|Publication number||US7776603 B2|
|Application number||US 10/650,124|
|Publication date||Aug 17, 2010|
|Filing date||Aug 27, 2003|
|Priority date||Apr 1, 2003|
|Also published as||EP1611427A2, US20040199436, WO2004088562A2, WO2004088562A8|
|Publication number||10650124, 650124, US 7776603 B2, US 7776603B2, US-B2-7776603, US7776603 B2, US7776603B2|
|Inventors||Steven R. Reznek, Charles A. Gray, Ian D. Morrison, Steven E. Brown|
|Original Assignee||Cabot Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (86), Non-Patent Citations (77), Referenced by (4), Classifications (37), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) of prior U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 60/459,230 filed Apr. 1, 2003, 60/485,964 filed Jul. 10, 2003, 60/485,965 filed Jul. 10, 2003, and 60/491,632 filed Jul. 31, 2003, which are all incorporated in its entirety by reference herein.
The present invention relates to methods for providing product specifications for particulate materials. The present invention further relates to designating, promoting, or representing grades, types, and/or brands of particulate materials based on interfacial potential property values. The present invention further relates to specifying lots, batches, or shipments of particulate materials based on interfacial potential property values.
In general, products of the chemical industry fall into one of two types—formulaic chemicals and performance chemicals. Formulaic chemicals are defined by their composition. If they are sold in different grades, the grades are distinguished by the concentration of impurities. Examples include ammonia, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, diethyl ether, and formaldehyde. Performance chemicals, which include polymers, dyes, pigments, and fragrances, are valued because of what they do, not what their composition is. Important types of performance chemicals include fine particle products such as carbon black, silica, titania, tantalum, calcium carbonate which are used in applications including reinforcement, rheology, color, and conductivity.
Fine particles are used to enhance such properties of compound materials as rheology, flow, strength, color, etc. The ability of the fine particle product to achieve the desired level of performance depends upon particle characteristics. In order to differentiate classes of performance, types or grades are commonly defined. These definitions include the designation of certain particle properties and the assignment of typical or target values for those properties. Prior to the present invention, the particle properties have been related to morphology; e.g. particle size, particle size distribution, particle shape or structure, and the like.
In order to insure consistency, specifications are set for fine particle products. Typically these specifications will include one or more measures of morphology and may further include one or more measures of chemical constituents. Common measures of morphology are particle size, surface area, structure, porosity, aggregate size, and aggregate shape. Common measures of chemistry include bulk and surface composition as well as analyses of extractable species. Measurements of variability of these properties can be made either during manufacturing to insure the process remains in control (often referred to as quality control, or QC) or on the product prior to shipment (often referred to as quality assurance, or QA).
For example, carbon black is typically sold with at least one morphological specification, which may be surface area, particle size, structure, and porosity. Performance tests, such as, for example, bound rubber or compound moisture absorption (CMA) tests may also be run, depending on the intended use for the carbon black. However, these are not typically included on a product specification sheet.
Despite these quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) efforts, it is not unusual for a customer to complain that a batch of product received did not perform as expected, despite being “within spec”. For example, variations in the rate of rubber cure, the appearance of white haze on molded rubber parts, low thixotropy in adhesives, and variations in plastic compounding times have all been traced back to lot-to-lot variations of carbon blacks even when each lot was within specification. This often results in the producer undertaking a thorough and costly study of the process and product and trying to make adjustments so that the product once again performs as expected.
Determining why a product did not perform as expected is inefficient and often both time consuming and expensive. It involves evaluation to assess why a problem has occurred rather than avoiding the problem in the first place. Many times, the producer will adjust manufacturing steps, not understanding the result but only in an attempt to change the product somehow to see a product difference. At times, this amounts to guess work.
Therefore, there is a need, especially in the particulate material industry, for methods to better specify batches, lots, and/or shipments of particulate materials and methods to assign or identify types, grades, and/or brands of particulate materials.
The present invention relates in part to a method for creating a product specification for a batch, lot, or shipment of particulate material which involves specifying an interfacial potential property value for the batch, lot, or shipment of particulate material. The interfacial potential property value can be included on a product specification sheet for the brand or grade of particulate material. At least one morphological value and/or chemical value may also be specified, and which may also be included on a product specification sheet.
