|Publication number||US7775961 B2|
|Application number||US 11/349,484|
|Publication date||Aug 17, 2010|
|Filing date||Feb 6, 2006|
|Priority date||Feb 6, 2006|
|Also published as||US20070184962, WO2007092702A2, WO2007092702A3|
|Publication number||11349484, 349484, US 7775961 B2, US 7775961B2, US-B2-7775961, US7775961 B2, US7775961B2|
|Inventors||David H. Meikrantz|
|Original Assignee||Battelle Energy Alliance, Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (45), Non-Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (4), Classifications (10), Legal Events (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention was made with government support under Contract Number DE-AC07-05-ID14517, awarded by the United States Department of Energy. The government has certain rights in the invention.
The present application is related to U.S. Pat. No. 7,150,836 entitled “MICROWAVE-EMITTING ROTOR, SEPARATOR APPARATUS INCLUDING SAME, METHODS OF OPERATION AND DESIGN THEREOF,” issued Dec. 19, 2006 and to U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/737,809 entitled “MICROWAVE-ENHANCED BIODIESEL METHOD AND APPARATUS,” filed Apr. 20, 2007, pending, each of which is assigned to the Assignee of the present application.
1. Field of the Invention
The invention relates to analytical sampling devices and, in particular, to centrifuge devices having one or more microwave energy sources for applying microwave energy to samples in the centrifuge devices.
2. State of the Art
Centrifuges are well known and are commonly used to assist with and perform analytical measurements in many different industries. Typically, centrifuges are used for separating mixtures including mixtures having constituents with different densities. Such devices provide methods for separating mixtures comprising at least two or more insoluble liquids or constituents from one another. For example, emulsions, which are a mixture of two or more immiscible liquids, may be separated using a centrifuge.
In the oil and gas industries, continuous feed centrifuges may be used to separate emulsions of oil and water or emulsions including oil, water, and solids. For example, U.S. Pat. No. 7,150,836, issued Dec. 19, 2006, entitled “MICROWAVE-EMITTING ROTOR, SEPARATOR APPARATUS INCLUDING SAME, METHODS OF OPERATION AND DESIGN THEREOF” is incorporated in its entirety herein by reference and describes various centrifuges and methods of using centrifuges to separate oil and water emulsions before and during crude oil refining processes.
Oil refining processes typically require that the amounts of water, solids, and other impurities accompanying crude oil delivered to a refining process are at or below a standard amount, for example, at about one percent. If water, solids, or other impurities in the crude oil exceed the processing limitations, damage to the refining equipment or the pipeline equipment that delivers the crude to the refinery may occur. For instance, excess amounts of water and solids in crude oil being piped to a refinery may accelerate corrosion of the pipeline. Such damage is unwanted.
In an attempt to determine the amount of impurities and undesired constituents in crude oil prior to refinement or prior to feed to a continuous centrifuge, the crude oil may be tested at the well-head or platform where the crude oil is drawn from the well. Such testing is routinely carried out and is often performed using a SETA Oil Test Centrifuge. SETA Oil Test Centrifuges are the only testing equipment currently certified to meet or exceed the ASTM (American Society of Testing and Materials) and API (American Petroleum Institute) requirements for crude oil testing.
SETA Oil Test Centrifuges generally include a swinging bucket rotor having four sample placement buckets encased in a thermally heated chamber having a closable lid. The thermally heated chamber and rotor are contained within a shell that also encloses a drive mechanism, microprocessor unit, and controls for setting, monitoring, and controlling sample runs using the SETA Oil Test Centrifuge.
Operation of the SETA Oil Test Centrifuge can be expensive. In addition, thermal heating of the samples takes time. The amount of time required to thermally heat samples being tested in a SETA Oil Test Centrifuge limits the number of samples that may be obtained and analyzed in any given period of time. In many instances, the samples being tested in a SETA Oil Test Centrifuge must also be diluted with solvents to lighten the samples and to speed up or facilitate the sampling process. The addition of solvents to the samples adds to the cost of the sampling, increases the amount of waste produced by the sampling, and can increase the safety hazards associated with the testing due to the transport and heating of solvents.
Therefore, it would be desirable to provide centrifuge testing devices and methods having improved heating capabilities. It would also be desirable to provide centrifuge testing devices that could be used to facilitate improved testing of crude oil and especially the testing of crude oil at well heads and on oil platforms and, in at least some instances, testing of oil samples without solvents.
