|Publication number||US77882 A|
|Publication date||May 12, 1868|
|Publication number||US 77882 A, US 77882A, US-A-77882, US77882 A, US77882A|
|Inventors||Eoyal E. House|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
2 Sheets-SheetL R. E. HOUSE. ELEGTROPHONETIG TBLBGRAPH. 8
180.71882. .A Paten-88d May 12', 1888. i
f junumu n 2 Sheets-Sheet 2.
R. E. HOUSE. BLBGTROIHONEUG TBLEGRAPH.
N0. '77,882l Patented May 12, 1868.
UNITED STATES PATnixVrv OFFICE.
ROYAL E. HOUSE, OF INGHAMTON, NEW YORK.
IMPROVEMENT IN ELECTRO-PHONETIC TELEGRAPHS.'
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 71,882, dated May 12, 1868.
.To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, ROYAI'. E. HOUSE, of Binghamton, in the county of Broome and State of New York, have invented new and useful Improvements inthe Electro-Phonetic Telegraph; and I do hereby declare that the following, taken in connection with the drawings, is a full, clear, and exact description thereof.
In the drawings, which are on two sheets, Figure l is aside elevation of the son nder and helix with their. accessories. Fig. 2 is a horizontal and longitudinal section through a helix anld sounder on the red line in Fig. 1. Fig. 3 iS'aLsectiOn through a helix on a vertical red line in Fig. 1, showing a` set of detlective needles, and an interior view of the helix which is nearest the needles in the direction of the sounder. Fig. 4 is amend elevation of a sounder.. Fig. 5 is a'side elevation of an electro-magnet, sounder, and accessories. Fig. 6 is a diagram showingthe mode of ascertaining by the action of light the'inside curve of the reflector for any given length and diameter.
'Ihe feature of my present invention may be .\divided into three heads, and are, first, a
sou nder so constructed and arranged as to regulate the loudness of thesonnds and to intensify them by a. single reiieetion vto a point most convenient to the operators ear,- by which means greater distinctness of sound is secured; second, a deeetive needle-helix cov strueted and arranged AWith'reference to b inging a greater length of insulated ivire in closer proximity to the permanent deflectivemagnetic force to 4be deflected by the passage of an elecltric current through the insulated wire of the helix than heretofore practiced; third, increasing the permanent deilective magnetic force which is to be deflected in proportion to the increased inertia of the material employed for that purpose, which enables me to augment t-he force, so as to produce sufficiently rapid and heavy blows, by moving through. exceedingly short distances, which removes the difficulty' of bounding.
I shall now proceed to describe the sounder and its accessories. l
The sounder A. Figs. 1,. 2, 4, and 5, is composed of a reflect or,B.somewhat barrel-shaped and closed at the end opposite' the intensified point C, as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 5, by the insertion of sounding-head D, which has adjustable limiters F F or F F1, atte ehed for the purpose of limiting the motion of an armarture, H, Fig. 5, of an electro-magnet, I, or the motion of a set of detlective needles fixed in shaft G, Figs. 1, 2,` and 3. Y
:In the construction of rciiectors tensify the sound by a single reection, as practiced in the present invention,itbeeomes a matter of importance to have some easy mode for determining the exact curve of the inside of a redector of any given length and required diameter.l Knowing that the laws of sound correspond with those of light, the particular form of the curve of the sides ofthe reflector for any given length may be ascertained by the reiiection of light.
I generallyuse a desirable number of small mirrors, arranged as shown'in Fig. 6, in which the eye is placed at the intensified point C,
and a candle, J or some other suitable object the inside shaped to correspond with the pattern.
rPhe sounding-head D may be'made of wood or glass or any suitable' material. I prefer pine wood. One made one-quarter of an 1nch thick and eight inches diameter, stiffened by being well saturated with shellae in Varnish, and fixed in its respective end of the reflector, answers a good purpose, providing the size of the pattern of the reflector is made with refereuce to that diameter.
