US 775337 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
P198106 XR 775 337 N 775,337, PATENTED NOV. 22, 1904.
R. L. DE MOURA.
'.'. WIRELESS TELEPHONE.
AYPLIGATION IILED OCT. 4, 1901.
WITNESSES: INVENTOH i E a flaberiolaudell deuafiur-a/ r/a/zf/ /a By a ATTORNEYS I0 nonnL.
PATENTED NOV. 22, 1904.
R. L. DE MOURA.
- WIRELESS TELEPHONE.
APPLICATION FILED OUT. 4, 1901.
WITNESSES dmw/ Wm A d MM 3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
n (ll/IIIIIl/IIIIIIIII PATENTED NOV. 22, 1904. R. L. DE MOURA.
APPLIOATIOI FILED OCT. 4, 1901.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
partial elevation thereof viewed Patented November 22, 1904.
ROBERTO LANDELL DE MOURA, OF NEV YORK, N. Y.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 775,337, dated November 22, 1904.
Application filed October 4, 1901.
.To all whom it may concern.-
MOURA. a citizen of the Republic of Brazil, and a resident of the city of New York. bor- Serial No. 77,576. (No model.)
end means for producing an air-blast comprising a chamber E, containing a fan 11.
F Vhen one uses the fan and it is in action roough of Manhattan, county and State of New 5 York, have invented a new and Improved Vlireless Telephone, of which the following is a full, clear. and exact specification.
The object of my invention is to transmit and receive intelligence at a distance by means of sound and electrical waves, corresponding to articulate speech, without the aid of wires.
1n the accompanying drawings like characters indicate like parts in all the figures.
Figure 1 is a diagramshowing the apparatus at one of the stations, both for transmission and receiving. Fig. 2 isasectional view of certain parts of the apparatus. Fig. 3 is a from the front. Fig. 4 is a sectional view of a device for augmenting the sound-waves in receiving signals.
This apparatus consists generally in adevice for transmitting and receiving vocal sounds and speech and includes a signaling device for attracting the attention of an operator. This signaling device is herein shown merely to exhibit the connection of the same with the telephone proper.
A divisional application claiming this signaling apparatus has been filed January 16,
1902, Serial No. 89,976.
Takingup first the telephonic transmission and receiving and referring particularly to Fig. 2, the frame 1 is provided with an upright tubularmember 2, upon which telescopes 'another tubular member, 3, adjusted by means of a crank 4 and rack and pinion 5, to be ele- Upon the member 3 is mounted a transmitter C. A telescope 6, compass 7, and level 8 are mounted on the transmitter for the purpose of pointing the same in alineuient with a distant station. A tube 9' has branched ends provided with terminal mouthpiece 9 and earpiece l0,
and is united toanother tube, 12, the two tubes being connected to the lower insulated end of a tube 15.
The tube 12 is provided with an upwardlyopening check-valve l4 and has at its lower tated by suitable power and a person talks into the mouthpiece 9 or 10, a blast of air opens valve 14 and passes up with the sounds from 9 through the tube 15, and the sound-waves with the blast of air are projected by the member 16 against the deflector 17 and by this are sent forth through the interior of the barrel U, which is also traversed inside by the pencil or ray of composite lightfrom 18.
At 17 I show a plate of quartz-glass suitably framed and adjustable by means of the screws 24.
18 is a source of light, preferably an electric-arc lamp, whose light is rich in violet rays.
At 19 is a mirror, consisting of a back 20, which may he of polished metal or glass and of parabolic shape to reflect only actinic or violet rays. form of light or the means shown for rendering its rays parallel or to the particular means for sifting out all but the violet or actinic ultra-violet rays, as anv means may be employed that will produce violet or actinic rays or augment their intensity.
Back of the mirror and at intervals around the barrel of the transmitter are ventilatingopenings 22 and 23, the latter provided with hoods 26 to keep out light. The barrel comprises two members 110 111 and 108 109, these telescoping together.
The quartz-glass 17 may be replaced by other substances which will deflect soundwaves and which may be resonant thereto, but will pass the violet or actinic rays of light. Sound-waves carried on the incoming airblast are brought against this deflector 17 through the funnel 16.
A grating 25, of thin metallic slats covered with lam pblack and crossing each other, splits up the lightinto a number of parallel beams, which i. tind adds to the eflicieucy of the apparatus. The member 25, Fig. 2, at its extremities is insulated and also its last central metallic plate, in which the member D is adjusted. The member 25, Fig. 1, is electrically connected with the wires 4.4 and 39 by means of two insulatedwires, which pass through .the center of the insulating-jacket existing between the two metallic walls, which telescoping one in the other form the member ber D. The plate 17, as stated, is in every case so constructed as to offer no obstruction to these violet rays. This is important, as my discovery has been that by means of these actinic rays of light the sound-waves impressed thereon can be carried to considerable distances.
Located centrally in the barrel of the transmitter is a smaller receiver-barrel 29. provided with a closed rounded interior end containing a reflector 30, preferably of metal. This barrel is carried on the upright tube 15. being screwed on a socket-support 28.
