|Publication number||US7737502 B2|
|Application number||US 11/351,801|
|Publication date||Jun 15, 2010|
|Filing date||Feb 10, 2006|
|Priority date||Jun 9, 2004|
|Also published as||US7037794, US20050277271, US20060128111|
|Publication number||11351801, 351801, US 7737502 B2, US 7737502B2, US-B2-7737502, US7737502 B2, US7737502B2|
|Inventors||Jochen Beintner, Gary B. Bronner, Ramachandra Divakaruni, Byeong Y. Kim|
|Original Assignee||International Business Machines Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (103), Non-Patent Citations (9), Referenced by (4), Classifications (36), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/709,963, filed Jun. 9, 2004 now U.S. Pat. No. 7,037,794.
The present invention relates to semiconductor devices, and more particularly to a strained Si/silicon germanium-on-insulator (SGOI) structure having an elevated source/drain region and a raised trench isolation region. The present invention also relates to a method of fabricating such a strained Si/SGOI structure.
Improvements in transport properties, i.e., carrier mobility, through strain have been demonstrated in the operating characteristics of field effect transistors (FETs). For complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices, an improvement in device characteristics through carrier mobility has significant potential for the fabrication of very high-speed devices. Strained silicon on a relaxed SiGe substrate is one system where such an improvement occurs.
Experimental research on enhanced carrier mobility MOSFETs caused by strain has concentrated on a strained Si layer grown on a relaxed SiGe layer that is located on a bulk semiconductor wafer. MOSFETs fabricated using a strained Si/SiGe system exhibit the following disadvantages: (1) High source/drain junction leakage—the FET source/drain junctions, as well as the channel region, are formed in a strained Si area resulting in higher junction leakage. (2) The Si/SiGe system MOSFET process is not compatible with mainstream CMOS fabrication techniques requiring specially prepared substrates using molecular beam epitaxy. (3) The Si/SiGe system MOSFET process is costly with low production rate.
In addition to the above mentioned drawbacks with strained Si/relaxed SiGe/bulk wafer structures, prior art structures including strained Si formed on a SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) template (also referred to herein as a strained Si/SGOI structure) exhibit the following unique problems:
(A) Loss of trench isolation oxide during a multiple gate oxide thickness process (which requires an oxide wet etch selectively with the resist mask, adding trench isolation height). A wider range of trench isolation height requires more etching of the polySi gate resulting in potential gate oxide punchthrough.
(B) A trench isolation divot forms at the strained Si/trench isolation interface. This can create a short circuit between the strained Si islands due to a gate polySi stringer.
(C) A chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) uniformity restriction is imposed or a narrow process window is obtained.
(D) A narrow polySi gate over etching window.
(E) A limitation of thermal budget during pad oxide growth.
(F) Strained Si sidewall exposure and Si loss.
In view of the drawbacks mentioned with the prior art, there is a need for providing a new and improved method of fabricating a strained Si/SGOI structure that overcomes the aforementioned issues recited under items (A)-(F).
The present invention resolves the problems with the prior art method mentioned above by reversing the process sequence of gate dielectric and trench isolation formation. In a conventional process, the gate dielectric, i.e., oxide, is formed after formation of the trench isolation region, restricting the amount of trench dielectric oxide removal during the multiple gate oxide processing. In the prior art process, an oxide divot is typically formed in the strained Si/SGOI structure, which can result in a short circuit with a neighboring active area when a polySi stringer is present in the divot.
In the present invention, the gate formation process can be done without any restriction of oxide removal. Hence, items (A), (B) and (E) mentioned above are resolved. Moreover, the gate polySi top surface is planarized in the present invention by a two step gate poly deposition (before and after trench isolation) thereby eliminating unnecessary poly over etching. Also, the inventive structure allows for a higher trench isolation height as compared to the conventional process. Hence, the present invention resolves the issues mentioned under items (C)-(D) above. Furthermore, due to the higher trench isolation height that can be achieved in the present invention, a disposable nitride spacer can be employed which protects the sidewalls of the strained Si thereby resulting in little or no Si loss at the isolation trench edge.
