|Publication number||US7778714 B2|
|Application number||US 11/686,406|
|Publication date||Aug 17, 2010|
|Filing date||Mar 15, 2007|
|Priority date||Feb 27, 2007|
|Also published as||US20080208375|
|Publication number||11686406, 686406, US 7778714 B2, US 7778714B2, US-B2-7778714, US7778714 B2, US7778714B2|
|Inventors||Richard J. Grgic, Subbian Govindaraj, Kenwood Henry Hall, Robert J. Kretschmann, Charles Martin Rischar, Raymond John Staron, David A. Vasko|
|Original Assignee||Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (45), Non-Patent Citations (20), Classifications (6), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This continuation-in-part application claims the benefit of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/679,380 filed on Feb. 27, 2007, entitled “CONSTRUCTION OF AN INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEM USING MULTIPLE INSTANCES OF INDUSTRIAL CONTROL ENGINES” and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/679,394 filed on Feb. 27, 2007, entitled “DYNAMIC LOAD BALANCING USING VIRTUAL CONTROLLER INSTANCES.” The entireties of such applications are incorporated herein by reference.
The claimed subject matter relates generally to hardware controllers within an industrial automation environment and, more particularly, to optimize the execution of such hardware controllers.
Due to advances in computing technology, businesses today are able to operate more efficiently when compared to substantially similar businesses only a few years ago. For example, internal networking enables employees of a company to communicate instantaneously by email, quickly transfer data files to disparate employees, manipulate data files, share data relevant to a project to reduce duplications in work product, etc. Furthermore, advancements in technology have enabled factory applications to become partially or completely automated. For instance, operations that once required workers to put themselves proximate to heavy machinery and other various hazardous conditions can now be completed at a safe distance therefrom.
Further, imperfections associated with human action have been minimized through employment of highly precise machines. Many of these factory devices supply data related to manufacturing to databases that are accessible by system/process/project managers on a factory floor. For instance, sensors and associated software can detect a number of instances that a particular machine has completed an operation given a defined amount of time. Further, data from sensors can be delivered to a processing unit relating to system alarms. Thus, a factory automation system can review collected data and automatically and/or semi-automatically schedule maintenance of a device, replacement of a device, and other various procedures that relate to automating a process.
While various advancements have been made with respect to automating an industrial process, utilization and design of controllers have been largely unchanged. In more detail, industrial controllers have been designed to efficiently undertake real-time control. For instance, conventional industrial controllers receive data from sensors and, based upon the received data, control an actuator, drive, or the like. These controllers recognize a source and/or destination of the data by way of a symbol and/or address associated with source and/or destination. More particularly, industrial controllers include communications ports and/or adaptors, and sensors, actuators, drives, and the like are communicatively coupled to such ports/adaptors. Thus, a controller can recognize device identity when data is received and further deliver control data to an appropriate device.
Unfortunately, traditional controllers employed within automation industrial environments have fallen behind recent technological advances to which the automation industry has maintained stride for stride. Conventional controllers are rigid and inflexible such that hardware and/or software associated therewith must be specifically tailored to a particular control engine. Moreover, in relation to industrial automation environments, controllers and control engines have a one-to-one ratio, wherein one control engine is executed per physical hardware platform (e.g., controller). With such one-to-one ratio, optimizing controllers to utilize full potential in a dynamic manner is virtually impossible. Moreover, in order to increase the efficiency in light of the constraints associated with conventional techniques described above, an increase in the amount of controllers is required which can be costly, inefficient, counter-productive, and meticulous. Furthermore, updating, manipulating, trouble-shooting, or testing code related to controllers can be a crucial and important task with little or no room for error such that downtime should be minimized for safety and/or productivity.
The following presents a simplified summary of the claimed subject matter in order to provide a basic understanding of some aspects described herein. This summary is not an extensive overview, and is not intended to identify key/critical elements or to delineate the scope of the claimed subject matter. Its sole purpose is to present some concepts in a simplified form as a prelude to the more detailed description that is presented later.
The subject innovation relates to systems and/or methods that facilitate employing offline and/or online programming of at least one controller engine instance within an industrial environment. An edit component can enable dynamic and seamless code implementation to at least one controller engine instance executing on a controller within an industrial environment. The edit component can exchange and/or swap a portion of code onto the controller engine instance in real time and on-the-fly so as to not disturb and/or affect any other controller engine instances and/or controllers within the industrial environment. In particular, a portion of code can be written with the controller engine instance online, offline, and/or any combination thereof. Thus, a portion of code can be written and implemented to a selected controller engine instance utilizing the edit component such that the code implementation is in real time and isolated to such controller engine instance.
Moreover, the edit component can provide enhanced trouble-shooting and/or testing for code within an industrial environment. For instance, a portion of code can be written online, offline, etc., wherein the portion of code can be installed in an isolated manner to a selection of controller engine instances. Upon a specified time period, the portion of code can be uninstalled and evaluated to determine the extent of effectiveness for the industrial environment. Based on such isolated testing technique, the edit component can vastly improve efficiency of controllers, controller engine instances, and/or the industrial environment. In other aspects of the claimed subject matter, methods are provided that facilitates programming a controller engine instance in real-time within an industrial automation environment.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, certain illustrative aspects of the claimed subject matter are described herein in connection with the following description and the annexed drawings. These aspects are indicative, however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principles of the claimed subject matter can be employed and such subject matter is intended to include all such aspects and their equivalents. Other advantages and novel features will become apparent from the following detailed description of the invention when considered in conjunction with the drawings.
The claimed subject matter is now described with reference to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals are used to refer to like elements throughout. In the following description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the claimed subject matter. It may be evident, however, that such matter can be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in block diagram form in order to facilitate describing the invention.
As used in this application, the terms “component,” “controller,” and “system” are intended to refer to a computer-related entity, either hardware, a combination of hardware and software, software, or software in execution. For example, a component may be, but is not limited to a process running on a processor, a processor, an object, an executable, a thread of execution, a program, and a computer. By way of illustration, both an application running on a server and the server can be a component. One or more components may reside within a process and/or thread of execution and a component may be localized on one computer and/or distributed between two or more computers. The word “exemplary” is used herein to mean serving as an example, instance, or illustration. Any aspect or design described herein as “exemplary” is not necessarily to be construed as preferred or advantageous over other aspects or designs.