Embodiments of the invention relate to analytical sampling devices and in particular to centrifuge devices having one or more microwave energy sources for applying microwave energy to samples in the centrifuge devices.
According to particular embodiments of the invention, a sample in a centrifuge, such as an analytical sample in a sample container, may be heated by exposure of the sample to microwave energy. The sample may be heated by microwave energy before, during or before and during centrifugation of the sample in the centrifuge.
According to other embodiments of the invention, an oil sample from a well head or an oil platform may be centrifuged in the presence of microwave energy to facilitate the centrifuging of the sample and the separating of the constituents of the oil sample. Such sampling and centrifuging may provide sample data necessary to determine the amount of centrifuging required by a continuous oil centrifuge device prior to the piping of the oil to a refinery.
In still other embodiments of the invention, a centrifuge device is provided. Centrifuge devices according to embodiments of the invention include a microwave generation device or a source of microwave energy. Microwave energy provided to the centrifuge device or generated by the microwave generation device may be directed into a centrifuge chamber holding samples for centrifugation. The presence of microwave energy in the centrifuge chamber may heat samples contained therein. The microwave energy may be provided to the centrifuge chamber before or during the centrifugation of samples contained in the chamber.
In still other embodiments of the invention, a portable analytical centrifuge device is provided. The portable analytical centrifuge device may be used to test oil samples containing oil, water, and other impurities from well heads and oil platforms. The portable analytical centrifuge may include a microwave generation device that may be used to expose the samples being centrifuged to microwave energy.
While the specification concludes with claims particularly pointing out and distinctly claiming that which is regarded as the present invention, this invention can be more readily understood and appreciated by one of ordinary skill in the art from the following description of the invention when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:
The invention relates to analytical devices and, in particular, to analytical devices incorporating both centrifugal action and microwave energy to separate mixtures comprising two or more constituents or insoluble constituents.
According to particular embodiments of the invention, a centrifuge may be equipped with a microwave generation device to provide microwave energy to a chamber within the centrifuge wherein the chamber holds samples for centrifuging. The microwave generation device may be used in conjunction with the centrifuge to apply microwave energy to samples being centrifuged by the centrifuge device. In at least some embodiments, the centrifuge may be a batch centrifuge or a centrifuge capable of centrifuging discrete or individual samples.
A centrifuge device 100 according to particular embodiments of the invention is illustrated in
An alternative view of the centrifuge device 100 illustrated in
The centrifuge housing 110 may serve as an enclosure for enclosing the various components of the invention and may be formed from any suitable material. In some embodiments, the centrifuge housing 110 may be constructed of a material that is resilient to the environment, which is generally somewhat hostile in terms of heat and corrosive atmosphere, in which the centrifuge device 100 is to be used. As another example, a centrifuge device 100 used with caustic chemical applications may be constructed of a material that is resilient to the caustic environment to which it may be subjected. Materials such as suitably environmentally resistant metals and alloys, carbon fiber, ceramics, and plastics, among others, may be used individually or in combination.
Microwave reflective surfaces 122 used with embodiments of the invention may include surfaces such as metal surfaces, ceramic surfaces, and other conducting surfaces. The microwave reflective surfaces 122 may also include perforated conductive surfaces wherein the perforations are small enough that microwaves may not pass through the perforations. For example, the microwave reflective surfaces 122 incorporated with embodiments of the invention may include surfaces that are used with conventional microwave oven technology. This may include conductive metal surfaces or conductive metal perforated mesh surfaces capable of reflecting microwaves.
The centrifuge lid 130 may be configured such that it may be opened to permit access to the centrifuge chamber 120. The centrifuge lid 130 may also be closed to establish isolation of the centrifuge chamber 120. According to embodiments of the invention and as noted above, the centrifuge lid 130 exposed to the centrifuge chamber 120, or those portions of the centrifuge lid 130 that may be exposed to microwave energy, are constructed of, coated with, or lined with a microwave reflective surface 122. Therefore, when the centrifuge lid 130 is in a closed position, microwaves introduced into the centrifuge chamber 120 may be reflected off of the microwave reflective surface 122 of the centrifuge lid 130 back into the centrifuge chamber 120.