In broad terms, the present invention provides a method of fabricating a strained Si/SGOI structure that comprises the steps of:
providing a structure including a silicon germanium-on-insulator (SGOI) substrate, a strained Si layer atop the SGOI substrate, a gate dielectric atop the strained Si layer, a gate polySi atop the gate dielectric and a pad nitride atop the gate dielectric;
forming a first stack of said pad nitride, said gate polySi, said gate dielectric, said strained Si, and a relaxed SiGe layer of the SGOI substrate;
forming a trench oxide in regions adjacent to said first stack;
removing said pad nitride from said first stack to expose said gate polySi layer;
forming a material layer comprising a polySi layer, an insulator, such as an oxide, and a cap nitride on said exposed gate polySi layer and said trench oxide, said polySi layer is in contact with said gate polySi layer;
forming a second stack comprising said cap nitride, said insulator, said polySi layer, and said gate polySi layer, said second stack is located atop said gate dielectric; and
forming a raised source/drain region on said strained Si layer in regions adjacent to said second stack, wherein during said forming exposed sidewalls of the trench oxide are protected with a sacrificial nitride spacer.
In some embodiments, and during the forming of the first stack, the relaxed SiGe layer can be etched so that a recess region is formed beneath the strained Si layer.
Following the formation of the raised source/drain region, the sacrificial nitride spacers are removed forming voids in the structure that can be subsequently filled with a nitride fill material. Oxide spacers are then formed about the second stack.
In addition to the above method, the present invention also relates to the strained Si/SGOI structure that is formed by performing the aforementioned processing steps. In broad terms, the inventive strained Si/SGOI structure comprises:
an active device region comprising a relaxed SiGe layer, a strained Si layer located atop the relaxed SiGe layer, a raised source/drain region located atop a portion of said strained Si layer, and a stack comprising at least a gate dielectric and a gate polySi located on another portion of the strained Si layer; and
a raised trench oxide region surrounding said active device region.
The present invention, which provides a strained Si/SGOI structure having an elevated source/drain region and a raised trench isolation region and a method of fabricating the same, will now be described in greater detail by referring to drawings that accompany the present application.
Reference is first made to
The SGOI substrate 12 can be fabricated using any conventional process in which a relaxed SiGe layer is formed atop a surface of an insulating layer. In one embodiment, for example, the SGOI substrate 12 can be formed by thermally growing a SiGe layer, which is relatively thick, on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) layer of a SOI substrate and then relaxing the SiGe layer by annealing/oxidation.
In another embodiment, for example, the SGOI substrate 12 can be formed by wafer bonding and/or by oxygen ion implantation.
Co-assigned U.S. application Ser. No. 10/662,028, filed Sep. 12, 2003, the entire content of which is incorporated herein by reference, discloses yet another possible way in which the SGOI substrate 12 can be fabricated. In accordance with U.S. Ser. No. 10/662,028, a structure comprising a Si-containing substrate having a hole-rich region and a Ge layer located thereon is first provided. Next, the hole rich region is converted into a porous region utilizing an anodization process and then the structure is annealed such that the porous region is converted into a buried oxide region, while simultaneously forming a relaxed SiGe alloy layer atop the buried oxide. In yet another method, a thermal mixing process such as described, for example, in co-assigned U.S. application Ser. No. 10/448,947, filed May 30, 2003, co-assigned U.S application Ser. No. 10/055,138, and co-assigned U.S. application Ser. No. 10/669,601, filed Oct. 29, 2003 can be used in forming the SGOI substrate; the entire content of each of the aforementioned U.S. Applications is incorporated herein by reference. In the thermal mixing process, ions such as oxygen are first implanted into a Si-containing substrate to form an implanted ion rich region. Next a Ge-containing layer such as a SiGe alloy or pure Ge, is formed atop the implanted structure, and then the structure is annealed under conditions that permit the formation of a Ge diffusion barrier in the Si-containing substrate, while simultaneously causing interdiffusion (and hence intermixing) of Si and Ge forming a relaxed SiGe layer atop the Ge diffusion barrier.
Notwithstanding which process is employed in fabricating the SGOI substrate, the relaxed SiGe layer 18 typically has a thickness from about 20 to about 80 nm, with a thickness from about 30 to about 50 nm being more typical. The term “relaxed SiGe layer” denotes a SiGe layer that has a measured degree of relaxation of about 35% or greater, preferably 50 or greater. The term “SiGe” denotes a SiGe alloy having a Ge content between 0 to 100 atomic percent, with a Ge content from about 10 to about 50 atomic percent being more typical.
The insulating layer 16 of the SGOI substrate may comprise an oxide, nitride, oxynitride or any combination thereof, with an oxide being most typical. The insulating layer 16 typically has a thickness from about 50 to about 300 nm, with a thickness from about 100 to about 150 nm being more typical. The thickness of the Si-containing substrate layer 14 is not critical to the present application and can vary over a wide range of thicknesses.