The'limiters F F, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, should be made stiff and light, of suitablesized thin brass tubing, and fixed in an adjustable manner to sounding-head D, and closed at the ends which are to receive the blows from the set of detlective needles fixed in shaft G.
The sounder A is suspended in a proper position by being suitably hinged to the case l -The opposite side of thesounder is adjusted i that in.
by thumb-screw M, which rests against the case K and screws th rough the projecting arm N, Fig. 1, which isixed on the lower side.
The withdrawal or moving up of limitersF VF-(represented in Figs. il, 2, and 3) is accomplished byscrewingup or nnscrew-ing the adjusting-screw M. I .have sometimes used a cam against the end of screw M, arranged so that moving thecam 4backward or forward produced the same effect as moving the screw.
I .have now'described the sounder and the mode of using it in combination with deflective needles, and will now give another mode of using it in 'combination with a receiving electro-magnet of a telegraph-line without a one limiter on the sideand the other on the end to produce distinctness of sound is not new; but has been long in use in local circuits wherethe magnetic force was sufficient without the employment of an intensifying sounder.
Fig. 5 represents the combination of theold arrangement withrellector B and soundinghead D, which may be placed in a stationary manner onthe frame which holds the temporary electro-magnet I, Fig. 5', which has an armature, H, with an adjustable reacting spring, O,an'd a fixed arm, P, projecting from the armature at right angles and working lon an axis at Q, so that when the magnet I is charged with magnetism the armature H brings the fixed arm P in contact with the end of limiter E', and when discharged' the reactingspring pulls the end of armature I-I against the side of limiter F2.
I shallnow proceed to describe the second and third parts of the feature of my invention.
In the construction of -a permanent deiective magnetic force, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, designated by the letter E, I select .the best material of caststeel, of suitablesize andlength for permanently holding an amount of magnetism which shall be the largest in proportion to the weight of steel employed for thatpurpose. I then mul` tiply t e number of such pieces to any extent desirab e, or at least until suitable weight is attained to make-audible sounds by arresting their motion against' the ends of 'limit-ers -F F, Figs. 1, 2, and 8, after being deflected 'through an exceedingly short distance, say, onehundredth of an inch. They are then arranged with similar poles side by side and at such distances apart as will allow each deflect-ive needle to retain its full force of magnetism, in which rclativeposition they are fixed to the oscillating shaft G, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, which has asuitable-sized aperture provided with a set-screw for each needle, (designated by the letter E.) 1
The necessary distance between each consecutive needle may be ascertained by Ineasurements made by the deflection of an ordinary compass-needle placed at a propergdistanceand in asuitable position from the north or south poles of two or more 4maguetized needles, arranged parallel with each other, and their similar-poles side by side in a movable manner, s o as to increase or diminish the distance between them as desired, the experimentor beingcareful to note the degrees of detlection of the compass-needle which exists at the several distances through which they are moved, and then selecting for use the distance between the magnetized needles when a maxi- .mum charge of permanent magnetism was shown by the compass-needle to exist.
The number of detlective needles which oompose a set may be increased according to the length and insulation ot' the telegraph-line inv which they are used. vWhen combined with a line of ordinary length and construction, the
number shown inthe drawings would answer a good purpose; but if used in connection with a very long submarine-telegraph line',in.which extreme sensitiveness becomes important, the number of deflective needles should be correspondingly increased.
The oscillating needle-shaft G, Figs. 1, 2,
and 3, may be held in any frictionless mannery thatA will allow it to oscillare freely without trembling. .I have used it-with much success with the needle-shaft -in a vertical position, suspended by a suitable torsion-suspensory apparatus,which acts as a reacting power, and which may be regulatedby torsion to meet the exigencies of a waste-current of a telegraphline.