The present invention further relates to a method of identifying or representing a grade, brand, or type of particulate material by assigning or providing at least one interfacial potential property value to the grade, brand, or type of particulate material. At least one morphological and/or chemical value may also be assigned.
The present invention further relates to a method for particulate manufacturers to provide particulate materials to customers comprising the step of designating at least one interfacial potential property value to a grade, brand, or type of particulate material. At least one morphological value and/or chemical value may also be designated to the particulate material.
The present invention further relates to a method of placing an order for a particulate material comprising the step of placing an order for a particulate material by specifying at least one assigned interfacial potential property value. The interfacial potential property value of the particulate material may be requested by the customer and/or manufacturer either prior to or at the time of placing the order. At least one morphological value and/or chemical value for the particulate material may also be specified.
The present invention further relates to a method for improving identification of a batch, lot, or shipment of particulate material comprising the step of updating an existing specification for the batch, lot, or shipment of particulate material by adding or specifying at least one interfacial potential property value. At least one morphological value and/or chemical value for the specification may also be added to the existing specification.
The present invention, in addition, relates to a method for improving identification of a grade, type, or brand of particulate material, which includes the step of updating an existing description of a grade, type, or brand of particulate material by indicating or representing at least one interfacial potential property value for the grade, type, or brand of particulate material.
It is to be understood that both the foregoing general description and the following detailed description are exemplary and explanatory only and are intended to provide further explanation of the present invention, as claimed.
The present invention relates to a method of creating product specifications for batches, lots, or shipments of particulate materials. The present invention further relates to a method of identifying or representing a grade, brand, or type of particulate material. The present invention also relates to a method of doing business with a customer which involves using a product specification. The methods of the present invention include the use of at least one interfacial potential property value, which can be used to request a certain batch, lot, or shipment and/or to provide a certain batch, lot, or shipment of a specific grade, brand, or type of particulate material. The present invention further relates to a product specification for batches, lots, or shipments of particulate material that includes at least one interfacial potential value. For purposes of the present invention, as used herein, the term “value” includes a specific number or value or multiple numbers or values, or a range of numbers or values.
Particulate materials such as fillers and pigments are made within defined specifications but even doing so it has been found that the product at times would not perform consistently in the customer's application. Until now, the industry was not entirely clear why the product would not perform consistently even though it was within morphological specifications. The present invention now makes it possible to specify a batch, lot, or shipment of particulate material based on at least one interfacial potential property value which enables a customer to more readily achieve the desired performance of their product. In this way, the customer is provided with a product that should perform consistently in their end product. The present invention also provides a way to better identify or represent types, grades, and/or brands of particulate material. This system permits the manufacturers and customers to better describe types, grades, and/or brands of particulate materials and permits those in the industry to promote more accurately the types, grades, and/or brands of particulate materials.
Particulate material is generally made available in a variety of units, including batches, lots, samples, shipments, and the like. Typically, a customer and/or a supplier will agree on specifications for that unit of product, which may be included in a contractual agreement, including an oral agreement, purchase order, invoice, contract, waiver to a contract, or combinations thereof. The method of the present invention involves the step of specifying at least one interfacial potential property value to the lot, batch, sample, and/or shipment of particulate material. The lot, batch, and/or shipment can be any amount, such as from small test samples to rail car size orders or larger. Furthermore, the method of the present invention may comprise the step of specifying at least one morphological value and/or at least one chemical value to the lot, batch, sample, and/or shipment of particulate material. Each, or some, of these values may be included on a product specification sheet.
The present invention further relates to a method of promoting, representing, or in some way identifying a brand, grade, or type of particulate material. This method comprises naming, associating, assigning, listing, characterizing, or designating at least one interfacial potential property value to the brand, grade, or type of particulate material. At least one morphological and/or chemical value can also be included. The industry sometimes refers to these as “typical values” for a product. As used herein, representing a particulate material includes any ways of identifying the material.
Particulate materials are used in a variety of compounded systems, including, for example, dispersions in elastomers, polymers, solvents, resins, or mixtures thereof. Important aspects of performance include reinforcement, rheology control, formation of percolating networks, degree of dispersion, color, and conductivity. The properties of these compound systems are derived, in part, from the morphology of the particulate material used. Other physical phenomena involving particulate materials may respond to interfacial potential properties. Some also respond to the combination of both. Therefore, since interfacial potential plays an important role for particulate materials, along with morphology, the method of the present invention comprises assigning at least one property related to interfacial potential to the particulate material. In this way, it has unexpectedly been found that products are better characterized and better identified, particularly to a customer. Such a specification also enables better quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC).