Stained Si layer 20 is formed atop the SGOI substrate 12, particularly on the relaxed SiGe layer 18, by an epitaxial deposition process well-known to those skilled in the art. The thickness of the strained Si layer 20 may vary, but typically, the strained Si layer 20 has a thickness from about 1 to about 100 nm. Because the relaxed SiGe layer 18 of the SGOI substrate 12 has a large in-plane lattice parameter as compared to the epi Si layer 20 formed thereon, the epi Si layer 20 will be strained in a tensile manner.
The gate dielectric 22, which is located atop the strained Si layer 20, comprises an oxide such as, for example, SiO2, TiO2, HfO2, ZrO2, Al3O4, mixed oxides such as perovskite-type oxides and the like. In a preferred embodiment, gate dielectric 22 comprises SiO2, or a nitrogen rich thermal oxide. The gate dielectric 22 can be formed by a deposition process such as, for example, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), evaporation, chemical solution deposition, or atomic layer deposition (ALD). Alternatively, the gate dielectric 22 can be formed by a thermal oxidation process as well as a thermal oxidation under a nitrogen-containing environment. In a preferred embodiment in which SiO2 is employed as the gate dielectric 22, thermal oxidation is used in forming the gate oxide. In some instances, typical nitrogen enriched technology such as plasma nitridation can be used in conjunction with thermal oxidation. When a thermal oxidation process is employed, the surface of the strained Si is typically cleaned with a conventional cleaning agent prior to thermal deposition of the oxide.
The thickness of the gate dielectric 22 formed atop the strained Si layer 20 may vary depending on the process used in forming the same as well as the type of insulator employed. Typically, however, the gate dielectric 22 has a thickness from about 0.5 to about 10 nm, with a thickness from about 1 to about 3 nm being even more typical.
It is noted that prior to formation of the gate dielectric 22, various implants such as a well implant and a channel implant (both not shown) can be performed. The well implant, which typically forms a well region (not shown) within the relaxed SiGe layer 18, is carried out using a conventional ion implantation process well known to those skilled in the art. P- or N-type dopants can be used in forming the well region. Likewise, the channel implant, which forms a channel region (not shown) within the strained Si layer 20, is performed using a conventional ion implantation process that is also well known to those skilled in the art. The channel implant can be performed using N- or P-type dopants.
It is emphasized that the above processing occurs on an unpatterned structure that does not contain any trench isolation regions. Since the above process is performed first prior to trench isolation formation, there is no restriction on the amount of oxide removal which typically occurs in the prior art when the trench isolations are formed prior to gate dielectric formation. The multiple gate oxide process requires different amounts of oxide removal depending on the device location in prior art, including STI (shallow trench isolation) height variation. However, this invention is free from the STI variation because the trench isolation region is not formed yet. Since there is no pattern used at this point of the present invention, an alignment key formation process may be required in some instances. The alignment key formation process includes depositing a CVD oxide on the strained Si surface, followed by lithography and a wet oxide etch process.
In accordance with the present invention, the structure at this point of the present invention will have a multiple gate thickness on the strained Si layer 20 with a variety of channel implantation on different areas within the structure.
Next, and as shown in
Pad nitride layer 26 is formed atop the gate polySi 24 by a deposition process such as CVD, PECVD, evaporation, chemical solution deposition and the like. The pad nitride layer 26 formed at this point of the present invention has a thickness from about 10 to about 100 nm, with a thickness from about 20 to about 50 nm being more typical.
It is noted that in the inventive process no pad oxide layer is employed. Instead, the pad oxide layer is replaced in the present invention by the combination of the gate dielectric 22 and the gate polySi 24. Various kinds of ions can be implanted into the gate polySi 24 depending on the circuit requirement before the pad nitride 26 deposition. It is also worth while pointing out the gate polySi 24 formed at this step of the present invention is confined to the active device area of the structure. A gate polySi layer can be formed atop the trench isolation (to be subsequently formed) during formation of self-aligned silicide contacts.
The structure shown in
The lithography step employed at this point of the present invention comprises applying a photoresist (not shown) to the surface of the pad nitride layer 26, exposing the photoresist to a pattern of radiation, and developing the pattern into the photoresist using a conventional resist developer. The lithographic step forms a patterned photoresist atop a predetermined portion of the pad nitride layer 26. The exposed regions, not including the patterned photoresist, are then etched using at least one etching step, stopping atop the insulating layer 16. The at least one etching step includes a dry etch process such as reactive-ion etching (RIE), ion beam etching, plasma etching, or laser ablation, a wet etching process, or any combination thereof. In a preferred etching scheme, the pad nitride layer 26 is first etched and then the patterned photoresist is stripped using a conventional stripping process. The patterned nitride layer 26 is then used as a mask for etching the underlying layers forming the first stack atop the insulating layer 16.
