US 779398 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
PATENTED JAN. 3, 1905.
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A. O. OALKINS. OIL SEPARATOR. APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 2, 1902. RENEWED MAY 13,1904.
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PATENTBD JAN. 3, 1905.
A. o. CALKINS.
v OIL SEPARATOR. APPLICATION FILED SEPT. 23, 1902. RENEWED MAY 13, 1904.
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UNITED STATES Patented January 3, 1905.
ALBERT O. OALKINS, OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA, ASSIGNOR OF ONE- HALF TO HENRY E. BRETT, OF LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 779,398, dated January 3, 1905.
Application filed September 23, 1902. Renewed May 13, 1904. Elerial No. 207,787.
To ctZZ whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, ALBERT O. OALKINs, a citizen of the United States, residing at Los Angeles, in the county of Los'Angeles and State of California, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Oil-Separators; and I do hereby declare the following to be a full, clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable others skilled in the art to which it appertains to make and use the same.
This invention relates to apparatus for separating oils and similar fluids, and particularly to thermometric fractional oil separators wherein measured heat is employedto separate gasolene, naphtha, and similar distillates from heavy oil in which they may be present or to which they have been added; and some of the I objects of this invention are to produce an apparatus of this general character which will be simple and cheap in construction and at the same time efficient in operation.
Another object of the invention is to separate the light distillates from heavy oil in which they are present or to which they have been added without blackening the separated oil, as is often the casein the present process of distillation in a still.
It is also an object of this invention to secure the separation of the light distillates without darkening the heavy oil and to accomplish this by a continuous operation and also to provide means by which any desired degree of heat may be maintained and the entire separator may be subjected to a uniform degree of heat or to different degrees of heat in diffeIelt portions of the separator, as may be desire With these and other objects in view the invention consists, essentially, in the construction, combination, and arrangement of parts, substantially as more fully described in the following specification and essentially asillustrated in the accompanying drawings, forming part of this application, in which Fignrel is a side elevational view of a preferred form of apparatus employed. Fig. 2 is an end elevational view thereof. Fig. 3 is a detail sectional view of the elbow trap.
Fig.4 is a detail sectional view illustrating 5 one of the coupling-heads for the jacket-tube. Fig. 5 is a detail sectional view of a pressure regulating valve. Fig. 6 is a partial sectional view in detail of a modified form of couplinghead shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 7 is a side elevational view of a modification of the construction illustrated in Fig. 1. Fig. 8 is an enlarged sectional view of the ball-valve or cutoff employed. Fig. 9 is a side elevational View, partly broken away, illustrating the vat type of heating-jacket; and Fig. 10 is an end elevational view of the same, partly broken away.
Similar characters of reference designate corresponding parts throughout the several 5 views.
Referring to the drawings, and particularly to the construction illustrated in Figs. 1 to 6 thereof, the reference character 1 designates a supply tank or reservoir having suitable 7 connection 2 with a source of supply and be ing provided with a valved outlet pipe or connection 3 with one end of an oil-pipe 4, the other end whereof is preferably connected, by means of a suitable coupling 5, Fig. 3, with one end of a similar oil-pipe 6, the opposite end whereof is preferably connected with one end of another oil-pipe, 7, by means of a like coupling 5, while a third coupling 5 connects the other end of the oil-pipe 7 with one end of another oil-pipe, 8, the opposite end whereof is connected to one end of an oil-pipe 9 by means of a fourth coupling 5, substantially as illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, and 3 of the drawings. The couplings 5 are preferably con- 5 structed in the form of elbows and are desirably provided with a trap 10 and with a vent or opening-11 to afford access to said trap, while a screw-threaded orifice 12 affords connection with a suitable pipe for withdrawing 9 the vapor to be taken ofi at this point, substantially asillustrated in Figs. 1 and 3. Suitably secured around the oil-pipes 4, 6, 7, 8, and- 9 are jackets or sleeves 13, which are preferably connected in couples by means of connecting-headers 14, Figs. 1, 2, and 4, and each jacket 13 is preferably provided with an inlet connection 15 with a pipe for the heating me dium, as at 16, which medium may be hot or vaporized water, and the higher temperature may be attained from steam under known gage-pressure, which permits of the maintenance of any desired degree of heat, which degree may be maintained automatically, if desired, with the utmost exactitude, the exact temperature of steam at different pressures being well known. Thus to maintain an exact temperature of 338 Fahrenheit it will only be necessary to maintain a steam-pressure of onehundred-pounds gage-pressure. The pipes 16 for the heating medium may have any suitable connection with'the source of supply, and the pressure-regulating valve 17 may be located in the pipes 16 and may be of the type illustrated in Fig. 5 of the drawings, or any other suitable