The interfacial potential of a particulate material is defined through a measure of a physical phenomenon that depends on the interaction of particulate material with other materials or with itself, after the effects of morphology have been removed. When two particles are in contact with each other the interfacial potential is the cohesion per unit area of contact. When particulate material is mixed into a fluid, the interfacial potential is the adhesion per unit area of the particle. If the measurement is per unit mass then the total interaction depends on the surface area per unit mass and the interfacial potential per unit area.
Examples of phenomena that relate solely to interfacial potential include the partitioning of particles between liquid phases, the spreading pressure of adsorbed gas, and the drop contact angle. These phenomena can be measured and the results applied without ambiguity as to whether the result is from morphology or interfacial potential since they only depend on interfacial potential.
However, as stated above, many useful physical phenomena respond to both morphology and interfacial potential. The morphology of a particulate material is a description of its shape, size, and structure. The morphology can include particle size, surface area, particle porosity, aggregate size, aggregate shape, maximum packing density, powder bed porosity. In addition, the morphological value can include characteristics of a distribution, such as mean, standard deviation, width, skewness, etc., of such values as particle size, pore size, aggregate size, etc. A morphological value is the result of a measurement of one of these characteristics, or combinations thereof. The surface area per unit mass, the single particle diffusion constant, the average diameter of primary particles, and microstructure such as the diameters, shapes, and number of pores are examples of morphological values.
Examples of phenomena that respond to both morphology and interfacial potential include most aspects of rheology (e.g. yield, viscosity and shear thinning), the wicking rate of fluids in powder columns, and the maximum torque and the fluid volume at which it occurs in stirring wetted powders (i.e. the absorptometer or oil absorption test). For example, the rate a fluid rises in a column of packed particles depends upon both the pore size distribution of the column and the strength of the wetting interaction per unit area between the fluid and the particle surface. The volume at which the maximum torque occurs depends upon the maximum density to which the powder can be packed and the strength of the capillary forces in compressing the powder. The capillary forces, in turn, depend on the pore size and the interfacial potential per unit area. If the interaction is large enough and/or the pores small enough, the particulate material will be compressed to or nearly to its maximum density. Thus, for absorptometry on some particulate materials with some liquids, the characteristic volume is determined solely by particle morphology. For other liquids, volume and torque are determined by morphology and interfacial potential.
While these phenomena result from both morphological as well as interfacial potential effects, the way in which the measurements are analyzed, i.e., the calculation or algorithm used, will determine whether it is a morphological value or an interfacial potential property value. Thus, it is possible to use a test that responds to both morphology and interfacial potential and obtain independent information about both.
For example, a subset of physical phenomena that respond to both morphology and interfacial potential are ones where the only relevant aspect of the morphology is surface area and the dependence on area is known. Typical examples of this type of phenomena are adsorption studies where the partitioning of trace molecules between the surface and a gas or liquid phase is determined. For these physical phenomena the measurement is adjusted for surface area and the interfacial potential calculated.
Another subset of physical phenomena that responds to both morphology and interfacial potential are ones where the dependence on morphology and interfacial potential can be separated by mathematical analyses. For example the amount of gas adsorbed as a function of the pressure depends on the surface area and the interfacial potential. This function and the known size of the gas molecule can be used to calculate either the surface area or the interfacial potential. The calculation of surface area using nitrogen gas is the so-called BET method. The usual calculation gives the surface area, an aspect of morphology, and the method is a morphological method. A different calculation gives the interfacial potential and the method is therefore an interfacial potential method.
Some physical phenomena may be separated into morphological effects and interfacial potentials by an algorithm. These provide a basis for measuring either morphology or interaction potential. The algorithm by which the data are interpreted determines which type of measurement it is.
A phenomenon that responds to both morphology and interfacial potential may be used to assign an interfacial potential property value to a particulate material if one of the following conditions is met.
In all these, with the exception of D), the common purpose is to identify the portion of a physical phenomenon that depends on the interaction of particulate materials with other materials or with itself after the effects of morphology have been removed. This portion is the interfacial potential.
