|Publication number||US7764076 B2|
|Application number||US 11/708,517|
|Publication date||Jul 27, 2010|
|Filing date||Feb 20, 2007|
|Priority date||Feb 20, 2007|
|Also published as||US8348252, US20080196474, US20100243071|
|Publication number||11708517, 708517, US 7764076 B2, US 7764076B2, US-B2-7764076, US7764076 B2, US7764076B2|
|Inventors||Thomas H. Di Stefano, Peter T. Di Stefano|
|Original Assignee||Centipede Systems, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (77), Referenced by (6), Classifications (10), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
One or more embodiments of the present invention relate to method and apparatus for aligning and leveling a test head.
Semiconductor components are used in the fabrication of electronic items such as multichip modules. For example, bare semiconductor dice can be mounted to substrates such as printed circuit boards, and ceramic interposers. Flip chip mounting of bumped dice is one method for electrically connecting the dice to the substrates. With flip chip mounting, solder bumps on the device bond pads are reflowed into electrical contact with contacts on the substrate. Chip on board (COB) mounting of dice to substrates can also be employed. With chip on board mounting, wire bonds are formed between the device bond pads and contacts on the substrate.
Chip scale packages are sometimes used in place of bare dice for fabricating electronic items. Typically, a chip scale package includes a substrate bonded to the face of a bare die. The substrate includes external contacts for making outside electrical connections to the chip scale package. The external contacts for one type of chip scale package include solder balls arranged in a dense array such as a ball grid array (BGA) or a fine ball grid array (FBGA). In general, chip scale packages can be mounted to substrates using the same mounting methods employed with bare dice.
Besides making permanent electrical connections between semiconductor components and substrates for fabricating multichip modules or other packaging applications, electrical connections are necessary for testing applications. For example, bare dice are tested in the manufacture of known good dice (KGD). Chip scale packages must also be tested prior to use in electronic items. In these cases, electrical connections with device bond pads for bare dice, or with the external contacts for chip scale packages, are typically non-bonded, temporary electrical connections.
In either packaging or testing applications, a substrate includes contacts that must be physically aligned with, and then electrically connected to, corresponding contacts on a component. As semiconductor components become smaller, and contacts become denser, aligning and electrically connecting components to substrates become more difficult. Accordingly, a design consideration in packaging and testing of semiconductor components is a method for aligning and connecting components to mating substrates.
As such, one such problem facing the semiconductor industry is how to planarize a probe card to a wafer during testing of individual die on that wafer. During probe testing a probe card must be aligned and placed in electrical contact with a wafer. When the wafer and probe card are moved together in a vertical direction, contacts on the wafer may not always engage contacts on the probe card along the same plane. Such misalignment can cause pivoting of the wafer or the probe card. Also, the potential of misalignment can require overdriving the wafer or the probe card in the vertical direction to make reliable electrically connections. This overdrive can damage contacts. In addition, if planarization is not achieved, then some probes may apply more pressure to corresponding lead pads on a die, while others may apply less. This could result in incomplete electrical interfacing with the die so that the die tests bad, or that the lead pads to which more pressure is applied are physically damaged—thereby making it impossible to use the die in a finished product. Further, as the number of probes is increased in probe apparatus, tilting becomes more of a problem.
Besides the above examples, alignment problems can occur in other semiconductor packaging or assembly processes such as wire bonding and adhesive bonding of dice to leadframes. Another manufacturing process involving alignment occurs during fabrication of flat panel field emission displays (FEDs). An individual field emission display pixel includes emitter sites formed on a baseplate. Electrons emitted by the emitter sites strike phosphors contained on a display screen to form an image. During fabrication of the field emission display it is necessary to align the baseplate with the display screen. However, field emission displays are typically constructed as a sealed package with a vacuum space between the baseplate and the display screen. This space complicates the alignment procedure because most alignment devices, such as aligner bonder tools, are constructed to bring the mating components into physical contact.
A need for alignment of a platen also arises in industries unrelated to semiconductor testing; most importantly, in metal stamping and in printing. The forces involved in these applications are relatively large in comparison to the forces involved in testing a semiconductor wafer, for example. Hydraulic cylinders have been used in various configurations to support and level a platen involved in metal stamping and printing. Generally, the one or more hydraulic cylinders supporting a platen are relatively long, with a stroke that is comparable to or larger than the bore. At the high forces and hydraulic pressures involved in these applications, compressibility of the hydraulic fluid is a significant factor in determining the position and movement of the platen as the press is actuated. Compression of the hydraulic fluid in supporting hydraulic cylinders is used as a cushion in high force presses that helps to level the loading of the press. As the influence of compressibility of the hydraulic fluid increases with length of the cylinder, a long hydraulic cylinder is used to provide cushioning that acts to level the platen under force. In certain configurations of the prior art, fluid is allowed to flow between hydraulic cylinders in a press in order to level the load. However, because of the length of the hydraulic cylinders used in presses, the cylinders are not an accurate method of setting the height of the platen. More accurate means are needed to set and maintain alignment that are not sensitive to pressure, temperature, and loading.