form of pressure-regulating valve may be employed, and the pipes 16 may be provided with a by-pass connection 18, having a suitable valve 18 to open and close the same as desired for the purpose of cutting out the by-pass valve and delivering the full boilerpressure to the apparatus. The coils and their jackets are preferably arranged in banks, substantially as illustrated in Fig. 2 of the drawings, and connect the pipes 16 entirely across the banks, so that the heating medium is delivered to the several jackets side by side at the same pressure, and at the lower ends ofthe jackets 13 are provided outlets 19, which connect with pipes 35 and 36, leading to the steam-trap, and vapor-dischargepipes 20, 21, 22, and 23 preferably connect with the screwthreaded orifice or collar 12 of the coupling or elbow 5, and the pipes 20, 21, 22, and 23 preferably connect with headers 24 and 25, desirably connected with a condenser. (Not shown.) Branch pipes 26, 27, and 28 may be connected with the vapor-discharge pipes 22, 23, and 29, respectively, and may be in communication with separate condensers, such branches being provided with suitable valves to secure a discharge of the vapors to separate condensers or the union of all the vapors by way of the headers 24 and 25 to a single discharge-main 30 to a single condenser in case where the same heat is applied to all the jackets and a single product is distilled. In this invention the couplings 5 are arranged outside of the jackets 13 and are preferably provided with plugs 31 to facilitate the cleaning of the couplings, and also the pipes leading to the condensers are entirely outside of the said jackets. By means of the construction of the coupling 5 the gas or vapor generated above any given trap of the couplings will be isolated from that generated below the trap, so that diiferent degrees of heat may be applied to the different heights of the coil and a product may be taken off from one pipe which differs from that taken from the other, whereby the lighter particles may be taken off from the upper portion of the coil and a greater degree of heat applied to the lower portion will result in taking off a different product and the products may be controlled by regulating the heat applied to the different portions of the separator, as will be readily understood. When the coils are disposed as shown in Figs. 1 and 2 of the drawings,thejack ets 13 are preferably arranged iii series of two, the upper jacket covering the upper coil and the next one below and having its sections connected at their adjacent ends by connectingheader 14:, (shown in detail in Fig. 4 and in a modified form in Fig. 6 of the drawings,) and the opposite ends of the jackets 13 are desirably closed by closing headers 32, and the next jacket 13 has its sections applied to cover the next two coils of pipe 7 and 8, while the last jacket 13 covers the oil-pipes 9, substantially as illustrated. By means of this construction the upper group of oil-pipes 4 and 6 have a jacket 13 Which is independent of those below and is preferably provided with independent supply connections 16, with a connection 34 with the source of supply of the heating medium employed, and the oil-pipes 7 and 8 are likewise supplied with a separate jacket 13,alsohaving independent supply connections 16 communicating with a connection 3 1 with the source of supply of the heating medium employed, and the oil pipe 9 is separately heated by means of a connection 16 with the source of supply of the heating medium.
The word cut as used by oil refiners means the gravity of the product out off or separated from the oil being run or handled, and the first cut is of lighter gravity than the second, as the most volatile product will come off first, and the term fractional distillation will be understood as meaning the distillation of difierent products, such as naphtha, gasolene, engine-distillate, and kerosene. If such products be mixed and run through the separator, a low temperature will volatilize the naphtha, which may be eliminated from the mixture in passing through the first two pipes if fed slowly, and the couplings or elbow connection 5 isolates the gas generated in the pipes above from that in the pipes below and only permits the escape of the gas at the outlets provided, whereby a greater heat may be given or applied'to the lower pipes and the separated product taken off therefrom.
It will be understood that the vapor-discharge pipes lead to separate condensers, so that it is within the power of the operator to deliver and condense separately the gas or regulating-valve may be provided in the main line of supply of the heating medium in order to control the pressure, and thereby the heat, throughout the entire series when the by passes are all open.
The operation-of this invention will be readily understood from the foregoing description when taken in connection with Figs. 1 to 6 of the drawings above specified. The oil to be treated is introduced into the reservoir or supply-tank 1 through the valve-controlled supply-pipe 2 and passes from said reservoir down through the valved pipe or connection 3 into the oil-pipe 4, which it traverses, and then passes through the coupling 5 into the oil-pipe 6, thence to the coupling 5, into and through the oil-pipe 7, the coupling 5, the oilpipe 8, the coupling 5 to the oil-pipe 9, from which the product is taken off, as will be readily understood. The lighter distillates will pass off through the pipe 20, the header 24, to the pipe 30, and the next-lighter distillates will be taken off through the pipe 21 and header 25 to form the second out, while the pipe 22 and header 24 constitute an escape for the next-lighter distillates, and the next cut is made to the pipe 23, while the residuum is withdrawn from the pipe 9 through the connection 28.