According to some embodiments of the invention, the centrifuge lid 130 may include one or more latches 132 that may fit into one or more latch openings 112 in the centrifuge housing 110. The latches 132 may provide a securing or locking mechanism to maintain the centrifuge lid 130 in a closed position until the latch 132 is released by a latch release mechanism (not shown) such as by a manual latch release mechanism or a release mechanism controlled by the control elements 180 of the centrifuge device 100. The latches 132 may also act as a safety switch such that when a latch 132 is properly engaged with a latch opening 112 microwaves may be emitted into the centrifuge chamber 120 by the microwave generation device 200; however, when a latch 132 is not properly engaged with a latch opening 112, the microwave generation device 200 may be disengaged so that microwaves cannot be emitted into the centrifuge chamber 120.
The drive shaft 140 is positioned within the centrifuge chamber 120 and extends through the wall of centrifuge chamber 120 where it connects to a drive mechanism 170. As illustrated in
According to some embodiments of the invention, the drive shaft 140 may be constructed from, coated with, or lined with a microwave reflecting material. In other embodiments, a drive shaft sleeve 142 (
The drive shaft 140 of embodiments of the invention may be used to rotate various types of centrifuge devices. For example, a centrifuge arm 150 connected to the drive shaft 140 is illustrated in
According to other embodiments of the invention, alternatively configured sample holders may be used with a centrifuge device 100. For example, a fixed angle rotor device 300, as illustrated in
Sample holders, centrifuge arms 150, fixed angle rotor devices 300 and other components configured for use with embodiments of the invention may be made of different materials and may be partially or fully constructed of or coated with a microwave reflecting material. Alternatively, the materials used to form components used to centrifuge samples may be constructed of microwave energy transparent materials.
Sample containers 160 may include many different types of sample containers 160 and particularly those designed and manufactured for use with centrifuge devices 100. For example, sample containers 160 may include containers constructed of glass, metal, plastics, ceramic, or other materials. In those embodiments of the invention where microwave energy is directed into the centrifuge chamber 120, the sample containers 160 may be at least partially constructed of a material that is substantially transparent to such microwave energy. For example, sample containers 160 may be constructed in part of a plastic, a polymer, a water-free ceramic, a quartz material, or a glass. In many embodiments, glass sample containers 160 such as borosilicate glass centrifuge tubes may be used. The sample containers 160 may also have different shapes, sizes, and volumetric capacities. For instance, when testing oil samples at a well head or oil platform head, 6- or 8-inch conical glass centrifuge tubes, 8-inch trace sediment glass centrifuge tubes, or 8-inch pear-shaped glass centrifuge tubes may be used as sample containers 160.
According to particular embodiments of the invention, the sample containers 160 may also include markings integrated with the sample containers 160, wherein the markings may be used to determine the amount or volume of a particular constituent in a sample. For example, a sample container 160 used to test the composition of oil at a well head, and particularly the amount of water and other impurities found in the oil, may include graduated markings along a length of the sample container 160. Following centrifuging of a sample contained in the sample container 160, the graduated markings may be used to determine the amount of the various constituents in the sample.
A drive mechanism 170 for use with embodiments of the present invention may include any type of drive mechanism 170 used with conventional centrifuge devices, such as an electric motor. The drive mechanism 170 may be connected to the drive shaft 140 and is capable of rotating the drive shaft 140 and a centrifuge arm 150, a fixed angle rotor device 300, or another sample support device holding sample containers 160 and samples for centrifuging. The drive shaft 140 may comprise a portion of the motor assembly, rather than a separate component. In particular embodiments of the invention, the drive mechanism 170 may be capable of rotating the drive shaft 140 such that samples in the centrifuge chamber 120 are rotated at between about 1000 to about 3000 revolutions per minute (rpm). In other embodiments, the drive mechanism 170 may be capable of rotating the drive shaft 140 and samples in the centrifuge chamber 120 at between about 500 to about 6000 revolutions per minute. Drive mechanisms 170 capable of achieving a smaller or greater number of revolutions per minute may also be selected and incorporated with embodiments of the invention depending upon the number of revolutions per minute required for a particular centrifuge device 100 or sample testing.