Therefore, in the method of the present invention, the step of specifying or assigning at least one interfacial potential property value may utilize or include any of the techniques described above. Others are described in more detail below.
As described earlier, the method of the present invention may further comprise the step of specifying at least one morphological value. This, along with the interfacial potential property value, may be included on a product specification sheet. Also the morphological value can be included on a product description (catalog, brochure, advertisement, promotion, web site, and other paper and electronic mediums. The morphological values may be any of those described above and can be determined using any method known in the art, such as colloidal techniques, including liquid or vapor adsorption, microscopy, or combinations of thereof. Typical liquid or vapor probes for adsorption include nitrogen, iodine, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), or paraffin oil. Examples of useful microscopy techniques include, but are not limited to, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, dark field microscopy, oxidation studies, diffracted beam electron microscopy, phase contrast transmission electron microscopy imaging, high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning tunneling electron microscopy (STEM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), scanning force microscopy (SFM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging. Examples of colloidal techniques include, but are not limited to, masstone (blackness or color), tinting strength (ASTM D 3265), and the adsorption of nitrogen gas data (ASTM D 3037), cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (ASTM D 3765), or iodine (ASTM D 1510). The surface areas derived from each of the above mentioned methods can be affected in different ways by the amount and type of porosity, as well as the chemical nature of the surface of the particulate material. Porosity can be estimated from the apparent extra surface area detected in the adsorption of small probes, e.g., nitrogen, over large probes, e.g., CTAB. The aggregate size can be estimated by TEM, disc centrifuge photosedimentometry, sedimentation field flow fractionation, capillary hydrodynamic fractionation, dynamic light scattering, and differential mobility. Aggregate shape can be estimated by oil adsorption, particularly DBP, specific volume from density-pressure curves, and TEM.
Examples of morphological properties and tests used to measure them are shown in Table 1 below. These morphological values may be used alone or in combination with other morphological values.
Particle size and
Transition electron microscopy (TEM)
Calculation from surface area
Nitrogen adsorption (ASTM D 3037)
Iodine adsorption (ASTM 1510)
CTAB adsorption (ASTM D 3765)
Carman surface area
Pore size and distribution
Difference between nitrogen and
CTAB surface areas
Aggregate size and
Specific volume from density-pressure curves
The method of the present invention may further comprise the step of specifying or assigning at least one chemical value in the various embodiments of the present invention. This, along with the interfacial potential property value and/or the morphological value may also be included on a product specification sheet. The chemistry of a particulate material is the material's overall (or bulk) composition, surface composition, and/or extractable materials. The types, quantities, and arrangement of chemical moieties at the surface is called the surface chemistry. For example, the surface of carbon black may include carbon-oxygen surface groups, carbon-hydrogen surface groups, and/or other substituted carbon groups.
The chemical value of the particulate material can be determined using any technique known in the art. For example, the amounts of chemical moieties can be measured by desorption (for example, desorption of oxygen groups on carbon black), neutralization of surface groups by acids and bases, potentiometric, thermometric, and radiometric titrations, electrokinetic measurements, direct analysis by specific chemical reactions, polarography, infrared spectroscopy (IR), electron spin resonance (ESR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface chemistry may be altered by chemical reactions or by removing extractable materials. Examples of chemical values include, but are not limited to, pH, functional group levels, and zeta potential.
It has been found that, in general, measurements of chemical components, along with measurements of morphology, are not enough to be able to effectively specify a particulate material and thereby provide greater consistency in an end-product. Particulate surfaces can contain a large number of different types of chemical species, and therefore far too many species would have to be identified and their relative positions on the surface determined in order to effectively specify the particulate material. Furthermore, while methods exist for qualitative and quantitative analysis, surface positioning is currently beyond the state of the art.