In the focus of mirror 30 is a hermeticallysealed and exhausted hollow semispherical member 32, covered with quartz-glass or other substance-pervious to the violet rays and containinga selenium plate or grid 40, the general plane of which is vertical. Terminals -11 and 42 are provided for the selenium-cell, and a third, 52, is used sometimes with a groundwire, by which undesirable static charges are dispersed. The selenium-cell and all attachments are carried on the insulated stem 53 on the post 78.
Two apparatuses like that of Fig. 2 adj usted one in front of the other and at a distance relatively short may be used for sending and receiving acoustically-that is, without the telephone 50 and also without the cooperation of the selenium plate 40. Then for sending the operator after having put in action the fan 11 and the light from 18, Fig. 2, speaks through one of the mouthpieces 9, closing the other. For receiving he stops the fan and holds 10 and 9 to his ears. The fan is used only in sending. The apparatus then works in a manner based on the well-known principles of the conjugate mirrors, and I find that the addition of certain kinds of light improves the efi'ects in sending and receiving. The apparatus so taken may not be of great commercial value. However, I claim it, because, properly speaking, it constitutes the transmitter of my own wireless telephone, as my own selenium-cell, here described, constitutes its receiver. In my own wireless telephone-that is, with the cooperation of my own photophonic devicesmy clear aotinic light is absolutely necessary. I say clear actinic lightthat is, light composed of clear light and actinic rays, as is that produced by an arc-lamp or by a blue glass in front of a source of common light. For sending at long distance I prefer the composite light produced by an arc-lamp. For producing actinic rays of violet light I may adjust inside or outside of the deflector 17 a thin pellicle made of suitable diaphanous substance. Thus in the top 67 and Ruhmkorif coil 68, having spark-gap 13 of the tube 15 a telephone-receiver 50 is mounted, connected in local circuit 55. containing a battery 51 and also including the seleniumcell 50. It is well known that the resistance amount of light to which it is exposed, nearly. a 1 have discovered that it varies more particularly as the intensity or density of the violet or actinic rays, giving thus a very delicate test for the presence of such rays. apparatus when a light from the distant station falls upon the selenium its resistance varies as the intensity of the light varies, that i in turn varying with the sound-waves to which scribed, and the telephone-receiver thereby reproduces these sounds with great fidelity. The listener can then hear by holding the telephone 50 or the mouthpieces l0 9 to his ears.
tion between the members 16 and 15. Fig. 2. It is a singular and important fact that if the receiver be entirely removed, however, and the selenium not employed the apparatus shown I regard this as an important discovery and consider myself entitled to cover its application to useful purposes.
Located within the barrel 29, Fig. 2, and
or cathode-lamp 31. A series of wires 35 in the form of a crown surrounds the lamp and projects toward the mirror 30. The points of these wires are bent inward toward each the barrel and terminate in a small circle whose axis is coincident with the circle of their support. One of the extremities of this crown is contracted for receiving inside of it the selenium cell. electrically connected with each other and the binding-screws 44 39. They have communication only with one of the terminals of the selenium plate 40. Terminals 38 and 43 are the crown-wires. The Crookes tube is carried on a stem 53 on post 7 8 and is connected with an oscillator 56, Fig. 1, provided with proper appliances, including sparking termitery for the oscillator is shown at 58, with a suitable switch 60. The sparking apparatus as a whole is marked A. When switch is thrown into the position shown, sparks that the Crookes tube in the usual manner. The rays from the tube are transmitted in all directions: but those passing straight out and those deflect-ed by the mirror are united in a light.
; At B, Fig. 1, is shown another sparking i apparatus. Battery is connected by transmitting-key 66 and switch 70 with condenser of amorphous selenium varies inversely as the 7 In this its source has been exposed, as already de- 30 In the last case he must close the communica- 3 5 still reproduces the sounds as stated above. 9
in the focus of the mirror is a Crookes tube other radially at right angles to the axis of These two series of wires are 5 provided for the Crookes tube and 39 4A: for I10 nals 57 and condenser 59. The primary bat- S would normally pass between balls 57 pass to s beam in the same path as that of the composite 5 signals. and
and n as uSllalin this case th acoustic communication between and 16. as is said above. 56 serves to augment the potential on the exi tremities of its secondary wires when it is depressed according to a prearranged code used, together with the other coil. 68. through there is an oscillatory discharge between the the secondary' wires for the purpose of teleknobs 69 and the points 34 throw off etheric graphing by electric waves and flickerings of waves. I find that the reflector 30 serves to l light, as is fully explained in the specification render these parallel, or substantially so, and l of my wireless-telegraph application, Serial to increase the distance of transmission, espe- No. 89.976. The wires 96 and 97 are procially when short waves are employed. Key 5 vided with ordinary bobbins, and the parts 66 thus serves to send waves corresponding H. K, 72, and 100 are provided with suitable with Morse or other signals and for calling. i resistances.