Furthermore, aspects of the claimed subject matter may be implemented as a method, apparatus, or article of manufacture using standard programming and/or engineering techniques to produce software, firmware, hardware, or any combination thereof to control a computer to implement various aspects of the subject invention. The term “article of manufacture” as used herein is intended to encompass a computer program accessible from any computer-readable device, carrier, or media. For example, computer readable media can include but are not limited to magnetic storage devices (e.g., hard disk, floppy disk, magnetic strips, etc.), optical disks (e.g., compact disk (CD), digital versatile disk (DVD), etc.), smart cards, and flash memory devices (e.g., card, stick, key drive, etc.). Additionally it should be appreciated that a carrier wave can be employed to carry computer-readable electronic data such as those used in transmitting and receiving electronic mail or in accessing a network such as the Internet or a local area network (LAN). Of course, those skilled in the art will recognize many modifications may be made to this configuration without departing from the scope or spirit of what is described herein.
Now referring to the drawings,
For example, an industrial environment can include two or more controller engine instances (e.g., controller engine instance A and controller engine instance B, etc.) executing on a controller with a real time operating system, wherein each controller engine instance can include respective code and/or versions of code (e.g., controller engine instance A utilizing code version 1, controller engine instance B utilizing code version 2, etc.). The edit component 102 can enable a portion of code (e.g., written with a portion of the controller and/or controller engine instance offline, written with a portion of the controller and/or controller engine instance online, and/or most any suitable combination thereof) to be employed with at least one controller engine instance. In other words, the edit component 102 can allow a seamless hand-off or swapping from a first version of code with another version of code in which both are associated with a particular controller engine instance. Therefore, on-the-fly dynamic code changes (e.g., upgrades, installs, uninstalls, re-installs, minor updates, minor manipulations associated with a portion of code, etc.) can be employed with a portion of the controller and/or controller engine instance online, offline, and/or most any suitable combination thereof. Moreover, such install, uninstall, re-install, update, etc. of a portion of code can be isolated to a target and/or host (e.g., a host controller, a controller engine instance, a portion of controller engine instances, etc.). As a result, a portion of code related to controllers and/or controller engine instances can be selectively edited (e.g., upgraded, deleted, re-installed, uninstalled, etc.). Such abilities enable enhanced trouble-shooting and/or optimizing of an industrial automation environment based on such selective and/or partial changing of code.
For instance, a portion of code can be written offline and uploaded to at least one online controller engine instance associated with the controller 104 in an industrial automation environment. In one example, the controller can include multiple controller instances that initiate a particular version of code. A portion of code (e.g., an updated version of code) can be written offline and subsequently handed-off to a specific selection of online controller instances—thereby allowing a selection of controller instances running one version of code and another selection of controller instances running a disparate version of code at the same time. In a specific example, a portion of code can be installed (e.g., at the start of a shift) and uninstalled (e.g., at the end of a shift) on-the-fly to allow the minimization of downtime of a controller and/or respective controller instances.
In addition, the offline and/or online programming can be employed for trouble-shooting code within an industrial automation environment. In one example, a portion of test code can be written offline and then deployed to at least a portion of the controller instances. Upon deployment, data can be collected and analyzed in order to provide improvements, updates, etc. to the test code, wherein the data collected can relate to the deployment and/or effects of the test code with the controller instance(s). Once improved, the test code can be redeployed to the system minimizing any possible errors with such code.
It is to be appreciated that the controller 104 can contain software components and hardware components having inputs and/or outputs that can be utilized in connection with automating an industrial manufacturing device/process. Moreover, it is to be appreciated and understood that the controller 104 can be most any suitable portion of hardware and/or portion of software that receives and/or transmits inputs and/or outputs in order to control at least one of a device or a portion of a process. It is to be noted that a controller (e.g., a programmable logic controller (PLC), etc.) can be a dedicated piece of hardware that is self contained or in the case of a “soft PLC” a piece of software that runs on a computer and provides PLC-like control. For instance, in the case of a soft PLC, the soft PLC can be partitioned to employ most any suitable soft PLC engine instances on a real time operating system (e.g., rather than a soft PLC controller executing on an operating system as non-real time), wherein each soft PLC engine instance can handle a portion of what the soft PLC engine handled, controlled, etc.
It is to be noted that the controller 104 can include various computer or network components such as servers, clients, communications modules, mobile computers, wireless components, control components and so forth that are capable of interacting across a network (not shown). Similarly, the term PLC or controller as used herein can include functionality that can be shared across multiple components, systems, and or networks. For example, one or more controllers 104 (e.g., PLCs, etc.) can communicate and cooperate with various network devices across a network. This can include substantially any type of control, communications module, computer, I/O device, sensor, Human Machine Interface (HMI)) that communicate via a network which includes control, automation, and/or public networks. The controller 104 can also communicate to and control various other devices such as Input/Output modules including Analog, Digital, Programmed/Intelligent I/O modules, other programmable controllers, communications modules, sensors, output devices, and the like.
A network can include public networks such as the Internet, Intranets, and automation networks such as Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) networks including DeviceNet, ControlNet, and Ethernet/IP. Other networks include Ethernet, DH/DH+, Remote I/O, Fieldbus, Modbus, Profibus, wireless networks, serial protocols, and so forth. In addition, the network devices can include various possibilities (e.g., hardware and/or software components). These include components such as switches with virtual local area network (VLAN) capability, LANs, WANs, proxies, gateways, routers, firewalls, virtual private network (VPN) devices, servers, clients, computers, configuration tools, monitoring tools, and/or other devices.