By means of the pipes 15 and 16 at one end of the jacket 13 and the pipes 33, 34, 35, and 36 at the other end thereof, said pipe being suitably connected with a sourceof supply of the heating medium, a complete circulation of the heating medium is caused to traverse the jackets 13 and separate degrees of heat can be applied to each set or couple of jackets 13, substantially as before explained.
Referring now to the construction illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8 of the drawings, there is illustrated a slightlymodified form of the construction hereinbefore described and shown. wherein the oil is separated while in vacuum in order to decrease the amount of heat required to effect the separation of the distillates. Thus the temperature required in the lower coils will not be necessarily increased over that in the upper coil, as in the foregoing construction, because a vacuum is created in the lower coil. The construction illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8 is substantially similar to that hereinbefore described and shown, with the exception that one of the couplings 5 is provided with a trap or tank 88 havinga ballvalve to control the outletoroutflow of the oil from the tank 88, and a vacuum-pump 39 or other exhaust apparatus is connected with the discharge-pipe 40 after the same shall have passed through the condenser 41, as will be readily understood.
hen it is not desired to attain fractional distillation, the construction illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10 may be employed, wherein there is used one jacket or casing 42 for all of the oil-pipes, the couplings 5 being outside of the casing to afford access thereto, and all of the oil-pipes 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 are subjected to the same degree of heat, and in this construction the several vapor-discharge pipes communicate with single main 30, which discharges into a condenser 44, substantially as illustrated in said figures.
It is not desired to confine this invention to any particular number of sets of pipes or to the arrangement thereof or to the medium employed for heating the pipes, and the right is reserved to make all such changes in and modifications of the construction shown and described as come within the invention.
1. A separator provided with a series of pipes, a separate coupling connecting successive series of said pipes containing a seal or trap and having independent outlet connections, jackets on each of said pipes and means for simultaneously supplying different degrees of heat within said jackets, whereby different vapors are liberated within said pipe and the remaining liquid continues its course.
2. A separator provided with a series of pipes having outlets, separate couplings for each series containing a seal to prevent the passage of the gas from one series of pipes into another and means for heating said pipes to a different degree to generate different gases simultaneously.
3. A separator provided with a series of individual continuously-connected pipes each individual pipe being provided with means for withdrawing the distillates and means for heating the pipes to different degrees of heat simultaneously.
4. A separator provided with continuouslyconnected pipes arranged in a plurality of vertical planes, jackets on said pipes, means for cross-connecting the corresponding jackets in the several tiers and connections between the jackets and the source of the heating medium whereby the same degree of heat is maintained in corresponding pipes of the several tiers.
5. A separator provided with pipes arranged in difl'erent vertical planes, jackets on said pipes, couplings continuously connecting the individual pipes in the same plane, means for cross-connecting the corresponding jackets of the several tiers, connection between said means and the source of the heating medium, and devices for isolating and withdrawing the different constituents from the material operated upon.
6. A separator provided with pipes, couplings therefor, jackets surrounding said pipes, connection between said jacket and the source of the heating medium, regulating-valves from said connection and a valved by-pass around said regulating-valve.
7. A separator provided with individual pipes, an individual coupling therefor, a jacket surrounding each of said pipes, connection between said jackets and the source of the heating medium and regulating-valves for said connections.
8. A separator provided with pipes, independent jackets for the pipes, vapor traps or seals between the pipes, separate pipes connecting the source of the heating medium with said jackets and provided with pressure-regulating valves and valved lay-passes around the regulating-valves.
9. A separator provided with a series of pipes continuously connected and having outlets, a coupling therefor having overlapping projections forming a trap and means for simultaneously heating said pipes to difierent degrees for generating and isolating different gases.
10. Aseparator provided withcontinuouslyconnected pipes, having outlets, arranged in tiers, vapor-traps in the connection between said pipes, heating-pipes, jackets wherewith the latter communicate, a main vapor-pipe, branch vapor-pipes and valves.
11. A separator provided with tiers of pipes continuously connected, jackets for each of said pipes, heating connectionsfor said jackets, and means for regulating the supply of oil from one tier of pipes to the other and mechanism for producing a vacuum below said means.
12. A separator provided with pipes, independent jackets for the pipes, vapor traps or seals between the pipes, and separate pipes connecting the source of the heating medium with said jackets and provided with pressureregulating valves.
In testimony whereof I have signed my name to this specification, in the presence of two subscribing witnesses, at Los Angeles, in the county of Los Angeles and State of California, this 12th day of September, 1902.
ALBERT (J. CALKINS.
AMELIA G-UEsT, 1%. E. BRINKER.