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Publication numberUS777116 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 13, 1904
Filing dateMar 4, 1903
Priority dateMar 4, 1903
Publication numberUS 777116 A, US 777116A, US-A-777116, US777116 A, US777116A
InventorsRobert J Louis
Original AssigneeRobert J Louis
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Automatic rheostat.
US 777116 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

10 MODEL.

w vtmeoqeo PATENTED DEC. 13, 1904. R. J. LOUIS.

AUTOMATIC RHEOSTAT.\

APPLICATION FILED MAR. 4. 1903.

2 SHEETS-BREED 1.

manic: 533 @51 5 2 Md o'auegn No. 777,116. I PATENTED DEC. 13, 1904. R. J. LOUIS.

AUTOMATIC RHEOSTAT.

APPLICATION FILED MAR. 4. 1903.

NO' MODEL. 2 SHEETS-SHEET 2.

fly: 3.

are. 777,116.

Patented December 18, 1904.

ROBERT J. Louis, OF-NEW YORK, N. Y.

AUTOMATIC RHEOSTAT.

SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 77 7,116,

dated December 18, 1904.

Application filed Hatch 4; 1903. Serial No. 146,082. (No model.)

To ll/b whom-it may concern:

Be it known that I, ROBERT J. LOUIS, a citizen of the United States, residing in New York, borough ofManhattan, and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Automatic Rheostats, of which the following is a specification.

This invention relates to automatic rheostats to be used in connection with incandescent lamps for spectacular effects, as in showwindows, art paintings, stage effects, and other places where it is desired to uniformly and continuously vary the brilliancy of the incandescent lamps in circuit therewith, and has for its object to provide an automatic ,means whereby resistance is uniformly and continuously, cut 1n or out of the circuit containing the lamps, thereby uniformly varying the brilliancy of the same without the objectionable flickering attendant the rheostats hitherto in use when one or more resistancecoils are cut in or out of the circuit; and the invention has further for its object to provide an improved automatic rheostat the resistance-wire of which is connected with two banks of incandescent electric lamps and to provide means to uniformly cut resistancewire in the circuit, so as to decrease the brilliancy of one bank of incandescent lamps and cut resistance-wire out of the circuit to simultaneously increase the brilliancy of the other bank of incandescent electric lamps, which lamps may be arranged in show-windows, in the scenery oftheaters, and such other places where a uniformly-varying brilliancy of incandescent lamps mounted for such purposes is desirable and necessary. The lamps may be arranged more of art paintings, in which caseone bank of incandescent lamps is arranged on the front and another bank of incandescent lamps is arranged on the rear of the painting, the variation of the intensity of the light varying the color effects of the pigments of the paintings.

I For this purpose the invention consists of an automatic rheostat comprising a drum, a resistance-wire wound spirally on said drum and connected electricallywith incandescent lamps-and particularly in the frame,

a source of electric power, pedes screw-spindle at the same velocity as the drum, guide-rods also supported by the pedestals, aslid e-piece movable on said guide-rods and engaging the screw-spindle, contact-fingers on said slide-piece and touching the wire on the drum, but insulated from the screwspindle, a conductor connected to the contactiingers and to the positive terminal of a source of electric power, conductors connecting the ends of the resistance-wire on the drum with the positive terminals of two banks of incandescent electric lamps, a conductor connecting the negative terminals of the two banks of incandescent lamps with the negative terminal of the, source of electric power, and means for changing the direction of rotation of the drum and screw-spindle, for changing the direction of reciprocation of the slide-piece provided with the contact-fingers, for changing the length of resistance-wire on the drum in circuit with either bank of lamps; and the invention consists, further, of certain details of construction and combination of parts, which'will be described more fully hereinafter, and finally pointed out in the claims.

In the accompanying drawings, Figure 1 is a plan view of my improved automatic rheostat, showing the same connected to two banks of electric incandescent lamps. Fig. 2 is a front elevation of Fig. i. Fig. 3 is an end view of Fig. 1 drawn on a larger scale, showing the sprockets and chain transmission. Fig. 4 is a vertical transverse cross-sectipn taken on line at a of Fig. 1, also drawn on a larger scale; and Fig. 5 is a wiring diagram, showing the rheostat as connected in circuit with two banks of electric incandescent lamps.

Similar letters of reference indicate corresponding parts.

