With Minimum Input-Referred Supply Noise", IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 39, No. 5, May 2004 [online], [retrieved on Oct. 10, 2007]; Retrieved from the Internet <URL: http://www.ee.ucla.edu/˜ckygroup/papers/wong—issc—may04.pdf>.
Classifications
U.S. Classification341/118, 341/120, 327/307
International ClassificationH03M1/10
Cooperative ClassificationH03M1/1019
European ClassificationH03M1/10C1M
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Dec 2, 2013FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4