In light of the above, there is a need in the art for method and apparatus that can align and level a substrate and a test head or electronic components.
One or more embodiments of the present invention satisfy one or more of the above-identified needs. In particular, one embodiment of the present invention is an alignment apparatus useful to align a test head that comprises: (a) two or more fluid chambers disposed in fixed relation to each other, the chambers having a movable wall and one or more apertures for admitting or releasing fluid; (b) fluid channels coupled to the one or more apertures that enable fluid to flow between at least two of the fluid chambers; and (c) one or more valves disposed to enable or to stop the flow of fluid through one or more of the one or more fluid channels.
As shown in
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, each of reservoirs 1020 1-1020 4 includes a bottom surface and a top surface (top surfaces 1030 1-1030 2 are shown in
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, the fluid used in alignment apparatus 1000 may be a gas or a liquid such as, for example and without limitation, a hydraulic fluid. More preferably, the fluid is a relatively incompressible liquid such as, for example and without limitation, silicone vacuum pump oil, aliphatic oil, and various hydraulic fluids.
In addition, in accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, alignment apparatus 1000 includes a pump (not shown) to pump fluid into reservoirs 1020 1-1020 4 from a fluid reservoir (not shown). Such a fluid replenishment system may further include a pressure relief valve and a check valve. The pressure relief valve ensures that any excess fluid pressure is returned to the system fluid reservoir. In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, the pump may be any suitable pump such as, for example and without limitation, a piezoelectric pump, a peristaltic pump, or a contraction of a bladder. In accordance with one or more such embodiments, the pump may pump fluid into a fluid channel at common junction 1400 or into any of the fluid channels individually. Alternatively, each of chambers 1020 1-1020 4 may be connected to a fluid reservoir.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, a volume, including a cross sectional area and height of a reservoir may be determined routinely and without undue experimentation by one of ordinary skill in the art in light of a particular application taking into account one or more of the following: a force needed to be applied (for example to engage a test head with a wafer); a predetermined time for fluid to flow among the reservoirs; and a viscosity of the fluid utilized.
Referring back to
At step 5010 shown in
At step 5020 shown in
At step 5030 shown in
At decision step 5040, the controller determines whether wafer 4000 and test head 3000 are aligned. If they are aligned, control is transferred to step 5070, otherwise; control is transferred to step 5050.
At step 5050 shown in
At step 5060 shown in
At step 5070, the controller sends a signal that causes valve mechanism 1600 to stop fluid flow in fluid channels 1050 1-1050 4. Then, control is transferred to step 5080 where the process ends.
As one of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate from the above, test head 3000 may be a planar test head or test head 3000 may comprise test pins that are projected up and in a plane. In general, test head 3000 may be a first workpiece and wafer 4000 may be a second workpiece. Further, as wafer 4000 and test head 3000 are urged into contact, test head 3000 generates forces on each of reservoirs 1020 1-1020 4. These forces cause fluid to flow in fluid channels 1050 1-1050 4 between reservoirs 1020 1-1020 4 and junction 1400. If more force is applied to one of reservoirs 1020 1-1020 4 than others of reservoirs 1020 1-1020 4, then fluid will flow from the one chamber to other chambers. As this occurs, the top surface of the one chamber will subside and the top surface of the other chambers will rise. The speed at which this occurs will be determined by the rate of fluid flow in fluid channels 1050 1-1050 4 and the surface area of reservoir tops 1030 1-1030 4. In this manner, reservoirs 1020 1-1020 4 will enable test head 3000 to adjust for aplanarity of wafer 4000 or for alignment of test head 3000 with wafer 4000. When alignment has been achieved, fluid flow in the fluid channels is halted by closing the valves, thereby locking test head 3000 in a fixed orientation with respect to wafer 4000.
In accordance with one or more alternative embodiments of the present invention, test head 3000 may be leveled or aligned by applying a force to change the amount of fluid contained in one or more of reservoirs 1020 1-1020 4, wherein the force may be applied using one or more of a magnetic mechanism, a pneumatic mechanism, and a spring mechanism.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, a fluidic chamber may be configured to have a movable side that depends upon the specific requirements of the application. By way of example,
In order that the attached portion of test head 3000 be held in a fixed position that is substantially unchanged by downward pressure on test head 3000, in accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, fluid chamber 100 is preferably filled with a relatively incompressible fluid such as, for example and without limitation, silicone vacuum pump oil, aliphatic oil, and the like. In accordance with one or more further such embodiments, fluid chamber 100 has a height in a vertical direction that is less than a maximum diameter of fluid chamber 100 in a horizontal direction. In particular, in accordance with one or more such embodiments, fluid chamber 100 has a height in the vertical direction that is less than 10% of a maximum diameter of fluid chamber 100 in a horizontal direction, thereby reducing vertical deflection of test head 3000 due to compressibility of fluid in fluid chamber 100. Alternatively, in accordance with one or more such embodiments, fluid chamber 100 encloses a volume of fluid that is less than 1/10 times an area of moveable wall 400 raised to a power 3/2.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, test head 3000 may be supported on two or more posts that are attached directly to fluid chambers of the type (i.e., fluid chamber 100) shown in
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, and as indicated in
One or more embodiments of the present invention are capable of aligning a test head to be parallel to a test piece without the need for contact therebetween. In order to do this, a test head is connected to movable walls of fluid chambers while fluid is able to flow in channels interconnecting the fluid chambers. Then, a force is applied to the test head using, for example and without limitation, pneumatic actuators, springs, electromagnetic actuators, magnets, and hydraulic actuators. In accordance with one or more such embodiments, the force acts to change an orientation of the test head.