In another aspect in accordance with the subject innovation, the controller 104 can be implemented in the industrial automation environment (e.g., an industrial environment, an automation environment, an environment, an automation industry, etc.) which employs a hierarchical representation of devices and/or processes. The hierarchy can be based at least in part upon the physical location of devices/processes (e.g., a region of a factory can have several defined sub-regions, which in turn can comprise sub-regions), standards associated with industry, such as ISA, S95, ISA S88, and the like, proprietary hierarchy that is provided by an enterprise, or any other suitable hierarchy (discussed in further detail in
For example, an industrial automation environment can include a controller that can be utilized with a first process, a second process, and a device. Conventionally, a controller and a controller engine are restricted to a one-to-one ratio such that there is only one controller engine per physical hardware controller. With such restrictions, additional hardware controllers are needed to be introduced to enable multiple controller engines. However, the claimed subject matter implements a controller engine in a substantially similar manner to a process implemented on a hardware controller in the fact that multiple controller engines (e.g., controller engine instance) can execute on the hardware controller (e.g., multiple processes can execute on a controller). By executing multiple controller engine instances on the controller, each particular controller engine instance can handle at least a portion of a process and/or a device within the industrial automation environment. For instance, the controller can employ a controller engine instance to handle the first process, a controller engine instance to control the second process, and/or a controller engine instance to handle/control the device. It is to be appreciated that the controller can implement most any suitable number of controller engine instances. In another example, a first controller engine instance can be utilized for the first process and the second process while a disparate controller engine instance can be utilized for the device. In other words, the various number of controller engine instance can be managed to control, handle, and/or execute a device and/or process in most any suitable combination.
In another example, an industrial automation environment can include controller A, controller B, and controller C. In one scenario, each controller engine instance can execute on a corresponding controller. However, there can be distributed controller engine instances (e.g., a controller engine instance with more than one host and/or parent controller) such that more than one controller can handle and/or host a controller engine instance. By sharing and/or distributing the execution of the controller engine instance to more than one controller, the full potential of controllers and respective controller engine instances can be reached.
In another example, a controller engine instance executing on a first controller can be seamlessly handed off to a disparate controller based upon a deterioration of the initial hosting controller (e.g., first controller). Furthermore, the controller engine instance can be shared and/or distributed to a disparate controller in light of a possible deterioration and/or problematic initial host controller. It is to be appreciated that the claimed subject matter is to include transferring, handing off, sharing, etc. of a controller engine instance to a disparate controller based on a particular event/circumstance (e.g., controller health, controller characteristic, restructure, update, security, upgrade, error, firmware, dependability, detail related to an industrial automation environment, etc.). It is to be appreciated that the system 200 can enable the creation of controller engine instances without user intervention. Thus, the creation and/or generation of the controller engine instances to execute on the real time operating system (OS) corresponding to the controller can be automatic and seamless.
Furthermore, the edit component 102 can facilitate manipulating code associated with a controller engine instance 202 executing on the controller 104. The edit component 102 can allow on-the-fly changing (e.g., swapping, exchanging, updating, installing, uninstalling, re-installing, etc.) of code such that the exchange can be isolated and/or targeted solely to the controller engine instance and/or particular selection of code that is to be changed. For instance, a controller can host a plurality of controller engine instances such that each controller engine instance can include respective portions of code with each portion of code having a particular version, state, and/or content. The edit component 102 can enable real-time exchanging/manipulating of a selected portion of code with a disparate portion of code and such exchange/manipulation can be isolated to the specific controller engine instance so as to not disturb other code, controllers, and/or controller engine instances. Moreover, it is to be appreciated that the code that can be provided online, offline, and/or most any suitable combination thereof.
For example, the load 304 can be partitioned into five (5) parts with five (5) controllers handling/controlling each part. In another example, the load 304 can be divided into four (4) pieces where a controller A can handle/control 2 pieces, controller B can handle/control 1 piece, and controller C can handle/control 1 piece. Still further, the load 304 can be divided into three (3) pieces where a host controller can include most any suitable number of controller engine instances that can handle/control the three (3) pieces accordingly (e.g., evenly distributed, percentage-based, processor-based percentage, resource availability-based, etc.). It is to be appreciated that the load 304 can be partitioned and/or distributed based on most any suitable manner such as, but not limited to, percentage based, functionality, importance, priority, security, location, source/origin, user preference, user-defined manner, relation to source code, etc. Furthermore, it is to be appreciated that the balance component 302 can distribute a portion of the load 304 to most any suitable number of controllers 104 such as controller 1, controller 2 to controller p, where P is a positive integer. Moreover, it is to be appreciated that the balance component 302 can distribute a portion of the load 304 to most any suitable number of controller engine instances 202 regardless of the host controller (e.g., remote, local, resources, processing capabilities, etc.). Although a single balance component 302 is depicted, it is to be appreciated and understood that most any suitable number of balance components can be employed such that the balance component 302 can be within each controller, a stand-alone component, and/or most any suitable combination thereof.
By evaluating at least one of the load 304 and/or the controllers 104, the balance component 302 can enable self-tuning and/or dynamic distribution which optimizes and enhances controllers within industrial automation environments. Controllers within industrial automation environments typically have various characteristics and/or capabilities in relation to computation and/or processing ability. By evaluating such characteristics and/or the load 304, the system 300 greatly improves traditional techniques and/or mechanisms associated with controllers. It is to be appreciated that the load 304 can be most any suitable load related to an industrial environment such as, but not limited to, control related to a portion of a device within the industrial environment, control related to a portion of a process within the industrial environment, receipt of data related to the industrial environment, transmission of data related to the industrial environment, most any suitable processing within the industrial environment, etc. For instance, the balance component 302 can monitor and/or track most any suitable characteristic associated with the capability of the controllers 104 such as, but not limited to, processing ability, hard drive, processor speed, memory, networking capabilities, version, edition, hardware age, processor type, controller brand, controller functionality, controller make, controller model, available resources, capacity available, accessibility, frequency of use, processor consumption, memory consumption, controller embedded software (e.g., firmware), etc.
Furthermore, it is to be appreciated that communication between most any suitable controllers handling/controlling a portion of the load 304 can be employed. Thus, the controllers 104 can communicate to each other in relation to the distribution of the load 304 therewith. Moreover, it is to be understood that the communication can be among most any suitable controller associated with the system 300 and the communication need not be between controllers sharing the load 304. Thus, a system can include controller A, controller B, and controller C such that a load is shared by controller A and controller B (e.g., no load on controller C, a disparate load on controller C, etc.). Controller C can communicate to controller A and/or controller B to notify of available processing resources/capabilities to which a portion of the load can then be shared by controller C. Furthermore, it is to be appreciated that the balance component 302 can receive such communications and re-distribute the allocation of the load 304 accordingly in real-time.