The drive mechanism 170 illustrated in
Centrifuge devices 100 according to particular embodiments of the invention may also include control elements 180 for controlling the various operations of the centrifuge devices 100 of the invention. The control elements 180 may include automatic controls such as microprocessor controls, manual controls, or other controls capable of starting and stopping the drive mechanism 170, drive shaft 140, microwave generation device 200, or other devices incorporated with the centrifuge device 100. For example, a control panel 182 may be fitted into the centrifuge housing 110 and connected to the control elements 180, such as a microprocessor control unit. The control panel 182 may be connected to a microprocessor control element capable of providing various readouts for monitoring the operations of the centrifuge device 100 such as the revolutions per minute of samples being centrifuged, a time element associated with the centrifugation, the temperature of the samples or of the centrifuge chamber 120, or any other variables that can be monitored using control elements 180. The control panel 182 may also include input elements that may allow a user to set the desired variables and requirements for the centrifuging of a sample. For instance, control inputs incorporated with the control panel 182 may allow a user to set and view the desired number of revolutions per minute for centrifugation of a sample, to set and view the amount of time for the centrifugation of a sample, to trigger the use of the microwave generation device 200, to control the amount of time that microwave energy is supplied by microwave generation device 200, to control the amount and strength of microwave energy applied, to control the type of microwave energy applied, to turn the centrifuge device 100 on or off, or to perform any other functions incorporated with the control elements 180 of the centrifuge device 100.
One or more power sources 184 may be connected to the centrifuge device 100 or incorporated within the centrifuge housing 110 to provide power to the control elements 180, the drive mechanism 170, the microwave generation device 200, or other components of the centrifuge device 100. According to particular embodiments of the invention, the power source 184 may include a battery, a plurality of batteries, or a conventional power grid or generator-type electric power source.
According to particular embodiments of the invention, the centrifuge device 100 includes one or microwave generating devices 200 configured for supplying microwave energy to the centrifuge chamber 120 where samples in the centrifuge chamber 120 may be exposed to the microwave energy. As illustrated in
Microwave generating devices 200 according to embodiments of the invention may include any device capable of generating microwave energy and may include devices such as a maser, a klystron, or a magnetron tube. In particular embodiments of the invention, the microwave generating device 200 may include a magnetron configured to controllably supply microwave energy to the centrifuge chamber 120.
The microwave generating devices 200 incorporated with embodiments of the invention may also include microwave transmission or amplification components to direct, focus, or otherwise influence the characteristics of microwave energy generated by the microwave generation device 200. For example, one or more of a microwave waveguide, coupler, splitter, modulator, mixer, filter, amplifier, converter, attenuator, antenna, or other microwave transmission or communication device may be included in a microwave generating device 200 according to embodiments of the invention.
Microwave energy generated by the microwave generation device 200 may be introduced into the centrifuge chamber 120 through a wall, top or bottom surface of the centrifuge chamber 120. If the microwave energy is introduced through a surface of the centrifuge chamber 120, that portion of the surface through which the microwave energy is introduced may not include a microwave reflective surface 122. In some embodiments, however, those portions of the surface around the introduction location of the microwave energy may include microwave reflective surfaces 122 or perforated surfaces to prevent the escape of microwave energy outside of the centrifuge chamber 120. For instance, as illustrated in
In other particular embodiments of the invention, the microwave energy generated by the microwave generation device 200 may be introduced into the centrifuge chamber 120 through an opening (not shown) in the centrifuge lid 130. In such instances, at least a portion of the microwave generation device 200 may be incorporated into the centrifuge lid 130 to deliver microwave energy into the centrifuge chamber 120.
In still other embodiments of the invention, the microwave generation device 200 may deliver microwave energy into the centrifuge chamber 120 through the drive shaft 140 or through a drive shaft sleeve 142, as illustrated in
According to still other embodiments of the invention, microwave energy may be introduced into the centrifuge chamber 120 in a focused manner such that the microwave energy is focused upon the sample containers 160 and any samples contained therein.
In other embodiments of the invention, microwave energy may be introduced into the rotor body 302 of a fixed angle rotor device 300 such as that illustrated in
According to particular embodiments of the invention, a centrifuge device 100, such as that illustrated in
According to still other embodiments of the invention, thermal heaters 220 such as that illustrated in
Embodiments of the invention also include the application of microwave energy to a sample being centrifuged during the centrifugation of the sample. For instance, samples of an oil-water emulsion may be placed in a centrifuge device 100 according to embodiments of the invention. Settings for controlling the centrifugation speed and time desired for the samples may be entered into the control panel 182 (
The introduction of microwave energy into a centrifuge exposes the samples therein to the microwave energy and results in rapid, localized heating of the samples. The heating of the samples aids in the separation of different constituents of the samples. For example, an oil sample drawn from a well head may be centrifuged to determine the amount of water, solids, and other impurities in the oil sample. When the oil sample is placed in the centrifuge and exposed to microwave energy, it rapidly heats up. The heating of the oil sample by the microwave energy facilitates the separation of the oil, water, and solids in the sample, thereby decreasing the amount of centrifuge time required to complete the separation of the constituents of the sample. In addition, the use of microwave energy to heat the sample reduces or eliminates the need for solvent dilution of an oil sample being separated in a centrifuge.