The connection of the torsion-suspensory apparatus is made by connecting its lower end to the upper end of wire R, Figs. I and 3,
which is fixed in the' upper end of the oscillating needle-shaft G. This arrangement requires the use of a frictionless device to secure the center of motion of the detlecting needles' at aiixed point in the center of the aperture of the deiiective needle-heiix L, Figs. 1, 2, and 3, andl have selected for this purpose a .knife-edge, S, Figs. 2 and3, ifi :ted in an opening, 'Lof the oscitlating needle-shaft G in a suitable manner to secure the axis of motion by lightly bearing against the bottom of asuitto produce the desired eiiect withouttdiminishing the sensitiveness with which the knifeedge acts in its bearing.
I will now explain the inode of obviating the diiiiculty in the arrangement previously patented, in which the deliective needle had a tendency to slightly stick to the limiters, which limited its motion. by coming in contact with its magnetized parts, so as to diminish its sensitiveness when operatedon a telegraph-line havingv a heavy escape-current. This diiiiculty is removed in my present invention by arranging the limiters F F, Figs.
1, 2, and 3, so as to be struck with device XV,
made of demagnetic metal and fixed-to each end of the two deflective needles nearest the center-of the set in shaft G.'
The deliective needle-helix L, used in conibination with the set of defiecti-ve needles, is constructed with an axial aperture, the shape and size of which is made with reference to the length, size, and number of detlective needles (arranged m a row parallel with each other) and with each consecutive needle separated from the other at such distances apart as to allow each needle to retain its full amount of deective magnetic force. A good idea rof this part of the invention maybe gained by exainining Fig. '3, in which is represented'half of the detlective needle-helix, showing an axial aperture constructed and relatively arranged and combinedwith a set of defiective needles, ip accordance with the principles of this par-t of my4 invention.
The axial aperture in deiiective needle-helices hereto fore constructed for telegraphic purposes have had an oblong shape with a deiiect mg needle placed in the center, with its poles in a parallel position with the sides of the oblong and at right angles to the axis of the helices. The amount of helical-wire of a given size used in constructing such helices has been regulated by the length and size of a single or compound defiective needle and the number of layers of helical wire having a given number of convolutious. In the present invention, the poles and intervening spaces of the set of deiiective needles are relatively arranged atright angles to the sides of the oblong aperture and at right angles tothe axis of the helix, as shown in Fig. 3.
The amount of helical wire o f a given size used in forming a fixed number of layers with a given number of convolutions inthe construction of such helices is regulated by the number, size, and length of the deiiective needles and the space allotted to each needle respectively. Theprinciple used in the latter for the purpose of increasing distiuctuess of` sonud and remedyiug the bounding of the needle and tendency to stick to the limiters when used with a heavy escape-current, and to increase the deiccting power of the helix by increasing the length of helical wire and permanent magnetic force; or some of the parts of the presentinventiou or all of them may be combined' with suitable parts of a magnetic telegraph-line nowin public use, and operated either by breaking or closing the circuit of electricity, or by changing the current by the use of a key or coxnmut-ator. Y XVhat I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is as follows:
1.' The use of the reflector, shaped and proportioned in accordance with the principles described, and for the purposes set forth.
2. The respective arrangement and combi` nation of the reliector and sounding-head, as described.
3. The combination of the redector with sounding-head and limiters, as described, and for purposes set forth. Y
4. Hinging the sounder andadjusting its angle, as described, for the purpose of regulating the distance through which the permanent magnetic force shall move.
5. The use of a set of deflecting magnetized needles, constructed as described, arid relatively arranged, as described, for `purposes set forth.
6.V Constructingthe axial aperture of a deiectingneedle helix as described, and for the purposes set forth.
7. The combination of a deilective needlehelix constructed' with an axial aperture, as described,with a set of detiectivc needles, con structed and relatively arranged,as described, for pur-poses set forth.
ROYAL E. -HOUSE In presence of` F. A. DURKEE, M. E. CoNKLIN.