Additionally, the edit component 102 can allow dynamic employment of a portion of code with a selected controller engine instance in an isolated manner so as not to affect a disparate controller engine instance, a portion of code executing therewith, and/or a controller. The edit component 102 further allows a portion of code related to at least one of a controller engine instance and/or a controller and a disparate portion of code to be swapped and/or exchanged in real time and on-the-fly regardless of self-adjustment and/or self-tuning initiated by the balance component 302. For example, if the balance component 302 evaluates a load and distributes such load across a controller and a number of controller engine instances associated therewith, the edit component 102 can allow the code respective to such controller engine instances to be updated, exchanged, swapped, manipulated, etc. regardless of such change in load distribution. Thus, the code related to a controller and/or a controller engine instance can be changed (e.g., updated, installed, re-installed, uninstalled, versioned, etc.) dynamically regardless of the balance component 302 distributing and/or re-distributing a portion of the load 304.
It is to be appreciated that the system 400 can be utilized in a hierarchically structured industrial environment. For example, the devices/processes 404-412 can be hierarchically structured to facilitate management of such devices within the industrial environment 402. The hierarchy can be based at least in part upon the physical location of devices (e.g., a region of a factory can have several defined sub-regions, which in turn can comprise sub-regions), standards associated with industry, such as ISA, S95, ISA S88, and the like, proprietary hierarchy that is provided by an enterprise, or any other suitable hierarchy. For instance, a top portion of the hierarchy may be a plant, and a sub-level of the plant may be programmable logic controllers utilized within the plant, and a sub-level of the programmable logic controllers can be devices controlled by such controllers (discussed in more detail in
Moreover, the system 400 can include a data store 414 that can store most any suitable data related to the edit component 102, the controller 104, a controller engine instance, and/or most any suitable combination thereof. For example, the data store 414 can store code, versions of code, installed versions of code, uninstalled versions of code, code locations, upgrades, patches, data related to previous code origins, code configurations and/or settings, code assignment in relation to controller engine instances, time periods associated with code version assignments, code performance data, historic data related to the industrial environment, historic data related to controller engine instance, controller data, most any suitable data related to a controller and/or a controller engine instance, health data related to a controller, transfer data, distribution data, etc. The data store 414 can be, for example, either volatile memory or nonvolatile memory, or can include both volatile and nonvolatile memory. By way of illustration, and not limitation, nonvolatile memory can include read only memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), or flash memory. Volatile memory can include random access memory (RAM), which acts as external cache memory. By way of illustration and not limitation, RAM is available in many forms such as static RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synchlink DRAM (SLDRAM), Rambus direct RAM (RDRAM), direct Rambus dynamic RAM (DRDRAM), MRAM, a combination of NV memory with the access speeds of volatile memory, and Rambus dynamic RAM (RDRAM). The data store 414 of the subject systems and methods is intended to comprise, without being limited to, these and any other suitable types of memory. In addition, it is to be appreciated that the data store 414 can be a server, a database, a hard drive, and the like.
The edit component 102 can provide most any suitable technique for swapping, exchanging, manipulating, changing, installing, uninstalling, re-installing, etc. of a portion of code. It is to be appreciated that the edit component 102 can upload code from a controller engine instance. For example, the edit component 502 can include a manual technique and an automatic technique for implementing a portion of code with a controller engine instance. The manual technique can allow a user and/or entity (e.g., a machine, a portion of software, a computer, a company, an environment, a controller, etc.) to specify the details of such code implementation (e.g., timing for such code implementation, which controller engine instance to target, most any suitable details associated with the code implementation, etc.). The automatic technique can allow such code implementation to be employed automatically based on evaluating the controller 104 and/or the controller engine instance that is targeted for code implementation.
The system 600 can utilize a log component 602 that tracks data in accordance with the claimed subject matter. In particular, the log component 602 can track and/or monitor data related to code versions, time stamps of code implementation, time stamps of install, time stamps of un-install, previous code utilized, code assignment for controllers, code assignment for a controller engine instance, user data for a code install, user data for a code uninstall, user data related to the system 600, assignment data, security data, hierarchy data, and/or most any suitable data related to the controller, controller engine instance, device, process, code, etc. It is to be appreciated that the log component 602 can be a stand-alone component, incorporated into the edit component 102, incorporated into the controller 104, incorporated into a controller engine instance, and/or any combination thereof.
For example, if a user installs a portion of data (e.g., code) to controller engine instance A, the log component 602 can track the user (e.g., via IP address, network address, user name, computer name, etc.), the date and time of install, details of the data/code, the location of where the code was installed, the controller hosting the controller engine instance, etc. The log component 602 can log various aspects related to programming, installing, uninstalling, etc. various portions of data related to a controller engine instance such as, but not limited to, a portion of code utilized by a controller and/or controller engine instance, configuration settings, security settings, time stamps, dates, user names and/or computer names, etc. Moreover, the log component 602 can store the logged entries in a data store (not shown).
The edit component 102 can further utilize a search component 604 that facilitates querying any data associated with the system 600. The search component 604 allows a user and/or any component to query the system 600 in relation to code, code installed, code uninstalled, controllers, controller assignment, controller engine instances, code assignment, controller engine instance data, controller data within the industrial environment, processes, devices, applications, portions of code, etc. For instance, a user can query the system 600 utilizing the search component 604 to find a portion of code on a specific controller engine instance associated with a particular controller within the Localville, Ohio plant. In another example, the search component 604 can allow a developer/user/entity (e.g., a computer, a machine, a corporation, a group, an individual, a controller, etc.) to provide all variable names associated with devices within sector 5, cell 6, and controlled by controller engine instance C executing on controller A. It is to be appreciated that a plurality of searches and/or queries can be implemented by the search component 604 and the above examples are not to be limiting on the claimed subject matter. Moreover, it is to be appreciated that the search component 604 is depicted as a stand-alone component, but the search component 604 can be incorporated into the edit component 102, incorporated into the controller 104, incorporated into a controller engine instance, a stand-alone component, and/or any combination thereof.