The total thickness of the pad nitride layer 26 and the gate polySi 24 employed is typically similar or thicker than a conventional pad nitride layer. In the present invention, the total thickness of the pad nitride layer 26 and the gate polySi 24 is preferred to be thicker than a conventional pad nitride layer so as to be able to protect the sidewalls of the strained Si layer 20 during subsequent wet/dry etch processing to complete the final structure. Considering photoresist thickness restriction with a small ground rule, an oxide hard mask (not shown) can be used in the present invention, allowing a much thinner resist thickness than a conventional resist process. When an oxide hard mask is employed, it is typically formed atop the pad nitride layer 26 prior to lithography. Note that the pad nitride thickness is typically decided in the prior art by the height of the trench isolation regions. However, in the present invention, the trench isolation height is related to the sum of the pad nitride and polySi gate, allowing the use of a much thinner pad nitride layer than a conventional process.
Next, a trench oxide 28 such as tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) or a high density plasma oxide is formed atop the exposed surface of the insulating layer 16, and the trench oxide 28 is then planarized by chemical mechanical polishing or grinding to provide the structure shown, for example, in
The pad nitride layer 26 is now removed from the structure using a conventional stripping process that selectively removes nitride as compared to oxide or polySi. After removing the pad nitride layer 26, a polySi layer 30 is formed over the structure using a conventional deposition process. The polySi layer 30 formed at this point of the present invention typically has a thickness after deposition from about 50 to about 200 nm, with a thickness from about 50 to about 100 nm being more typical.
Next, an insulator, such as a high temperature oxide (HTO), 32 is deposited with LPCVD atop the polySi layer 30. The insulator 32 has a thickness that is typically from about 10 to about 100 nm, with a thickness from about 10 to about 50 nm being more typical. Cap nitride 34 is then formed atop the insulator 32 by a conventional deposition process. The cap nitride 34 typically has a thickness from about 20 to about 80 nm, with a thickness from about 30 to about 50 nm being more typical. The resultant structure after pad nitride removal and formation of layers 30, 32, and 34, i.e., material layer 35, is shown in
Since the gate dielectric 22 has been formed prior to trench oxide 28 formation, no oxide is removed from the trench oxide 28, as typically is the case in prior art processes in which the trench oxide is formed prior to gate dielectric formation. Because of the inventive processing sequence, there is no variation in trench oxide height as is the case in the prior art process. Particularly, the inventive processing sequence does not induce trench isolation height variation to the structure.
Next, and as shown in
At this point of the present invention, any gate dielectric 22 not protected by the second stack or the sacrificial nitride spacers 36 is removed to expose underlying surfaces of the strained Si layer 20. A wet etch process can be used to remove the unprotected portions of the gate dielectric 22.
A selective epitaxial Si layer 38, which becomes the elevated source/drain region of the inventive structure, is then formed via a conventional epi growth process atop the exposed surfaces of the strained Si layer 20, see
The sacrificial nitride spacers 36 are then removed from the structure utilizing a wet etch process that selectively removes nitride. Note that small voids (or divots) labeled as 40 in
The divots 40 shown in
Next, oxide spacers 44 are formed on exposed sidewalls of the oxide 30, and gate polySi 24 by deposition and etching providing the structure shown, for example, in
Depending on the transistor performance requirement, multiple disposable spacers can be formed without hurting the philosophy of the invention.
After forming the oxide spacers 44 typical CMOS processing such as silicide contact formation can be performed.