For the method of the present invention, any particulate material may be used. The particulate material may be in any form such as a powder, a pellet, or a fluffy material. Examples of particulate materials include, but are not limited to, fillers, extenders, carbonaceous materials, carbon black, inorganic salts, silica (such as fumed silica, precipitated silica, or colloidal silica), silica aerogels, fumed oxides, silicates, silica sols including Stöber sols, metal oxides, hydrous metal oxides, iron oxides, aluminum oxides, boehmite, aluminum silicates, clays, kaolin, halloysite, montmorillonite, attapulgite, zeolites, ceramics (such as a metal carbide, a metal nitride, or a metal boride), calcium carbonate, chalk, barium sulfate, diatomaceous earth, asbestine, pigments (such as phthalocyanines, Prussian blue, chromium oxide, and chrome green), zinc sulfide, zinc oxide, titania, antimony oxide, lead zinc, metals (such as tantalum, niobium, iron, aluminum, or silicon), and any of the above with surface treatments such as hydrophobic silicas, surface-modified carbon blacks, polymer treated powders, and laked pigments. Combinations or mixtures of these particulate materials may also be used. Examples of carbonaceous materials include, but are not limited to, carbon black, graphite, vitreous carbon, activated carbon, carbon fibers, nanotubes, graphite, and the like. Other examples include aggregates containing a carbon phase and a silicon-containing species phase or an aggregate containing a carbon phase with a metal-containing species phase. Also, coated particulate materials, such as silica-coated carbon black are other examples of particulate material. Furthermore, the carbonaceous material or other particulate material can be modified in any way such as having attached organic groups, polymer groups, and the like. Examples may include those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,747,562, 5,830,930, 5,877,238, 5,904,762, 5,916,934, 5,919,841, 5,948,835, 6,008,272, 6,017,980, 6,028,137, 6,057,387, 6,197,274, 6,211,279, 6,323,273, 6,364,944, 6,448,309, all of which are incorporated in there entirety by reference herein.
As described above, the interfacial potential property value may be any property that can be correlated to the interfacial potential of the particulate material. For purposes of the present invention, and as described in more detail below, results from tests that can be used to determine the interfacial potential, or to permit a way to assign a value to the particulate material itself or to a grade or brand of particulate material, which is affected by the interfacial potential properties of a particulate material are considered to be the interfacial potential property value in the present invention. These may be determined using a variety of techniques known in the art, including the following:
Interfacial potential by masstone. The optical density of a particulate material, such as a pigment, in a matrix depends on its intrinsic properties and how the particulate material is dispersed throughout the matrix. If poorly dispersed, then the optical density is low. If well dispersed, the optical density is high. The dispersibility of a particulate material depends on both its morphology and on its interfacial potential. Therefore the masstone depends on the interfacial potential of the pigment. The difference in masstone for the same particulate material dispersed under the same conditions in different matrices can be used as a specification for the interfacial potential of the particulate filler.
Interfacial potential by gas adsorption techniques. Some of the methods described above for determining surface area from the adsorption of gases, e.g., BET analysis, fit the data with two parameters—one for the surface area and one for the solid-gas interaction. The parameter for the solid-gas interaction is a measure of interfacial potential. Therefore from the same data that is used to report surface area by BET analysis, information about the interfacial potential is available. Therefore, a method which involves measuring the adsorption of gases other than nitrogen or krypton, which are common “inert” gases used for BET analysis, can be used for determining interfacial potential. Examples of alternative gases which can be used for measuring interfacial potential include water, ammonia, and various organic vapors such as toluene, ethanol, and the like. A preferred gas adsorption technique and data analysis to obtain interfacial potentials is to measure the spreading pressure, which is described in more detail below.
Interfacial potential from adsorption from solution. Adsorption from solution is a similar technique to the adsorption of gases. Many solutes are surface active, that is, they preferentially accumulate at the surface of a particulate material when it is mixed into a solution. The amount of adsorption depends on the surface area, the morphology, and the interfacial potential. If the amount of adsorption of two or more different surface active solutes are measured on the same particulate material, then sufficient information is gathered to be sensitive independently to the morphology and interfacial potential, and would therefore be useful as a method for determining interfacial potential.
Interfacial potential from light scattering or disc centrifuge. To obtain aggregate size by light scattering, a particulate material must be highly diluted into a liquid. Often a surfactant is added to insure that the particulate material is well separated and does not flocculate during the time of measurement, allowing for an accurate measure of size. A variation of this test would give information about interfacial potential, especially the cohesion of the particulate material. For this method, the particle size would be measured as a function of time with no surfactant added. A dispersion, even when highly dilute, will flocculate with time. The rate of flocculation is a measure of the cohesion of the particulate material. Therefore a measure of the particle size or the particle size distribution as a function of time is a measure of the interfacial potential, and, in particular, cohesion.