A sample centrifuged in the presence of microwave energy in accordance with embodiments of the invention may be analyzed by conventional methods. For example, graduated sample containers may be used such that when a centrifuged sample is removed from the centrifuge device, the amounts of each constituent in the sample may be determined by reading the graduated markings on the sample container.
Unlike centrifuge devices employing thermal heating processes (such as the SETA Oil Test Centrifuge), the microwave energy applied to samples in the centrifuge devices according to particular embodiments of the invention is capable of rapidly heating the samples. The rapid heating provided by the use of microwave energy reduces the amount of time required to completely separate the constituents of a sample being centrifuged. For example, heating oil samples by way of microwave energy rather than thermal energy reduces the amount of time to centrifuge a sample by a factor of about three. Thus, three times as many oil samples may be centrifuged and analyzed using embodiments of the present invention as compared to thermal centrifuge devices.
Embodiments of the present invention may also provide less expensive alternatives to thermal centrifuge devices. The costs associated with the parts and the building of microwave energy centrifuges according to embodiments of the invention may be much less than those associated with thermal centrifuge devices, especially since conventional microwave oven technology may be incorporated into the centrifuges according to embodiments of the present invention. The weight of the equipment used to construct microwave energy centrifuge devices according to embodiments of the invention may also be less than the weight of thermal centrifuge devices, thereby decreasing the overall weight of the centrifuge device and increasing the portability of the device. The increased portability and decreased weight is advantageous when such centrifuge devices must be transported into the field for testing, such as for testing of oil samples at well heads or on well platforms, particularly offshore platforms and those in other remote locations.
Particular embodiments of the invention also include methods for heating samples in a centrifuge. According to such embodiments, a sample placed in a centrifuge may be heated by microwave energy introduced into the centrifuge chamber or by microwave energy introduced into the samples during centrifuging.
In other embodiments, methods for decreasing the amount of time required to separate a sample into its constituents in a centrifuge are provided by the introduction of microwave energy into the centrifuge during operation to heat the samples. In some instances, the introduction of microwave energy will heat the samples and promote separation of the constituents of the samples.
Although particular embodiments of the invention have been described with respect to oil samples and oil and water emulsions, the embodiments of the invention are not limited to the testing of such samples. It is understood that particular embodiments of the invention may be configured or adapted to test different types of samples and particularly samples which may separate or may more easily separate when heated by microwave energy.
Having thus described certain currently preferred embodiments of the present invention, it is understood that the invention defined by the appended claims is not to be limited by particular details set forth in the above description, as many apparent variations thereof are contemplated without departing from the spirit or scope thereof as hereinafter claimed.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3860166 *||Dec 17, 1973||Jan 14, 1975||Anderson Lab Inc||Apparatus for separating moisture from solids|
|US4013558||Mar 18, 1975||Mar 22, 1977||Rosenberg H Colman||System for purifying liquids|
|US4067683||Jun 14, 1976||Jan 10, 1978||Frank T. Sullivan, Inc.||Method and apparatus for controlling fluency of high viscosity hydrocarbon fluids|
|US4226669 *||May 9, 1979||Oct 7, 1980||Savant Instruments, Inc.||Vacuum centrifuge with magnetic drive|