While the present invention has been particularly shown and described with respect to preferred embodiments, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the foregoing and other changes in forms and details may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention. It is therefore intended that the present invention not be limited to the exact forms and details described and illustrated, but fall within the scope of the appended claims.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3602841||Jun 18, 1970||Aug 31, 1971||Ibm||High frequency bulk semiconductor amplifiers and oscillators|
|US4665415||Apr 24, 1985||May 12, 1987||International Business Machines Corporation||Semiconductor device with hole conduction via strained lattice|
|US4853076||Jul 9, 1987||Aug 1, 1989||Massachusetts Institute Of Technology||Semiconductor thin films|
|US4855245||Oct 4, 1988||Aug 8, 1989||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Method of manufacturing integrated circuit containing bipolar and complementary MOS transistors on a common substrate|
|US4881105||Jun 13, 1988||Nov 14, 1989||International Business Machines Corporation||Integrated trench-transistor structure and fabrication process|
|US4952524||May 5, 1989||Aug 28, 1990||At&T Bell Laboratories||Semiconductor device manufacture including trench formation|
|US4958213||Jun 12, 1989||Sep 18, 1990||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method for forming a transistor base region under thick oxide|
|US5006913||Nov 2, 1989||Apr 9, 1991||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Stacked type semiconductor device|
|US5060030||Jul 18, 1990||Oct 22, 1991||Raytheon Company||Pseudomorphic HEMT having strained compensation layer|
|US5079180 *||Aug 16, 1990||Jan 7, 1992||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method of fabricating a raised source/drain transistor|
|US5081513||Feb 28, 1991||Jan 14, 1992||Xerox Corporation||Electronic device with recovery layer proximate to active layer|
|US5108843||Nov 27, 1989||Apr 28, 1992||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Thin film semiconductor and process for producing the same|
|US5134085||Nov 21, 1991||Jul 28, 1992||Micron Technology, Inc.||Reduced-mask, split-polysilicon CMOS process, incorporating stacked-capacitor cells, for fabricating multi-megabit dynamic random access memories|
|US5310446||Jul 13, 1992||May 10, 1994||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Method for producing semiconductor film|
|US5354695||Apr 8, 1992||Oct 11, 1994||Leedy Glenn J||Membrane dielectric isolation IC fabrication|
|US5371399||Aug 9, 1993||Dec 6, 1994||International Business Machines Corporation||Compound semiconductor having metallic inclusions and devices fabricated therefrom|
|US5391510||Apr 7, 1994||Feb 21, 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Formation of self-aligned metal gate FETs using a benignant removable gate material during high temperature steps|
|US5459346||Nov 17, 1994||Oct 17, 1995||Ricoh Co., Ltd.||Semiconductor substrate with electrical contact in groove|
|US5471948||May 11, 1994||Dec 5, 1995||International Business Machines Corporation||Method of making a compound semiconductor having metallic inclusions|
|US5557122||May 12, 1995||Sep 17, 1996||Alliance Semiconductors Corporation||Semiconductor electrode having improved grain structure and oxide growth properties|
|US5561302||Sep 26, 1994||Oct 1, 1996||Motorola, Inc.||Enhanced mobility MOSFET device and method|
|US5565697||Jun 2, 1995||Oct 15, 1996||Ricoh Company, Ltd.||Semiconductor structure having island forming grooves|
|US5571741||Jun 7, 1995||Nov 5, 1996||Leedy; Glenn J.||Membrane dielectric isolation IC fabrication|
|US5592007||Jun 7, 1995||Jan 7, 1997||Leedy; Glenn J.||Membrane dielectric isolation transistor fabrication|
|US5592018||Jun 7, 1995||Jan 7, 1997||Leedy; Glenn J.||Membrane dielectric isolation IC fabrication|
|US5670798||Mar 29, 1995||Sep 23, 1997||North Carolina State University||Integrated heterostructures of Group III-V nitride semiconductor materials including epitaxial ohmic contact non-nitride buffer layer and methods of fabricating same|
|US5679965||Nov 9, 1995||Oct 21, 1997||North Carolina State University||Integrated heterostructures of Group III-V nitride semiconductor materials including epitaxial ohmic contact, non-nitride buffer layer and methods of fabricating same|
|US5683934||May 3, 1996||Nov 4, 1997||Motorola, Inc.||Enhanced mobility MOSFET device and method|
|US5801081||May 28, 1997||Sep 1, 1998||Fujitsu Ltd.||Semiconductor device and method of manufacturing semiconductor device|