Interfacial potential by oil absorption. A common type of QA/QC test for the structure of particulate materials such as carbon black is to add a liquid slowly to a mass of material as it is being stirred. As the ratio of the volume of liquid to the mass of particulate material increases, the torque required to mix changes. Typically, the ratio of the volume of liquid added to the mass of material at the maximum torque is reported as a QA/QC test for structure and may appear on a product specification sheet. Another QA/QC test is to report the same ratio at a predetermined fraction of the maximum torque. A preferred liquid is dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and the reported value is often referred to as the DBP number. Paraffin oil has also been used. These volumes to mass ratios are strong functions of the morphology of the particulate material.
However, the flow of a particulate material wetted by a liquid also depends on the interfacial potential through the relative strengths of particle-particle interactions and particle-liquid interactions. When an absorptometer test is repeated with a second liquid on the same particulate material, the relation between torque and volume of liquid added changes. For example, maximum torque may be different for the same particulate material in different liquids, or, alternatively, the volume of liquid added to reach the maximum torque may be different. These differences reflect the interfacial potential of the particulate materials. Therefore combinations of oil absorption tests with different liquids can be used to specify the interfacial potential of a particulate material.
Interfacial potential by wicking rates. When a particulate material is packed into a column and the bottom of the packed bed contacts a liquid, the liquid will wick up through the packed bed. The wicking rate depends on the packing of the particulate material (which depends on morphology) and the strength of interaction between the particulate material and the liquid (which depend on interfacial potential). A comparison of wicking rate for two or more liquids into equivalent packed columns of the same particulate material can be used as a measure of the interfacial potential of the particulate material.
Interfacial potential by rheological tests. The degree of flocculation of a particulate material in a liquid depends on the balance between the particle-particle interactions and the particle-liquid interactions. In other words, the degree of flocculation depends on the interfacial potential of the particulate material. One measure of this balance is the degree of shear thinning—the drop in viscosity with an increase in shear rate. Another measure of the degree of flocculation is the Bingham yield point. Yet another measure of the degree of flocculation, is the elastic modulus at low strains. Each of these methods can be used for determining the interfacial potential of the particulate material.
Interfacial potential by sedimentation volumes. As dispersions flocculate, particle settling occurs because the size of the particles increases. If the particle-particle energies are strong compared to the particle-liquid energies, the flocs are large and the sediment height high. Therefore measures of the sediment height of flocculated dispersions of particulate material can be used as a measure of the interfacial potential.
Interfacial potential by phase segregations. When a particulate material is added to a container with two or more immiscible liquids, the material can preferentially accumulate in one of the phases or at the phase boundary. This preferential segregation is a consequence of the interfacial potential of the particulate material and can therefore be used as a specification for a particulate material.
Interfacial potential by inverse gas chromatography. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is the measurement of the retention times of gas probes flowing through packed beds of particulate materials. The stronger the interfacial potential, the longer the retention time. The retention time also depends on the morphology and packing of the particulate material. Thus, in a typical procedure, the retention times of organic vapors are compared with those of hydrocarbons. This analysis provides a measure of the interfacial potential of the particulate material and can therefore be used as a method for specifying a particulate material.
Interfacial potential by spreading pressure. The spreading pressure of a gas on a particulate material is a measure of the interfacial potential. It can be calculated from the gas adsorption isotherm (moles adsorbed as a function the partial pressure of the gas). The spreading pressure is the integral under the adsorption curve when the partial pressure is plotted as a logarithm. If the data is reported as moles adsorbed per unit mass, the spreading pressure is energy per unit mass. The calculated spreading pressure can be divided by the specific surface area to give the interfacial potential in units of energy per unit area. A wide variety of gases can be used, including, for example, tetrahydrofuran, water, ethanol, toluene, methyethyl ketone, cyclohexanone, and the like. Calculating the spreading pressure of a particulate material for each gas provides a measure of the interfacial potential.
Other methods for determining the interfacial potential of the particulate material can be used and will be known to one skilled in the art. Examples include:
In addition, the interfacial potential property values may be used either alone or in combination with other interfacial potential property values, for instance to specify a particulate material itself, or to specify a batch, lot, or shipment of particulate material.