|US4412865 *||Dec 12, 1980||Nov 1, 1983||Hein, Lehmann Ag||Device for separating a filler mass|
|US4582629||Dec 29, 1983||Apr 15, 1986||Conoco Inc.||Use of microwave radiation in separating emulsions and dispersions of hydrocarbons and water|
|US4810375||Mar 28, 1988||Mar 7, 1989||Conoco Inc.||Microwave emulsion treater with oily water recycle for water load|
|US4853119||Mar 24, 1988||Aug 1, 1989||Conoco Inc.||Microwave emulsion treater with internal coalescer|
|US4853507||Apr 28, 1988||Aug 1, 1989||E. I. Dupont De Nemours & Company||Apparatus for microwave separation of emulsions|
|US4959158||Mar 30, 1989||Sep 25, 1990||The United States Of America As Represented By The Unitd States Department Of Energy||Method for separating disparate components in a fluid stream|
|US5055180||Jan 9, 1991||Oct 8, 1991||Electromagnetic Energy Corporation||Method and apparatus for recovering fractions from hydrocarbon materials, facilitating the removal and cleansing of hydrocarbon fluids, insulating storage vessels, and cleansing storage vessels and pipelines|
|US5211808 *||Nov 13, 1990||May 18, 1993||Savant Instruments||Microwave heating in a vacuum centrifugal concentrator|
|US5222543||Jun 28, 1991||Jun 29, 1993||James Hardy & Coy. Pty. Limited||Microwave curing|
|US5254075||Dec 2, 1991||Oct 19, 1993||Doryokuro Kakunenryo Kaihatsu Jigyodan||Internal circulation type centrifugal extractor|
|US5254076||Aug 6, 1992||Oct 19, 1993||Arch Development Corporation||Centrifugal pyrocontactor|
|US5344493||Jul 20, 1992||Sep 6, 1994||Jackson David P||Cleaning process using microwave energy and centrifugation in combination with dense fluids|
|US5368171 *||Jul 20, 1992||Nov 29, 1994||Jackson; David P.||Dense fluid microwave centrifuge|
|US5571070||Jan 16, 1996||Nov 5, 1996||Costner Industries Nevada, Inc.||Rotor sleeve for a centrifugal separator|
|US5591340||Sep 1, 1995||Jan 7, 1997||Costner Industries Nevada, Inc.||Centrifugal separator|
|US5762800||Jan 7, 1997||Jun 9, 1998||Costner Industries Nevada, Inc.||Centrifugal separator|
|US5858178 *||Mar 22, 1995||Jan 12, 1999||Lautenschlaeger; Werner||Process and device for preparing and/or extracting samples using a vaporizable agent at high temperature|
|US5908376||Sep 11, 1997||Jun 1, 1999||Costner Industries Nevada, Inc.||Self-cleaning rotor for a centrifugal separator|
|US5911885||Jul 29, 1997||Jun 15, 1999||Owens; Thomas L.||Application of microwave radiation in a centrifuge for the separation of emulsions and dispersions|
|US5914014||Sep 23, 1997||Jun 22, 1999||Kartchner; Henry H.||Radio frequency microwave energy apparatus and method to break oil and water emulsions|
|US6077400||Apr 21, 1999||Jun 20, 2000||Imperial Petroleum Recovery Corp.||Radio frequency microwave energy method to break oil and water emulsions|
|US6086830||Apr 21, 1999||Jul 11, 2000||Imperial Petroleum Recovery Corporation||Radio frequency microwave energy applicator apparatus to break oil and water emulsion|
|US6363611||Nov 16, 1998||Apr 2, 2002||Costner Industries Nevada, Inc.||Method of making an easily disassembled rotor assembly for a centrifugal separator|
|US6723999||May 10, 2001||Apr 20, 2004||Holl Technologies Company||Electromagnetic wave assisted chemical processing|
|US6783993 *||Mar 24, 2000||Aug 31, 2004||Alphahelix Ab||Homogenizing of small-volume mixtures by centrifugation and heating|
|US6820503 *||Sep 10, 2002||Nov 23, 2004||Tsutomu Mashimo||High-speed rotation testing apparatus|
|US7150836 *||Jul 16, 2004||Dec 19, 2006||Battelle Energy Alliance, Llc||Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof|
|US7498175 *||Aug 10, 2004||Mar 3, 2009||Genevac Limited||Method and apparatus for determining temperature of and controlling the evaporation of liquid samples|
|US20050204612||Sep 8, 2003||Sep 22, 2005||Joosten Connemann||Method and device for producing biodiesel|
|US20050233324 *||May 1, 2003||Oct 20, 2005||Corbett John M||Device for the amplification of dna, comprising a microwave energy source|
|US20050274065||Jun 15, 2004||Dec 15, 2005||Carnegie Mellon University||Methods for producing biodiesel|