|US5840593||Mar 10, 1997||Nov 24, 1998||Elm Technology Corporation||Membrane dielectric isolation IC fabrication|
|US5858825||Jul 14, 1997||Jan 12, 1999||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Methods for reducing anomalous narrow channel effect in trench-bounded buried-channel p-MOSFETS|
|US5861651||Feb 28, 1997||Jan 19, 1999||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Field effect devices and capacitors with improved thin film dielectrics and method for making same|
|US5874328||Jun 30, 1997||Feb 23, 1999||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Reverse CMOS method for dual isolation semiconductor device|
|US5880040||Apr 15, 1996||Mar 9, 1999||Macronix International Co., Ltd.||Gate dielectric based on oxynitride grown in N2 O and annealed in NO|
|US5940736||Mar 11, 1997||Aug 17, 1999||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Method for forming a high quality ultrathin gate oxide layer|
|US5946559||Jun 7, 1995||Aug 31, 1999||Elm Technology Corporation||Membrane dielectric isolation IC fabrication|
|US5960297||Jul 2, 1997||Sep 28, 1999||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Shallow trench isolation structure and method of forming the same|
|US5989978||Jul 16, 1998||Nov 23, 1999||Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing, Ltd.||Shallow trench isolation of MOSFETS with reduced corner parasitic currents|
|US6008126||Feb 23, 1998||Dec 28, 1999||Elm Technology Corporation||Membrane dielectric isolation IC fabrication|
|US6025280||Apr 28, 1997||Feb 15, 2000||Lucent Technologies Inc.||Use of SiD4 for deposition of ultra thin and controllable oxides|
|US6046464||Aug 13, 1997||Apr 4, 2000||North Carolina State University||Integrated heterostructures of group III-V nitride semiconductor materials including epitaxial ohmic contact comprising multiple quantum well|
|US6066545||Dec 7, 1998||May 23, 2000||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Birdsbeak encroachment using combination of wet and dry etch for isolation nitride|
|US6090684||Jul 29, 1999||Jul 18, 2000||Hitachi, Ltd.||Method for manufacturing semiconductor device|
|US6107143||Sep 10, 1998||Aug 22, 2000||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Method for forming a trench isolation structure in an integrated circuit|
|US6110787 *||Sep 7, 1999||Aug 29, 2000||Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd.||Method for fabricating a MOS device|
|US6117722||Feb 18, 1999||Sep 12, 2000||Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company||SRAM layout for relaxing mechanical stress in shallow trench isolation technology and method of manufacture thereof|
|US6133071||Oct 15, 1998||Oct 17, 2000||Nec Corporation||Semiconductor device with plate heat sink free from cracks due to thermal stress and process for assembling it with package|
|US6165383||Oct 15, 1998||Dec 26, 2000||Organic Display Technology||Useful precursors for organic electroluminescent materials and devices made from such materials|
|US6184105||May 22, 1997||Feb 6, 2001||Advanced Micro Devices||Method for post transistor isolation|
|US6197657||Jun 11, 1998||Mar 6, 2001||Nec Corporation||Method for producing a semiconductor device|
|US6221735||Feb 15, 2000||Apr 24, 2001||Philips Semiconductors, Inc.||Method for eliminating stress induced dislocations in CMOS devices|
|US6228694||Jun 28, 1999||May 8, 2001||Intel Corporation||Method of increasing the mobility of MOS transistors by use of localized stress regions|
|US6246095||Sep 3, 1998||Jun 12, 2001||Agere Systems Guardian Corp.||System and method for forming a uniform thin gate oxide layer|
|US6248643||Apr 2, 1999||Jun 19, 2001||Vanguard International Semiconductor Corporation||Method of fabricating a self-aligned contact|
|US6255169||Feb 22, 1999||Jul 3, 2001||Advanced Micro Devices, Inc.||Process for fabricating a high-endurance non-volatile memory device|
|US6261964||Dec 4, 1998||Jul 17, 2001||Micron Technology, Inc.||Material removal method for forming a structure|
|US6265317||Jan 9, 2001||Jul 24, 2001||Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company||Top corner rounding for shallow trench isolation|
|US6274444||Aug 10, 1999||Aug 14, 2001||United Microelectronics Corp.||Method for forming mosfet|
|US6281532||Jun 28, 1999||Aug 28, 2001||Intel Corporation||Technique to obtain increased channel mobilities in NMOS transistors by gate electrode engineering|
|US6284623||Oct 25, 1999||Sep 4, 2001||Peng-Fei Zhang||Method of fabricating semiconductor devices using shallow trench isolation with reduced narrow channel effect|
|US6284626||Apr 6, 1999||Sep 4, 2001||Vantis Corporation||Angled nitrogen ion implantation for minimizing mechanical stress on side walls of an isolation trench|