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the invention, test head 3000 is supported on four studs 1530 1-1530 4 that are aligned in predetermined directions along an x-axis and a y-axis (studs 1530 1-1530 2 are shown in
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, during a leveling and aligning process, fluid is free to flow in fluid channels 1570 1-1570 4 that interconnect fluid chambers 1560 1-1560 4—central valve 1700 is shown in an open position in
As shown in
As shown in
In accordance with one or more such embodiments of the present invention, each boss may be moved independently by control of air pressure in a corresponding pocket under the boss. For example, a boss may be moved vertically by air pressure so as to contact a back side of test head 3000 and to urge test head 3000 to tilt upward on a side proximal to the boss. After the alignment process is complete, air pressure in each pocket may be released, thereby allowing each boss to retract downward, and out of contact with test head 3000.
A process of aligning and leveling a test head in accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention may be better understood by reference to
As shown in
At step 7010 shown in
At step 7020 shown in
At decision step 7030 shown in
At step 7040 shown in
At step 7050 shown in
At step 7060 shown in
At step 7070 shown in
At decision step 7080 shown in
At step 7090 shown in
At step 7110 shown in
At step 7100 shown in
At decision step 7120 shown in
At step 7130 shown in
At step 7140 shown in
At step 7150 shown in
At step 7160 shown in
In accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention, a multiplicity of test heads may be leveled, and the test heads may be aligned, one to another. In particular,
As indicated in
As further shown in
A method for leveling each of segments 8010 1-8010 4 of test head 8010 and aligning the segments, one to another, is best understood by reference to the cross-sectional view of alignment and leveling apparatus 8000 shown in
Preferably, the fluid in the fluid chambers is relatively incompressible so as to maintain the position of test head segments, notwithstanding a variable force transmitted to the test head segments by a test piece. More preferably, the fluid is a low vapor pressure liquid such as silicone vacuum pump oil supplied by Dow Corning. Alternatively, the fluid is selected from a group, for example and without limitation, of hydraulic fluid, mineral oil, aliphatic oil, chlorinated hydrocarbon oils, Galden (available from Solvay Chemical), Fluorinert (available from 3M Corporation), and the like.
As will be appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art, the principles described above pertaining to various embodiments of the present invention may be used to design leveling and aligning apparatus that disposes fluid chambers in various combinations. By way of example, each segment of a test head may be supported on movable walls of a first set of fluid chambers in a first support plate. In turn, each of a group of first support plates may be supported on movable walls of a second set of fluid chambers in a second support plate. In addition, during a process of leveling and aligning segments of a test head, fluid may be allowed to flow between fluid chambers of a first set of fluid chambers by means of a first set of fluid channels; and fluid may be allowed to flow between fluid chambers of a second set of fluid chambers by means of a second set of fluid channels. Further, when segments of a test head are level and aligned, fluid flow in the first set of channels may be shut off by one or more valves, and fluid flow in the second set of channels may be shut off by one or more valves, thereby locking segments of the test head in alignment.
Embodiments of the present invention described above are exemplary. As such, many changes and modifications may be made to the disclosure set forth above while remaining within the scope of the invention. In addition, materials, methods, and mechanisms suitable for fabricating embodiments of the present invention have been described above by providing specific, non-limiting examples and/or by relying on the knowledge of one of ordinary skill in the art. Materials, methods, and mechanisms suitable for fabricating various embodiments or portions of various embodiments of the present invention described above have not been repeated, for sake of brevity, wherever it should be well understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that the various embodiments or portions of the various embodiments could be fabricated utilizing the same or similar previously described materials, methods or mechanisms. Further, as is apparent to one skilled in the art, the embodiments may be used for making connections to semiconductor devices, electronic devices, electronic subsystems, cables, and circuit boards and assemblies.
As one or ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate, sockets fabricated in accordance with one or more embodiments of the present invention may include any number of fluid seals, gaskets, adhesives, washers, or other elements that function to seal the assembly and to prevent thermal transfer fluid from leaking (internally or externally).
The scope of the invention should be determined with reference to the appended claims along with their full scope of equivalents.
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|U.S. Classification||324/756.01, 73/1.01|
|International Classification||G01M99/00, G01R35/00|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10T137/0402, G01M1/12, G01R31/2891, Y10T29/49778|
|European Classification||G01M1/12, G01R31/28G5D|
|Feb 20, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CENTIPEDE SYSTEMS, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:DI STEFANO, THOMAS H.;DI STEFANO, PETER T.;REEL/FRAME:018949/0972
Effective date: 20070220
|Aug 7, 2013||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4