A coherer 71 is connected by wires 96 97 Referring to Fig. -L. 88 is a containing-box with wires 39' and the crown-wires above de- 5 with carbon back electrode 90, adjustable by scribed. These wires act as antennae. not only i humb-nut 95, and 86 is a cartransmitting but receiving the Hertzian 4 waves. The uses of this coherer in receiving i ular carbon is interposed between back elecits associated parts, will appear I trode and diaphragm. as usual, and connecclearly from a statement of their operation. I tions made through the binding-posts 89. T8 Incoming waves are conveyed to coherer 71 I is another box containing the receiver-magas electrostatic surgings along the wires from I nets 79, acting on the diaphragm 81 and havpoints 34 35, 64 61 and cause its coherence. l ing terminal posts 80. The box 88 and the Battery-current from L then passes through i box 7 8 are connected by the tube 82, carrying the coherer and the two windings of the in a column of air and having an enlargement duction-coil N, also to the tapper H. in the 83, with pressure-openings 84, which also usual way to decohere the coherer. From the serve to convey the vibrations out. In some coil N connections are made to the harmonic cases the openings 84 may be made at one end call or bowler M. which will be described. to make the air-column a closed column. This consists of a telephone-receiver and a I IV hen the receiver-diaphragm is vibrated, it
One knob is grounded I by wire 106 and the other is connected by wire 69 to points being thrown into the position shown and key 66 microphone bro ght together with an intervibrates the column of air and thence the posed column of air, so that when one starts transmitter-diaphragm, which again produces to vibrateits diaphragmit starts the other, and l changes in the current to the receiver, which as they are in closed circuit they mutually rel again reacts, and so on harmonically, producact to produce a steady noise of considerable 5 ing a long-drawn musical note of increasing loudness to serve as a call to the operator. l and sustained loudness. The howler is particularly shown in Fig. 4. From this description it will be apparent W'ith the switch '75 as shown in Fig. 1 the that my invention consists, broadlyspeaking. current would pass to the bell 100; but with fin projecting electrical and other obscure the switch thrown to 103 the howler is in cirr waves of high penetrative force between stacuit. A Morse register K may also be emtions and impressing on the column thus ployed, having its own switch 74 and con- I established the vibrations corresponding to nected to the lowermost contact of switch 75. speech-waves. In this way I have found the Suppose now that the distant operator dei sound to be perfectly transmitted and apparpresses his signaling-key 66. causing etheric i ently receivable without special apparatus. waves to be thrown 01f from his wire-points I 34 These incoming waves, as stated, cause i the bell 100 or the howler M to be actuated and call the attention of the home operator. He answers by means of his key 66, and conversation proceeds by means of the mouthpiece .9 and the earpiece 10, or telegraphic signals may be interchanged by means of the keys. These may be roughly taken on the howler, if desired. For sending electric impulses the operator closes the switch 69' on as I have described and some details in the the terminal of 69. For receiving the elecstructure of the bowler. tric impulses he puts the same switch on the Having thus described my invention, what terminal of 96 and closes the switch 61. For i I claim, and desire to secure by Letters Patent sending articulate speech he lights the arcof the United States, islamp and speaks through one of the mouthl 1. In asystem of wave transmission, asource pieces 9 or 10, closing the other. For receivl of waves, and a grating having its members ing he closes the switch 53 and holds to I coated with lampblack. substantially as dohis ears or the two mouthpieces 9 10, closing I scribed.
sonorous waves that start In the same path and travel therein with this column arrive therethrough at the receivingrendering parallel all rays by means of a grating such 2. In a system of wireless telephony a call trolled receiving de ic e 't a distance. device comprising a microphone, a tube carf rying said microphone at one end, a receiver source of common light, means for rendering the tube intermediate of its ends. and open- 5 ings in said enlargement to permit communiat the other end thereof, an enlargement in cation between the outer air and the contained air column, substantially as described.
3. A wireless telephone, comprising a source of ordinary composite light, a violetcolored glass plate for stopping luminous and heat rays of said light while transmitting the actinic rays thereof, means for producing vocal sounds in the path of said actinic rays, and a light-controlled receiving device sensitive to said actinic rays, substantially as described.
4. A wireless telephone, comprising a source of light for producing actinic rays, a source of light for producing cathode-rays su bstantially in the path of said actinic rays, means for producing vocal sounds in the path of said actinic rays and substantially in the path of said cathode-rays, and a light-controlled receiving member for reproducing said vocal sounds, substantially as described.
5. A wireless telephone, comprising an ordinary illuminating member, a Crookes tube,
means for producing vocal sounds adjacent to .said illuminating member, and a light-conl l l substantially as describe.
6. A wireless telephone, comprising a the rays of light parallel, a source of cathode light, means for rendering parallel the rays of said cathode light. means for producing vocal sounds adjacent to the source of common light, and a light-controlled receiving device located at a distance, substantially as described.
7. A wireless telephone, comprising a source of common light, means for rendering the rays of said light parallel, a source of cathode light, means for rendering parallel the rays thereof, a sifting medium located in the path of said common light for modifying said light, an acoustic device for producing vocal. sounds in the path of said light thus modifiedi/ and a receivingdevice located ata distance and sensitive to said light thus modified, substantially as described.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification in the presence of two subscribing witnesses.
ROBERTO LANDELL DE MOURA.
JNO. M. Rrrran. WALTON HARmsox.