The edit component 102 can further utilize a security component 606 that provides security to the system 600 to ensure data integrity and/or access in connection with the edit component 102, the controller 104, a controller engine instance, the plurality of controller engine instances, and/or most any suitable combination thereof. In particular, the security component 606 can define security, authorization, and/or privileges in accordance with at least one of a pre-defined hierarchy, security level, username, password, access rights, data importance (e.g., more important data correlates with high security clearance), etc. For instance, a particular portion of code can be a first security level with distinct security authorizations and/or privileges, while a disparate portion of code can have a second security level with disparate security authorizations and/or privileges. Thus, the security component 606 can provide granular security in relation to code, controllers, controller engine instances, devices, code/controller location, controller engine instance location, etc. It is to be appreciated that there can be various levels of security with numerous characteristics associated with each level and that the subject innovation is not limited to the above example. Moreover, the security component 606 provides granular security and/or privileges to the system 600. It is to be appreciated that security component 606 can be a stand-alone component, incorporated into the edit component 102, incorporated into the controller 104, incorporated into a controller engine instance, and/or any combination thereof.
The edit component 102 can further include a bridge component 608 that facilitates networking within an industrial automation environment. In other words, the bridge component 608 can act as a network bridge. It is to be appreciated that the bridge component 608 can be a stand-alone component, incorporated into the edit component 102, incorporated into the controller 104, incorporated into a controller engine instance, and/or any combination thereof. Thus, data carried by disparate networks can be manipulated so that it conforms to a common network. Accordingly, the bridge component 608 can recognize a network protocol associated with received instructions related to the edit component 102 and perform operations to convert such data so that it conforms to a pre-defined protocol. Upon such conversion, a mapping can be employed to convert the data so that it conforms to a hierarchically structured data model (rather than data models associated with flat namespaces). The mapping can thereafter provide hierarchically structured data to a requester of such data over a network, wherein the network conforms to the pre-defined protocol. For instance, the first network protocol can be at least one of Fieldbus, Profibus, Hart, Modbus, ASI-bus, and Foundation Fieldbus, while the second network protocol can be a Common Industrial Protocol (CIP).
It is to be understood that the intelligent component 702 can provide for reasoning about or infer states of the system, environment, and/or user from a set of observations as captured via events and/or data. Inference can be employed to identify a specific context or action, or can generate a probability distribution over states, for example. The inference can be probabilistic—that is, the computation of a probability distribution over states of interest based on a consideration of data and events. Inference can also refer to techniques employed for composing higher-level events from a set of events and/or data. Such inference results in the construction of new events or actions from a set of observed events and/or stored event data, whether or not the events are correlated in close temporal proximity, and whether the events and data come from one or several event and data sources. Various classification (explicitly and/or implicitly trained) schemes and/or systems (e.g., support vector machines, neural networks, expert systems, Bayesian belief networks, fuzzy logic, data fusion engines . . . ) can be employed in connection with performing automatic and/or inferred action in connection with the claimed subject matter.
A classifier is a function that maps an input attribute vector, x=(x1, x2, x3, x4, xn), to a confidence that the input belongs to a class, that is, f(x)=confidence(class). Such classification can employ a probabilistic and/or statistical-based analysis (e.g., factoring into the analysis utilities and costs) to prognose or infer an action that a user desires to be automatically performed. A support vector machine (SVM) is an example of a classifier that can be employed. The SVM operates by finding a hypersurface in the space of possible inputs, which hypersurface attempts to split the triggering criteria from the non-triggering events. Intuitively, this makes the classification correct for testing data that is near, but not identical to training data. Other directed and undirected model classification approaches include, e.g., na´ve Bayes, Bayesian networks, decision trees, neural networks, fuzzy logic models, and probabilistic classification models providing different patterns of independence can be employed. Classification as used herein also is inclusive of statistical regression that is utilized to develop models of priority.
The presentation component 704 can provide various types of user interfaces to facilitate interaction between a user and any component coupled to at least one of the edit component 102, the controller 104, and/or a controller engine instance. As depicted, the presentation component 704 is a separate entity that can be utilized with edit component 102. However, it is to be appreciated that the presentation component 704 and/or similar view components can be incorporated into the edit component 102, a stand-alone unit, and/or most any suitable combination thereof. The presentation component 704 can provide one or more graphical user interfaces (GUIs), command line interfaces, and the like. For example, a GUI can be rendered that provides a user with a region or means to load, import, read, etc., data, and can include a region to present the results of such. These regions can comprise known text and/or graphic regions comprising dialogue boxes, static controls, drop-down-menus, list boxes, pop-up menus, as edit controls, combo boxes, radio buttons, check boxes, push buttons, and graphic boxes. In addition, utilities to facilitate the presentation such as vertical and/or horizontal scroll bars for navigation and toolbar buttons to determine whether a region will be viewable can be employed. For example, the user can interact with one or more of the components coupled to the edit component 102.
The user can also interact with the regions to select and provide information via various devices such as a mouse, a roller ball, a keypad, a keyboard, a pen and/or voice activation, for example. Typically, a mechanism such as a push button or the enter key on the keyboard can be employed subsequent entering the information in order to initiate the search. However, it is to be appreciated that the claimed subject matter is not so limited. For example, merely highlighting a check box can initiate information conveyance. In another example, a command line interface can be employed. For example, the command line interface can prompt (e.g., via a text message on a display and an audio tone) the user for information via providing a text message. The user can then provide suitable information, such as alpha-numeric input corresponding to an option provided in the interface prompt or an answer to a question posed in the prompt. It is to be appreciated that the command line interface can be employed in connection with a GUI and/or API. In addition, the command line interface can be employed in connection with hardware (e.g., video cards) and/or displays (e.g., black and white, and EGA) with limited graphic support, and/or low bandwidth communication channels. It is to be further appreciated that the presentation component 704 can utilize bio sensing, biometrics (e.g., fingerprints, retina scan, iris scan, facial patterns, hand measurement, etc.), and the like. Moreover, the presentation component 704 can present data to a non-human interfaces such as other machines.