Referring to the drawings, A represents a bed plate or board on which is screwed a pedestal B, provided with bearings 12 for supporting the shaft S, on which is mounted a drum D, made of any suitable insulating material or of metal and lined with an insulating layer. The drum D is provided with grooves arranged spirally on the surface of the same, in which is placed a resistance-wire, preferably German silver, so as to be held in position thereby, but not entirely submerged therein. The ends of this wire pass from the cylindrical surface of the drum to' the shaft S and are here connected to collector-rings which are insulated from the shaft. The shaft S is provided at one end with a pulley P, which is connected by a belt with a pulley p on the shaft of an electric motor M,.and provided at the other end with a sprocket a.

The pedestal B is provided with an extension B, in which the ends of two guide-rods 5 are suitably supported. A screw-spindle is also mounted on the pedestal extension B and is provided at one end with a sprocket c of-the same size as the sprocket at the end of the shaft S. A chain 1/ passes over the sprockets a a", so as to rotate the screw-spindle at the same velocity as the shaft S.

On the guide-rods I) is mounted aslide-piece E, provided with an extension E, which in turn is screw-threaded at its lower end E and adapted to engage the screw-spindle W. Besides the guide-rods the pedestal extension B is also provided with a contact-rod d, which is insulated from the pedestal extension, and

with another rod 71', which is movable and provided with lugs f f at each end of the same. This rod 91- is loosely mounted on the pedestal extension and adapted to be reciprocated in the same and attached at one end to a handle of a reversing-switch K. One of the guideate the movable rod w with rapidity, so as to throw the switch.

The ends of the resistance-wire, wound spirally on the drum D to the same thread as the screw-spindle W, are connected to collectorrings ii, on which rest suitable brushes or contact-fingers '5 i. To prevent the brushes from slipping sidewise, the collector-rings are provided on their outer ends with guard-rings 11* i. The brushes are mounted on the pedestal extensions, but insulated therefrom b'y insulating-plates g g and connected with the pbsitive terminals of two banks of electric in p lamps are darkened and the rear top lamps candescent lamps, as shown in Fig. 1.

The slide-piece E is provided with contactfingers h, which are insulated from the slidepiece E by a block of insulating material E and adapted to slide on or touch the resistance-wire of the drum D. Electrically connected with the contact-lingers It is a contact-- maker 76', which glides along the contact-rod d. Connected with the contact-rod (17 is a conductor leading to a binding-postj", which is connected with the positive terminal/ of a source of electrical power. One of the brushes-- i for instance-is electrically connected to a bindingpost 7'', which is connected to the positive terminal of a bank of incandescent lamps L. The other brush, 1"", is similarly connected to a binding-post j which is connected to the positive terminal of another bank of lamps L. The negative terminals of these two banks of incandescent lamps are connect ed to the negative terminal j of the source of electrical power. 7

\The reversing-switch K, connected to the movable rod it, may be of any suitable construction or design, the two poles j 3' being connected with a source of electrical power j The remaining poles k 5' i1 1: are suitably connected with the terminals m m of the motor M, so that on operating the switch the polarity of the current to the armature of the motor is altered and the direction of rotation of the same changed.

In the construction of my improved automatic rhcostat it is essential that the resistance-wire of the drum D'be wound to the same thread as the screw-spindle W and that the velocity of the drum D and of the screw-spindle W be also the same, so that when the current of the motor is turned on and the drum and screw-spindle rotated the reciprocating slide-piece E is moved by the screw-spindle W with a speed corresponding to the unwinding of the resistance-wire of the drum' D on the contact-lingers it. By suitably connecting with the two banks of lamps described,

and shown in the drawings, any number of other lamps many varied effects may be produced. i

It is well known that some substances absorb certain rays of light and reflect some rays of light, assuming a constant source of light. When, however, the source of light is varied, the amount of reflected rays will also be varied. With these underlying principles I have found that if a number of lamps be arranged at the front top of an oil-painting and a number of lamps arranged at the rear top of thesame the variation of the intensity of the lamps will change the color effects of the oil painting remarkably when either one or the other of the lamps are varied. When the front top lamps are brightened, the rear top lamps are simultaneously darkened, and the effects of the paintings will be due to the reflection of the light, and when the front top brightened the effects of the painting will be due to the penetrating of the light-rays through the painting, causing by the diffusion of the same through the pigments of the paintingsentirely-different color effects than when most of the light-rays are reflected, due to the brightness of top front lamps. It'is clear that the uniform but complementary variation of the intensity of the lamps will produce many varied effects, such as have not been heretofore known.