For purposes of the present invention, the product specification that is related to the interfacial potential property value can be a value specifically determined from a interfacial potential property test as described above, or can be a number or symbol or other denotation created to reflect, denote, or communicate a certain interfacial potential property in a product specification. It is within the scope of the present invention to assign at least one value of a property of a particulate material that is related to interfacial potential, or may be either derivable from or a component of the interfacial potential property value. Thus, for example, a property related to interfacial potential, such as wicking rate, may be specified. Alternatively, values obtainable from this property, such as the work of adhesion, the work of cohesion, or the difference between them, may be determined and specified. Since these values can be separated mathematically into components which relate to the interaction strength of the particulate filler with itself and with a matrix of probe fluid, the components may be used to specify a particulate material. Combinations of each of these are also possible. Therefore, as described above, “interfacial potential property value” would encompass the measurements of the property as well as derivations or components of any of these properties.
Another embodiment of the present invention is a product specification that includes at least one interfacial potential property value. The product specification can also include at least one morphological and/or chemical value. The product specification can be part of a web page, a product catalog, a sales or purchase order, a contract or a waiver to a contract, and the like. The present invention provides a means to conduct business using the interfacial potential property value(s) in product specifications for lots, samples, batches, and/or shipments. This new way of conducting business provides benefits- to the overall industry as described above. Also, the present invention provides a means to represent or identify grades, types, and/or grades of particulate material using at least the interfacial potential property value(s) and to conduct business in this manner. Again, this provides numerous benefits to the industry.
The present invention will be further clarified by the following examples which are intended to be only exemplary in nature.
Standard grades of carbon black are available from various manufacturers. One of the Q/C specifications for these standard grades is the DBP number. The volume at maximum torque for dibutyl-phthalate (DBP) is a QA/QC measure of themorphology of the carbon black.
The DBP value was measured on six standard grades in a Brabender mixer with a device having a means for recording the torque data. The data is reported in the Table 2 below. The carbon blacks are ordered by their DBP numbers.
Determining the volume at maximum torque for another liquid is an example of a QA/QC test for the interfacial potential of the carbon black, which may be used to specify the particulate material. For this example, water, a 60/40 ethylene glycol/water mixture (60 parts ethylene glycol by volume to 40 parts water by volume), ethylene glycol, and paraffin oil were used. The volumes at maximum torque are also shown in Table 2. These results show that standard grades order differently depending on which liquid is used as a probe liquid. For example, looking at the data for water, as the DBP number increases, the interfacial potential property value may increase or decrease. When these carbon blacks are used in applications where both structure and interfacial potential are the significant factors, the product properties may therefore vary unexpectedly. Therefore, at least one interfacial potential property value would be included in order to specify these particulate materials, particularly on a product specification sheet.
Volume @Max T for 5 liquids
ASTM Reference Black
ASTM Reference Black
ASTM Reference Black
ASTM Reference Black
ASTM Reference Black
ASTM Reference Black
Manufacturers often produce the same product at different manufacturing plants. The products need to meet the product specifications regardless of where they are produced.
Table 3 shows data taken on the same grade of carbon black from four manufacturing plants. In this example the “% of max DBP” is the percentage of the maximum DBP value in the table, which was that of Plant E. The DBP numbers were measured as the volume at maximum torque on a Brabender abosrptometer with a device capable of recording the torque data. Note that the DBP values are nearly identical (within approximately 96% of the maximum value). The DBP values are part of the current product specification and by this criterion, all the samples would therefore be considered to be the same (i.e., within spec).
The volume at maximum torque was also measured for three other liquids: ethylene glycol (EG), 60/40 ethylene glycol/water (60 parts ethylene glycol by volume and 40 parts water by volume), and pure water. This is an example of an interfacial potential property test.
Volume @Max Torque
% of max DBP
As the data in Table 3 shows, the volumes obtained for the other liquids are not the same from manufacturing plant to manufacturing plant. This means that the interfacial potentials are not the same for the four samples and hence the products are not the same. Thus, the products would be better specified if at least one of these interfacial potential property values were included.