|US6319794||Oct 14, 1998||Nov 20, 2001||International Business Machines Corporation||Structure and method for producing low leakage isolation devices|
|US6333242||Mar 10, 2000||Dec 25, 2001||Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.||Method of fabricating semiconductor device without having grooves at edge portions of STI|
|US6350662||Jul 19, 1999||Feb 26, 2002||Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company||Method to reduce defects in shallow trench isolations by post liner anneal|
|US6358801||Aug 22, 2000||Mar 19, 2002||Micron Technology, Inc.||Method and apparatus for trench isolation process with pad gate and trench edge spacer elimination|
|US6361885||Nov 19, 1998||Mar 26, 2002||Organic Display Technology||Organic electroluminescent materials and device made from such materials|
|US6362082||Jun 28, 1999||Mar 26, 2002||Intel Corporation||Methodology for control of short channel effects in MOS transistors|
|US6368931||Mar 27, 2000||Apr 9, 2002||Intel Corporation||Thin tensile layers in shallow trench isolation and method of making same|
|US6403486||Apr 30, 2001||Jun 11, 2002||Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company||Method for forming a shallow trench isolation|
|US6403975||Apr 8, 1997||Jun 11, 2002||Max-Planck Gesellschaft Zur Forderung Der Wissenschafteneev||Semiconductor components, in particular photodetectors, light emitting diodes, optical modulators and waveguides with multilayer structures grown on silicon substrates|
|US6406973||Jun 29, 2000||Jun 18, 2002||Hyundai Electronics Industries Co., Ltd.||Transistor in a semiconductor device and method of manufacturing the same|
|US6461936||Jan 4, 2002||Oct 8, 2002||Infineon Technologies Ag||Double pullback method of filling an isolation trench|
|US6476462||Dec 7, 2000||Nov 5, 2002||Texas Instruments Incorporated||MOS-type semiconductor device and method for making same|
|US6493497||Sep 26, 2000||Dec 10, 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Electro-optic structure and process for fabricating same|
|US6498358||Jul 20, 2001||Dec 24, 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Structure and method for fabricating an electro-optic system having an electrochromic diffraction grating|
|US6501121||Nov 15, 2000||Dec 31, 2002||Motorola, Inc.||Semiconductor structure|
|US6506652||Dec 9, 1999||Jan 14, 2003||Intel Corporation||Method of recessing spacers to improved salicide resistance on polysilicon gates|
|US6509618||Jan 4, 2000||Jan 21, 2003||Intel Corporation||Device having thin first spacers and partially recessed thick second spacers for improved salicide resistance on polysilicon gates|
|US6521964||Aug 30, 1999||Feb 18, 2003||Intel Corporation||Device having spacers for improved salicide resistance on polysilicon gates|
|US6531369||Feb 14, 2002||Mar 11, 2003||Applied Micro Circuits Corporation||Heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) fabrication using a selectively deposited silicon germanium (SiGe)|
|US6531740||Jul 17, 2001||Mar 11, 2003||Motorola, Inc.||Integrated impedance matching and stability network|
|US6583000||Feb 7, 2002||Jun 24, 2003||Sharp Laboratories Of America, Inc.||Process integration of Si1-xGex CMOS with Si1-xGex relaxation after STI formation|
|US6881635 *||Mar 23, 2004||Apr 19, 2005||International Business Machines Corporation||Strained silicon NMOS devices with embedded source/drain|
|US7019364 *||Aug 30, 2000||Mar 28, 2006||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Semiconductor substrate having pillars within a closed empty space|
|US20010009784||Feb 14, 2001||Jul 26, 2001||Yanjun Ma||Structure and method of making a sub-micron MOS transistor|
|US20010036709||Jun 20, 2001||Nov 1, 2001||Andrews John W.||Low cost shallow trench isolation using non-conformal dielectric material|
|US20020074598||Nov 9, 2001||Jun 20, 2002||Doyle Brian S.||Methodology for control of short channel effects in MOS transistors|
|US20020086472||Dec 29, 2000||Jul 4, 2002||Brian Roberds||Technique to obtain high mobility channels in MOS transistors by forming a strain layer on an underside of a channel|
|US20020086497||Dec 6, 2001||Jul 4, 2002||Kwok Siang Ping||Beaker shape trench with nitride pull-back for STI|
|US20020090791||Jun 28, 1999||Jul 11, 2002||Brian S. Doyle||Method for reduced capacitance interconnect system using gaseous implants into the ild|
|US20020094649||Jan 18, 2001||Jul 18, 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Shallow trench isolation using non-conformal dielectric material and planarizatrion|