Furthermore, the controller can utilize most any suitable number of controller engine instances such as controller engine instance 1, controller engine instance 2, to controller engine instance N, where N is a positive integer. Furthermore, the claimed subject matter implements a controller engine in a substantially similar manner to a process implemented on a hardware controller in the fact that multiple controller engines (e.g., controller engine instance) can execute on the hardware controller (e.g., multiple processes can execute on a controller). It is to be appreciated that the one or more controller engine instances can be executed without user intervention (e.g., in an automatic and seamless manner without human assistance). At reference numeral 804, at least one controller engine instance can be utilized to control and/or manage at least one of a device or a portion of a process within the industrial automation environment. It is to be appreciated that some controller engine instances may be a pure computational engine (e.g., control modules that compute gas flow, etc.) and may not control any devices. In other words, the controller can implement a plurality of controller engine instances, wherein each controller engine instance can handle controlling a device and/or portion of a process within an industrial automation environment.
At reference numeral 806, a portion of code related to a controller engine instance can be exchanged with a disparate portion of code in real time without disrupting and/or affecting execution of a disparate controller engine instance. In other words, a portion of code can be exchanged/updated/manipulated on-the-fly on a targeted controller engine instance while the controller engine instance is online, offline, and/or most any suitable combination thereof. Moreover, the portion of code that can be employed on the controller engine instance can be written offline, online, and/or most any suitable combination thereof. It is to be appreciated that dynamic change and/or exchange can include, but not limited to, code addition, code deletion, code content update, code functionality change, etc.
At reference numeral 904, at least one of a portion of code or a controller engine instance for the portion of code to be utilized (e.g., target controller engine instance) can be identified. For instance, the portion of code can be created manually, automatically, and/or most any suitable combination thereof. For instance, a portion of code can be created by a user while the controller engine instance is offline, online, and/or most any suitable combination thereof. The target controller engine instance can further be identified in an automatic and/or manual manner. At reference numeral 906, the portion of code can be implemented with the controller engine instance without affecting a disparate controller engine instance. Additionally, the code can be implemented without affecting a disparate controller and/or most any other suitable entity related to the industrial automation environment.
At reference numeral 908, a portion of software related to the controller engine instance can be utilized. For instance, the portion of software can be embedded on the controller, wherein the controller engine instance can dynamically execute such embedded software on the physical industrial control platform (e.g., the controller within the industrial environment). Moreover, it is to be appreciated that the controller can utilize most any suitable operating system such that the operating system is a proprietary operating system, off-the-shelf, a third-party operating system, an open source operating system, a real time operating system (OS), and/or most any suitable operating system related to a machine, computer, etc. Additionally, it is to be appreciated that there can be one or more operating systems related to a controller. Furthermore, one or more controller engine instances can run one or more operating systems.
Referring now to
In order to provide additional context for implementing various aspects of the claimed subject matter,
Moreover, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the inventive methods may be practiced with other computer system configurations, including single-processor or multi-processor computer systems, minicomputers, mainframe computers, as well as personal computers, hand-held computing devices, microprocessor-based and/or programmable consumer electronics, and the like, each of which may operatively communicate with one or more associated devices. The illustrated aspects of the claimed subject matter may also be practiced in distributed computing environments where certain tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked through a communications network. However, some, if not all, aspects of the subject innovation may be practiced on stand-alone computers. In a distributed computing environment, program modules may be located in local and/or remote memory storage devices.
One possible communication between a client 1110 and a server 1120 can be in the form of a data packet adapted to be transmitted between two or more computer processes. The system 1100 includes a communication framework 1140 that can be employed to facilitate communications between the client(s) 1110 and the server(s) 1120. The client(s) 1110 are operably connected to one or more client data store(s) 1150 that can be employed to store information local to the client(s) 1110. Similarly, the server(s) 1120 are operably connected to one or more server data store(s) 1130 that can be employed to store information local to the servers 1120.
With reference to
The system bus 1218 can be any of several types of bus structure(s) including the memory bus or memory controller, a peripheral bus or external bus, and/or a local bus using any variety of available bus architectures including, but not limited to, Industrial Standard Architecture (ISA), Micro-Channel Architecture (MSA), Extended ISA (EISA), Intelligent Drive Electronics (IDE), VESA Local Bus (VLB), Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI), Card Bus, Universal Serial Bus (USB), Advanced Graphics Port (AGP), Personal Computer Memory Card International Association bus (PCMCIA), Firewire (IEEE 1394), and Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI).
The system memory 1216 includes volatile memory 1220 and nonvolatile memory 1222. The basic input/output system (BIOS), containing the basic routines to transfer information between elements within the computer 1212, such as during start-up, is stored in nonvolatile memory 1222. By way of illustration, and not limitation, nonvolatile memory 1222 can include read only memory (ROM), programmable ROM (PROM), electrically programmable ROM (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable ROM (EEPROM), or flash memory. Volatile memory 1220 includes random access memory (RAM), which acts as external cache memory. By way of illustration and not limitation, RAM is available in many forms such as static RAM (SRAM), dynamic RAM (DRAM), synchronous DRAM (SDRAM), double data rate SDRAM (DDR SDRAM), enhanced SDRAM (ESDRAM), Synchronous-link DRAM (SLDRAM), Rambus direct RAM (RDRAM), direct Rambus dynamic RAM (DRDRAM), MRAM, and Rambus dynamic RAM (RDRAM).
Computer 1212 also includes removable/non-removable, volatile/non-volatile computer storage media.