The operation of my improved rheostat is as follows: The slide-piece E, provided with the contact-fingers h, being at one end of the drum D, the power-circuitconnecting with the terminals j j is closed, thereby starting the motor M. This motor transmits its power by pulleys P, p, and a belt 9 to the shaft S, and the drum D is rotated thereby. Simultaneously the sprocket e is rotated, and this transmits its power by chain 43' to sprocket a which in turn rotates the screw-spindle W'. Thereupon slide-piece E, which engages the threads of the screw-spindle W, is moved along the length of the spindle, and the contact-fingers it make contact with the wire of the drum 1) in such a manner that the spirally-wound resistance-wire glides under the contact-fingers h of the slide-piece E, and as the resist: ance-wire on one side of the slide-piece E is in series with one bank of lamps L the length of the resistance-wire is continuously and uniformly cut out of circuit with the bank of lamps L. Resistance being cut out, the brilliancy of the lamps is continually and uniformlyincreased until when all the resistance is cut out and the slide-piece E'has reached the end of its stroke the lamps obtain their maximum brilliancy. Somewhat before the slide-piece E reaches the end of its, stroke it is' met by the helical springs, connected with the'lug f on the movable rod n, and in continuing its stroke compresses thespring s. This by its resiliency forces the rod n in the same direction and moves the handle'of the reversing-switch K, changing thereby the polarity of the current to themotor M. This changes the rotation of the motor, drum, and screw-spindle, and the slide-piece Eis moved by the screw-spindle W the length of its stroke, but now in a different direction than before. The resistance-wire of the drum which on the first stroke was cut out is new again out in the circuit and the lamps L con:

tinuously and uniformlydecreased in brilliancy untii when all the resistance-wire is cut in the circuit and the slide-piece E reaches the end of its stroke-that is, the position a from which it started when the operation was begunthe lamps L are dark. Here it again engages a similar spring 8 and lug f, whereby the rod n and reversing-switch K is again actuated and the current to the motor M changed in polarity, changing thereby the direction of rotation of the motor. This changes again the direction of rotation of the drum and screw-spindle, the stroke of the slide-piece E isaga'in repeated, and the brilliancy of the lamps L increased.

So far but one bank of lamps has been considered. It will, however, beseen that as the ends of the resistance-wire of the drum D are connected with the two positive terminals of the two banks of lamps Land L, as shown in Figs. 1 and 5, and the length of this resistance-wire in circuit with each bank of lamps varied by the reciprocation of the slide-piece E the brilliancy of the two banks of lamps is complementary-that is, when one bank attains its maximum brilliancy the other attains its minimum brilliancy, and vice versa.

Thus an improved means is provided whereby the brilliancy of incandescent lamps may be uniformly, continuously, and automatically varied without the objectionable flickering attendant the rheostats now in use when resistance-coils are cut in or out of circuit.

For spectacular effects in art galleries two banks of lamps L L are arranged and the lamps mounted on the top part of the frame of the painting at the front and rear of the same and connected with the ends of the resistance-wire of the drum D, as described. Thus on the reciprocation of the slide-piece E the resistance-wire on the drum 1) is simultaneously cut into circuit with one bank of lamps and cut out of circuit with the other bank of'lamps and the brilliancy of thelamps correspondingly varied, producing by their uniform and continuous variation of brilliancy illuminating effects on the painting which bring out more clearly the artistic details of the same. For use in show-windows the lamps on the different sides of the windowi'rame are properly connected and by their.

uniform variation spectacular efi'ects are produced, which appeal more to the eyes of the passersby than the uniform brilliancy hitherto in use. Moreover, the varied illumination effects serve especially to bring out to greater advantage the desirable qualities of the commodities exhibited. in the illumination of scenery of theaters also varied desirable and fascinatingefilects may be produced, which serve to give the settings even greater magnilicence and grandeur than hitherto produced.

My improved automatic rheostat offers many advantages over those now in use, inasmuch as it is automatic in operation and produces at the same time a uniform variation in the brilliancy of the lamps with which it is connected in circuit.

" Having now described my invention, I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent- 1.. An automatic rheostat, comprising a drum, a resistance-wire wound spirally on said drum, lingers in contact with said resistance-wire and movable along the same, means for rotating said drum, means for reciprocating the contact-fingers, and means at each end of said drum for changing the direction of rotation of ,the drum and reciprocation of the contact-fingers, substantially as set forth.

2. An automatic rheostat, comprising a drum, a resistance-wire wound spirally on said drum, iingersin contact with said resistance-wire and movable along the same, an electric motor for rotating the drum, means for reciprocating the contact-fingers longitudinally of said drum, and means at each end of said drum for reversing the motor and reciprocation of the contact-fingers, substantially as set forth.