The carbon black of Example 2 had a low DBP value. A similar test was done for a grade of carbon black with a higher DBP specification. Samples were taken from three manufacturing plants. Again the volume at maximum torque with DBP was measured in a Brabender absorptometer with a device having a means of recording the torque data, and the results are shown as a percentage of the maximum value (Plant F). Results are shown in Table 4 below. The volume at maximum torque was also measured with ethylene glycol (EG), 60/40 EG/water (60 parts ethylene glycol by volume and 40 parts water by volume), and pure water, and the resulting data are also shown in Table 4.
Volume @Max Torque
% of max DBP
The data shows that when an interfacial potential property value is measured, the grades made in different plants are found to be different. Thus, inclusion of at least one interfacial potential property value would be useful in specifying these particulate materials.
Modern carbon black manufacturing plants can be run under a variety of process conditions and still produce product that has nearly the same standard QA/QC values (Analytical Properties), such as iodine numbers (12 Number), DBP number (DBPA), nitrogen surface area (N2SA), t-area (STSA), and tint. The upper rows in the Table 5 below shows that by the standard QA/QC values, the listed carbon blacks are the same. However, when the interfacial potentials are measured by the rate of wicking of various liquids up a packed powder bed, using the Bartell method (which is described in Morrison, I. D.; Ross, S. Colloidal Dispersions: Suspensions, Emulsions, and Foams: John Wiley & Sons: New York; 2002; pp 210-212, incorporated in its entirety by reference herein), significant differences can be seen. The wicking rates have units of g2/s.
Thus, while these particulate materials are all the same by the standard specification, they differ by their interfacial potentials, and the method of the present invention, which comprises assigning at least one interfacial potential property value, would be able to distinguish between them.
The previous examples have used a single interfacial potential parameter from each test. However combinations of multiple parameters can also be used.
An absorptometer (available from C.W. Brabender Instruments, Inc., 50 E. Wesley St., South Hackensack, N.J. 07606) was used following the procedure described in ASTM test D-2414-01. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was added by means of a constant-rate buret to a sample of carbon black in the mixer chamber. A torque sensor detected the rise in viscosity from the free-flowing powder to the semi-plastic flow of the continuous mass. The absorptometer and buret were shut off when the torque passed through its characteristic maximum in such a fashion that there was assurance that the maximum torque had been reached. The volume of DBP per unit mass of carbon black was recorded as the DBP absorption number. CDBP values were obtained using a similar test in which the carbon black was pre-compressed before conducting the test. (ASTM D-3493)
This data is shown in Table 6, along with the iodine number and nitrogen, and STSA surface area values. These morphological values are reported as a percentage of the maximum values in the table. Note that, based on all of the values shown and, in particular, the values for the standard liquid DBP, these materials would be considered identical.
% of max
% of max
% of max
% of max
% of max
A similar absorptometry procedure was followed, using paraffin oil, ethylene glycol, water, and a 60/40 mixture of ethylene glycol and water. Results are show in
Other embodiments of the present invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art from consideration of the present specification and practice of the present invention disclosed herein. It is intended that the present specification and examples be considered as exemplary only with a true scope and spirit of the invention being indicated by the following claims and equivalents thereof.
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|U.S. Classification||436/2, 436/145, 73/53.01|
|International Classification||G06Q10/08, G01N13/02, G01N33/00, G03G9/08, G01N3/00, G01N31/00, G01N33/32, C09C1/48, G01N15/00, C09C1/30, G01N11/00, G01N11/14|
|Cooperative Classification||G01N2013/0283, C01P2006/19, G03G9/0804, G01N2015/0096, G01N33/32, C01P2006/12, G01N11/00, C09C1/30, G06Q10/087, Y10T436/13, C09C1/48, Y10T436/23, G01N2033/0091, G01N11/14, G01N2203/0094, G01N2013/0208|
|European Classification||G06Q10/087, G01N11/00, G03G9/08B2, C09C1/30, G01N33/32, C09C1/48|
|Mar 17, 2004||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: CABOT CORPORATION, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:REZNEK, STEVEN R.;GRAY, CHARLES A.;MORRISON, IAN D.;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:014439/0021;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040302 TO 20040305
Owner name: CABOT CORPORATION, MASSACHUSETTS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:REZNEK, STEVEN R.;GRAY, CHARLES A.;MORRISON, IAN D.;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20040302 TO 20040305;REEL/FRAME:014439/0021
|Jan 28, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4