It is to be appreciated that
A user enters commands or information into the computer 1212 through input device(s) 1236. Input devices 1236 include, but are not limited to, a pointing device such as a mouse, trackball, stylus, touch pad, keyboard, microphone, joystick, game pad, satellite dish, scanner, TV tuner card, digital camera, digital video camera, web camera, and the like. These and other input devices connect to the processing unit 1214 through the system bus 1218 via interface port(s) 1238. Interface port(s) 1238 include, for example, a serial port, a parallel port, a game port, and a universal serial bus (USB). Output device(s) 1240 use some of the same type of ports as input device(s) 1236. Thus, for example, a USB port may be used to provide input to computer 1212, and to output information from computer 1212 to an output device 1240. Output adapter 1242 is provided to illustrate that there are some output devices 1240 like monitors, speakers, and printers, among other output devices 1240, which require special adapters. The output adapters 1242 include, by way of illustration and not limitation, video and sound cards that provide a means of connection between the output device 1240 and the system bus 1218. It should be noted that other devices and/or systems of devices provide both input and output capabilities such as remote computer(s) 1244.
Computer 1212 can operate in a networked environment using logical connections to one or more remote computers, such as remote computer(s) 1244. The remote computer(s) 1244 can be a personal computer, a server, a router, a network PC, a workstation, a microprocessor based appliance, a peer device or other common network node and the like, and typically includes many or all of the elements described relative to computer 1212. For purposes of brevity, only a memory storage device 1246 is illustrated with remote computer(s) 1244. Remote computer(s) 1244 is logically connected to computer 1212 through a network interface 1248 and then physically connected via communication connection 1250. Network interface 1248 encompasses wire and/or wireless communication networks such as local-area networks (LAN) and wide-area networks (WAN). LAN technologies include Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Copper Distributed Data Interface (CDDI), Ethernet, Token Ring and the like. WAN technologies include, but are not limited to, point-to-point links, circuit switching networks like Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN) and variations thereon, packet switching networks, and Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL).
Communication connection(s) 1250 refers to the hardware/software employed to connect the network interface 1248 to the bus 1218. While communication connection 1250 is shown for illustrative clarity inside computer 1212, it can also be external to computer 1212. The hardware/software necessary for connection to the network interface 1248 includes, for exemplary purposes only, internal and external technologies such as, modems including regular telephone grade modems, cable modems and DSL modems, ISDN adapters, and Ethernet cards.
What has been described above includes examples of the subject innovation. It is, of course, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of components or methodologies for purposes of describing the claimed subject matter, but one of ordinary skill in the art may recognize that many further combinations and permutations of the subject innovation are possible. Accordingly, the claimed subject matter is intended to embrace all such alterations, modifications, and variations that fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
In particular and in regard to the various functions performed by the above described components, devices, circuits, systems and the like, the terms (including a reference to a “means”) used to describe such components are intended to correspond, unless otherwise indicated, to any component which performs the specified function of the described component (e.g., a functional equivalent), even though not structurally equivalent to the disclosed structure, which performs the function in the herein illustrated exemplary aspects of the claimed subject matter. In this regard, it will also be recognized that the innovation includes a system as well as a computer-readable medium having computer-executable instructions for performing the acts and/or events of the various methods of the claimed subject matter.
In addition, while a particular feature of the subject innovation may have been disclosed with respect to only one of several implementations, such feature may be combined with one or more other features of the other implementations as may be desired and advantageous for any given or particular application. Furthermore, to the extent that the terms “includes,” and “including” and variants thereof are used in either the detailed description or the claims, these terms are intended to be inclusive in a manner similar to the term “comprising.”
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5142469||Mar 29, 1990||Aug 25, 1992||Ge Fanuc Automation North America, Inc.||Method for converting a programmable logic controller hardware configuration and corresponding control program for use on a first programmable logic controller to use on a second programmable logic controller|
|US5796603||Oct 17, 1996||Aug 18, 1998||Allen Bradley Company, Inc.||Partitioning program for highly distributed control system to reduce network traffic|
|US5826244||Aug 23, 1995||Oct 20, 1998||Xerox Corporation||Method and system for providing a document service over a computer network using an automated brokered auction|
|US5875461||Apr 3, 1997||Feb 23, 1999||Sun Microsystems, Inc.||Method of synchronizing one of the objects with one of the threads at a time|
|US5887029||Apr 1, 1996||Mar 23, 1999||Allen-Bradley Company, Llc||Method of scheduling spatially separated control events with an industrial controller|
|US5949674||Nov 4, 1997||Sep 7, 1999||Allen-Bradley Company, Llc||Reconstruction tool for editing distributed industrial controller programs|
|US5970243 *||Aug 21, 1997||Oct 19, 1999||Steeplechase Software, Inc.||Online programming changes for industrial logic controllers|
|US5971581||Sep 17, 1997||Oct 26, 1999||National Instruments Corp.||Fieldbus network configuration utility with improved scheduling and looping|
|US6055370||May 24, 1996||Apr 25, 2000||International Business Machines Corporation||Apparatus which allows data sharing amongst computer programs from different program environments|
|US6268853||Sep 30, 1999||Jul 31, 2001||Rockwell Technologies, L.L.C.||Data structure for use in enterprise controls|
|US6338130||Mar 11, 1999||Jan 8, 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Adaptive method and apparatus for allocation of DSP resources in a communication system|
|US6373836||Jan 22, 1998||Apr 16, 2002||Genesys Telecommunications Laboratories, Inc.||Apparatus and methods in routing internet protocol network telephony calls in a centrally-managed call center system|
|US6453460||Apr 26, 1999||Sep 17, 2002||Hewlett-Packard Company||Computer system with single processing environment for executing multiple application programs|
|US6615092||Mar 5, 2001||Sep 2, 2003||Dell Products L.P.||Method, system and facility for controlling resource allocation within a manufacturing environment|