3. In combination, with a rheostat,comprising a drum wound spirally with resistancewire, a screw-spindle supported longitudinally of said drum, fingers in. contact with said resistance-wire and movable by said screw-spindle, of means for rotating the drum and screwspindle, and means at each end of said drum for reversing the direction of rotation of the drum and screw-spindle, substantially as set forth. I

4. In combination, with a rheostat, comprising a drum wound spirally with resistancewire, a screw-spindle longitudinally of said drum, lingers in contact with the resistancewire on the drum movable by said screw-spindie, of 'anelectric motor for rotating the drum and screw-spindle, a reversing-switch for said motor, and means for actuating the switch when the contactfingers havereached either I end of the drum, substantially as set forth.

5. An automatic rheostat, comprising a drum wound spirally with resistance-wire, fingers in contact with said resistance-wire and movable along the same, a screw-spindle,

a slide-piece, lingers on said slide-piece and in contact with the resistance-wire on the drum, an electric motor for rotating the drum and screw-spindle, a reversing switch, and means at eaghend of the drum engaged by the slide-piece for actuating the switch, substantially as set forth.

6. An automatic rheostat, comprising a drum, a shaft for said drum, 8. resistance-wire Wound spirally on said drum, pedestals provided with bearings for the shaft, a screwspindle supported by the pedestals, an electric motor for rotating the drum and screw-spindle, guide-rods supported by the pedestals, a

' reciprocating slidepiece moving on said guide-rods and screw-threaded for engaging the screw-spindle,contact-fingers on said slidepiece moving along the wire on the drum, but insulated from the slide-piece, a movable rod supported by the pedestals and adapted to be moved therein, a reversing-switch connected with the end of the movable rod, lugs on the movable rod at each end of the same, springs attached to the lugs to be engaged by the slidepiece at each end of the stroke for moving the rod, actuating the switch and reversing the direction of rotation of the electric motor, a conductor connected with the contact-fingers, and a conductor connected with one end of the wire on the drum, substantially as set forth.

7.. An automatic rheostat, consisting of a drum, means for imparting rotary motion tosaid drum, 9. resistance-wire wound spirally on said drum, a screw-spindle adjacent said drum, a slide-piece engaging said screw-spindle movable longitudinally of said drum, contact-fingers carried by said slide-piece and moving along said resistance-wire, a conductor connected with the contact-fingers and with the positive terminal of a source of electric power, conductors connecting the ends of the resistance-wire on the drum with the positive terminals of two banks of incandescent lamps, and a conductor connecting .the mega tive terminals of the banks of incandescent lamps with the negative terminal of the source of electric power, substantially as set forth.

8. An automatic rheostat, consisting of a drum, a resistance-wire wound spirally on said drum, means for rotating the drum, fingers placed. in contact with said resistance-wire,

means for moving the contact-fingers longitudinally over said drum, a conductor connected with the contact-lingers and to the positive terminal of a source of electric power, conduc'tors connecting the ends of the resistancewire on the drum with the positive terminals of two banks of incandescent lamps, one bank of lamps placed at the upper front part of an oil-painting and the other bank of lamps placed. at the upper rear part of an oil-painting, and a conductor connecting the negative terminals of the banks of lamps with the negative terminal of the source of electric power, substantially asset forth.

in testimony that I claim the foregoing as my invention 1 have signed my name in presence of two subscribing witnessea' ROBERT J. LOUIS. vlWitnesses:

G. P. Gonrnn, HENRY J Sins.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2417043 *Aug 25, 1944Mar 11, 1947Robert N BlewettIlluminated weather map
US2468446 *Dec 13, 1944Apr 26, 1949Ward Leonard Electric CoVariable voltage transformer
US2683797 *Apr 30, 1951Jul 13, 1954Grow Harlow BApparatus for producing controlled lighting effects
US2845802 *Feb 1, 1954Aug 5, 1958Clevite CorpDrive mechanism
US2873335 *May 14, 1954Feb 10, 1959Lewis Jr Robert OVariable resistance circuit controller
US3060347 *Dec 19, 1957Oct 23, 1962Superior Electric CoIlluminating control apparatus and method
US3105215 *Dec 21, 1961Sep 24, 1963Seibold Sr William FElectrical three dimensional function programmer
US3949241 *May 15, 1974Apr 6, 1976Maute Charles JControl apparatus for electrical devices
Classifications
Cooperative ClassificationG09F13/00