|US20030032261||Aug 8, 2001||Feb 13, 2003||Ling-Yen Yeh||Method of preventing threshold voltage of MOS transistor from being decreased by shallow trench isolation formation|
|US20030040158||Aug 21, 2002||Feb 27, 2003||Nec Corporation||Semiconductor device and method of fabricating the same|
|US20030057184||Sep 22, 2001||Mar 27, 2003||Shiuh-Sheng Yu||Method for pull back SiN to increase rounding effect in a shallow trench isolation process|
|US20030067035||Sep 28, 2001||Apr 10, 2003||Helmut Tews||Gate processing method with reduced gate oxide corner and edge thinning|
|US20030119257||Nov 5, 2002||Jun 26, 2003||Dong Cha Deok||Method of manufacturing a flash memory cell|
|US20030141548||Jan 30, 2002||Jul 31, 2003||International Business Machines Corporation||High mobility transistors in soi and method for forming|
|US20040142537 *||Jan 17, 2003||Jul 22, 2004||Sharp Laboratories Of America, Inc.||Strained-silicon channel CMOS with sacrificial shallow trench isolation oxide liner|
|EP0162362A1||May 4, 1985||Nov 27, 1985||Deutsche Texaco Aktiengesellschaft||Process for the continuous production of alcohols|
|EP0967636A2||Jun 16, 1999||Dec 29, 1999||International Business Machines Corporation||Electrically isolated semiconductor devices|
|EP1174928A1||Mar 28, 2000||Jan 23, 2002||Hitachi, Ltd.||Semiconductor device and semiconductor substrate|
|WO1994027317A1||May 2, 1994||Nov 24, 1994||Siemens Ag||Process for producing components on an soi substrate|
|WO2002454156A2||Title not available|
|1||Ito, et al. "Mechanical Stress Effect of Etch-Stop Nitride and its Impact on Deep Submicron Transistor Design", International Electron Devices Meeting, 10.7.1, IEEE, Apr. 2000.|
|2||Ootsuka, et al. "A Highly Dense, High-Performance 130nm node CMOS Technology for Large Scale System-on-a-Chip Application", International Electron Device Meeting, 23.5.1, IEEE, Apr. 2000.|
|3||Ota, et al. "Novel Locally Strained Channel Technique for high Performance 55nm CMOS", International Electron Devices Meeting, 2.2.1, IEEE, Feb. 2002.|
|4||Ouyang, et al. "Two-Dimensional Bandgap Engineering in a Novel Si/SiGe pMOSFETS With Enhanced Device Performance and Scalability", Microelectronics Research Center, pp. 151-154, 2000 IEEE.|
|5||Rim, et al. "Characteristics and Device Design of Sub-100 nm Strained Si N- and PMOSFETs", 2002 Symposium On VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers, IEEE, pp. 98-99.|
|6||Rim, et al., "Transconductance Enhancement in Deep Submicron Strained-Si n-MOSFETs", International Electron Devices Meeting, 26, 8, 1, IEEE, Sep. 1998.|
|7||Sayama et al., "Effect of <Channel Direction for High Performance SCE Immune pMOSFET with Less Than 0.15um Gate Length"ULSI Development Center, pp. 27.5.1-27.5.4, 1999 IEEE.|
|8||Scott, et al. "NMOS Drive Current Reduction Caused by Transistor Layout and Trench Isolation Induced Stress", International Electron Devices Meeting, 34.4.1, IEEE, Sep. 1999.|
|9||Shimizu, et al. "Local Mechanical-Stress Control (LMC): A New Technique for CMOS-Performance Enhancement", International Electron Devices Meeting, IEEE, Mar. 2001.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8710549 *||Sep 7, 2010||Apr 29, 2014||Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Science||MOS device for eliminating floating body effects and self-heating effects|
|US20110084356 *||May 20, 2009||Apr 14, 2011||Nxp B.V.||Local buried layer forming method and semiconductor device having such a layer|
|US20120025267 *||Sep 7, 2010||Feb 2, 2012||Shanghai Institute Of Microsystem And Information Technology, Chinese Academy||Mos device for eliminating floating body effects and self-heating effects|
|US20120146053 *||Sep 20, 2011||Jun 14, 2012||Saitoh Masumi||Semiconductor device and method of manufacturing the same|
|U.S. Classification||257/366, 257/E29.018, 257/397, 257/E23.013|
|International Classification||H01L21/20, H01L21/762, C30B1/00, H01L29/786, H01L21/336, H01L27/088, H01L21/36, H01L29/51, H01L29/10|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S438/938, H01L21/76243, H01L29/7842, H01L29/66742, H01L29/78687, H01L29/517, H01L29/6653, H01L29/516, H01L29/41783, H01L29/66628, H01L29/1054, H01L21/76251|
|European Classification||H01L29/66M6T6F11D3, H01L29/66M6T6F6, H01L29/66M6T6F15, H01L29/417D12R, H01L29/78R, H01L21/762D2, H01L29/10D2B4, H01L29/51M, H01L21/762D8, H01L29/786G2, H01L29/51F|
|Jan 16, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:032075/0404
Effective date: 20131230
Owner name: TWITTER, INC., CALIFORNIA
|Jan 24, 2014||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Feb 27, 2014||SULP||Surcharge for late payment|
|Feb 27, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4