|US6735764 *||Sep 3, 2002||May 11, 2004||Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki Kaisha||Automatic machine application program development system and computer product|
|US6816746||Mar 5, 2001||Nov 9, 2004||Dell Products L.P.||Method and system for monitoring resources within a manufacturing environment|
|US6882890||Jun 29, 2001||Apr 19, 2005||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Industrial controller based on distributable technology objects|
|US6901446||Feb 28, 2001||May 31, 2005||Microsoft Corp.||System and method for describing and automatically managing resources|
|US6922681||Dec 20, 2001||Jul 26, 2005||Xerox Corporation||Problem partitioning method and system|
|US6947798||Oct 18, 2002||Sep 20, 2005||Rockwell Software Inc.||System and method for developing software programs by way of multiple applications and users|
|US7039740||Jul 19, 2002||May 2, 2006||Newisys, Inc.||Interrupt handling in systems having multiple multi-processor clusters|
|US7065714||Oct 12, 2001||Jun 20, 2006||Oracle International Corporation||Graphical user interface for navigation, viewing and maintenance of recipes|
|US7139618||Jun 10, 2004||Nov 21, 2006||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft||Method of operation and a control program for a central unit in an automation system|
|US7257620 *||Sep 24, 2001||Aug 14, 2007||Siemens Energy & Automation, Inc.||Method for providing engineering tool services|
|US7272815 *||May 17, 2000||Sep 18, 2007||Invensys Systems, Inc.||Methods and apparatus for control configuration with versioning, security, composite blocks, edit selection, object swapping, formulaic values and other aspects|
|US7374524||Aug 9, 2005||May 20, 2008||Delaware Capital Formation, Inc.||Method, system and program product for enabling rapid connection of automated tools to a device network|
|US7472387 *||Jan 18, 2002||Dec 30, 2008||Hitachi Kokusai Electric Inc.||System for supplying semiconductor manufacturing system control programs|
|US20020129085||Mar 8, 2001||Sep 12, 2002||International Business Machines Corporation||Inter-partition message passing method, system and program product for managing workload in a partitioned processing environment|
|US20020194417 *||Aug 15, 2002||Dec 19, 2002||Naohisa Suzuki||Information processing apparatus and method|
|US20030163508||Feb 26, 2002||Aug 28, 2003||International Business Machines Corporation||Background code update for embedded systems|
|US20040117535||Sep 22, 2003||Jun 17, 2004||Schaftlein Richard C.||System and method for synchronizing system modules|
|US20050024102||Jun 29, 2004||Feb 3, 2005||Anden Co., Ltd.||Relay driving apparatus and method having relay contact turn-on holding function|
|US20050028137 *||Aug 25, 2004||Feb 3, 2005||Microsoft Corporation||Method and system for program editing|
|US20050202808||Nov 19, 2004||Sep 15, 2005||Agere Systems Inc.||Method, system, and computer program product for over-the-air download to satellite radio|
|US20060005171 *||Jun 23, 2005||Jan 5, 2006||Ellison Timothy P||Method for replacing code in a running object oriented program|
|US20060041328 *||Aug 9, 2005||Feb 23, 2006||Delaware Capital Formation, Inc.||Method, system and program product for enabling rapid connection of automated tools to a device network|
|US20060092861||Jul 7, 2005||May 4, 2006||Christopher Corday||Self configuring network management system|
|US20060150174||Feb 16, 2004||Jul 6, 2006||Katsuaki Abe||Software updating method and radio communication apparatus|
|US20060178757||Jan 30, 2006||Aug 10, 2006||Rockwell Automation Technologies, Inc.||System and method for automatically matching programmable data of devices within an industrial control system|
|US20070044066||Aug 19, 2005||Feb 22, 2007||Microsoft Corporation||Embedded multi-language programming|
|US20070173959||Jan 24, 2006||Jul 26, 2007||National Instruments Corporation||System and method for automatically updating the memory map of a programmable logic controller to customized hardware|
|US20080066019 *||Sep 13, 2006||Mar 13, 2008||Fisher-Rosemount Systems, Inc.||Compact Batch Viewing Techniques for use in Batch Processes|
|US20080090586||Oct 12, 2006||Apr 17, 2008||Cingular Wireless Ii, Llc||Network initiated USSD in mixed networks|
|US20080109471||Jan 25, 2007||May 8, 2008||Bangalore Softsell Ltd.||Presenting data flow in legacy program|
|US20080125877||Sep 12, 2006||May 29, 2008||Fisher-Rosemount Systems, Inc.||Process data collection system configuration for process plant diagnostics development|
|1||Final Office Action dated Jun. 3, 2010 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/695,758; pages 54.|
|2||*||Foley, M. "Modify MicroLogix online"; Feb. 2006; A-B journal, vol. 13, No. 1 ;abstract; pp. 1-2.|
|3||Johnson, et al. "OS Partitioning for Embedded Systems" Feb. 2, 2006; QNX Software Systems, pp. 1-9.|
|4||Johnson. Lowering the Development Costs of Industrial Control Systems through Software Partitioning. Aug. 15, 2006; QNX Software Systems, pp. 1-9.|
|5||OA dated Apr. 1, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/738,787, 32 pages.|
|6||OA dated Apr. 14, 2010 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/733,390, 67 pages.|
|7||OA dated Aug. 18, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/738,784, 38 pages.|
|8||OA dated Feb. 22, 2010 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/738,787, 35 pages.|
|9||OA dated Feb. 23, 2010 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/738,784, 35 pages.|
|10||OA dated Mar. 20, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/733,390, 35 pages.|
|11||OA dated Oct. 16, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/733,390, 41 pages.|
|12||OA dated Oct. 19, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/695,758, 32 pages.|
|13||OA dated Oct. 19, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/733,357, 38 pages.|
|14||OA dated Oct. 2, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/738,787, 22 pages.|
|15||OA dated Oct. 7, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/679,380, 38 pages.|
|16||OA mailed Mar. 19, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/733,357, 34 pages.|
|17||OA mailed Mar. 20, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/679,380, 41 pages.|
|18||OA mailed Mar. 20, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/679,394, 37 pages.|
|19||OA mailed Mar. 9, 2009 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/695,758, 33 pages.|
|20||Office Action dated May 24, 2010 for U.S. Appl. No. 11/695,727; pages 37.|
|Cooperative Classification||G05B2219/25064, G05B19/042, Y02P90/86|
|Mar 15, 2007||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: ROCKWELL AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC.,OHIO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GRGIC, RICHARD J.;GOVINDARAJ, SUBBIAN;HALL, KENWOOD H.;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20070309 TO 20070314;REEL/FRAME:019015/0271
Owner name: ROCKWELL AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGIES, INC., OHIO
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:GRGIC, RICHARD J.;GOVINDARAJ, SUBBIAN;HALL, KENWOOD H.;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20070309 TO 20070314;REEL/FRAME:019015/0271
|Feb 17, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4