|US20060011563||Jul 16, 2004||Jan 19, 2006||Meikrantz David H||Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof|
|US20060162245||Jan 26, 2006||Jul 27, 2006||Imperial Petroleum Recovery Corp.||Microwave-enhanced process to maximize biodiesel production capacity|
|US20060228088||Dec 17, 2003||Oct 12, 2006||Aldivia Sa||Chemical synthesis comprising heat treatment by intrmittent dielectric heating combined with a recycling system|
|US20060252950||May 6, 2005||Nov 9, 2006||Battelle Energy Alliance, Llc||Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents|
|US20070012621||Jul 13, 2005||Jan 18, 2007||Battelle Energy Alliance, Llc||Method for removing impurities from an impurity-containing fluid stream|
|US20070184962 *||Feb 6, 2006||Aug 9, 2007||Battelle Energy Alliance, Llc||Microwave assisted oil-water analytical centrifuge|
|US20080256845 *||Apr 20, 2007||Oct 23, 2008||Meikrantz David H||Microwave-enhanced biodiesel method and apparatus|
|WO2001026815A1 *||Mar 14, 2000||Apr 19, 2001||Moats William A||Microwave heated centrifugal vacuum concentrator|
|WO2003014272A2||Jul 9, 2002||Feb 20, 2003||Fratadocchi Alberto Breccia||Processes and devices for improving the reactivity of natural triglycerides with microwave radiation|
|WO2003093407A1 *||May 1, 2003||Nov 13, 2003||Bio Molecular Holdings Pty Ltd||Device for the amplification of dna, comprising a microwave energy source|
|1||Chan, C., Chen, Y., "Demulsification of W/O Emulsions by Microwave Radiation," Separ. Sci. Tech., vol. 37, No. 15, pp. 3407-3420, 2002.|
|2||Fang, C.S., P. Lai, B. Chang, W.J. Klaila, "Oil Recovery and Waste Reduction by Microwave Radiation," Environmental Progress, vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 235-238, Nov. 1989.|
|3||International Preliminary Report on Patentability/Written Opinion of the International Searching Authority, PCT/US2007/061303, International Filing Date Jan. 30, 2007, dated Aug. 12, 2008.|
|4||Leadbeater, et al. "Fast, Easy Preparation of Biodiesel Using Microwave Heating," Energy & Fuels Jul. 6, 2006, 20, 2281-2283.|
|5||Purta, D.A., "Application of Microwaves to the Separation of Oil-Water Sludges," EPRI CMP Report No. 92-6, Jul. 1992.|
|6||Staff, "Radiowave-Based Process Recovers Oil from Sludge at Texas Site," Oil and Gas Journal, Dec. 2, 1996.|
|7||Xia, Lixin, Shiwei Lu, and Guoying Cao, "Demulsification of Emulsions Exploited by Enhanced Oil Recovery System," Sep. Sci. Technol., 38, No. 16, 4079-4094, 2003.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8814421||Mar 15, 2013||Aug 26, 2014||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method of mixing a formation fluid sample by rotating a downhole sampling chamber|
|US8960998||Mar 15, 2013||Feb 24, 2015||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||System and method of mixing a formation fluid sample in a downhole sampling chamber with a magnetic mixing element|
|WO2013176683A1 *||May 25, 2012||Nov 28, 2013||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||Method of mixing a formation fluid sample obtained in a downhole sampling chamber|
|WO2013176684A1 *||May 25, 2012||Nov 28, 2013||Halliburton Energy Services, Inc.||System and method of mixing a formation fluid sample obtained in a downhole sampling chamber|
|U.S. Classification||494/37, 494/20, 494/16, 494/13|
|International Classification||B04B5/02, B04B15/02|
|Cooperative Classification||B04B5/0414, B04B15/02|
|European Classification||B04B15/02, B04B5/04B2|
|Feb 6, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: BATTELLE ENERGY ALLIANCE, LLC, IDAHO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MEIKRANTZ, DAVID H.;REEL/FRAME:017562/0200
Effective date: 20060123
|May 5, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, DISTRICT OF CO
Free format text: CONFIRMATORY LICENSE;ASSIGNOR:BATTELLE ENERGY ALLIANCE, LLC;REEL/FRAME:017861/0586
Effective date: 20060315
|Sep 24, 2013||CC||Certificate of correction|
|Mar 28, 2014||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Aug 17, 2014||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Oct 7, 2014||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20140817