|Publication number||US7801876 B1|
|Application number||US 11/972,924|
|Publication date||Sep 21, 2010|
|Filing date||Jan 11, 2008|
|Priority date||Jan 11, 2008|
|Also published as||US8301615|
|Publication number||11972924, 972924, US 7801876 B1, US 7801876B1, US-B1-7801876, US7801876 B1, US7801876B1|
|Inventors||Patrick Riley, Ramanathan Guha, Corin Anderson, Matthew Wytock, Othar Hansson|
|Original Assignee||Google Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (13), Classifications (6), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to search technology.
2. Related Art
Computer networks store increasing amounts of information. Users rely on search technology to access information. Users formulate search queries (or simply queries) that may include terms (also called keywords) that identify what information is being sought. Search engines have been developed to receive such search queries and to return ordered results (also called hits) that fulfill the search query. The development of web technology has also helped users access information and search. Users can use browsers to access search engines, to input search queries, and to receive search results. Browsing and searching are now used to help users carry out a variety of transactions, to find information, to navigate information, and to perform other tasks in a variety of applications.
Different types of search engines have been developed to carry out searches. Many search engines (also called general-purpose search engines) are designed to accommodate a large number of users that may carry out a wide range of searches across different types of subject matter located in different web sites. Other search engines (special-purpose search engines) may specialize in searching certain types of content or domains. Users may control which search engines they select; however, control over individual search engine behavior is restricted to proprietors of the search engine only. Users and other third-parties, such as developers, have often faced a take-it-or-leave-it situation with respect to search engine behavior.
Limited attempts have been made to allow users to filter searches. Such attempts have been limited to mere filtering by a browser of returned results to block undesired content (such as, parental web site blocking tools). Different browser tools have also been used to remove undesirable search terms in search queries prior to sending these terms to search engines.
Furthermore, different search engines may return different results. For example, a general web search engine may return results from across the web, whereas an academic different search engine may only return papers or conference proceedings.
Systems and methods are needed that allow a developer to construct a search executor that tailors queries and results from multiple search engines to meet specific needs.
The present invention relates to systems and methods for customizing search engine (CSE) behavior. In an embodiment of the present invention, a system customizes a query search of a plurality of search engines. The system includes a search executor configured to receive a search specification having a query modification description, a results modification description, and a specification of sections. The specification of sections includes a first section identifying a first search engine in the plurality of search engines and a second section identifying a second search engine different from the first search engine in the plurality of search engines. The specification of sections also includes a connecting section. The connecting section has an associated condition controlling results combined from the first and second sections. The search executor includes a query modifier configured to receive a search query, to generate a first modified query and a second modified query based on the query modification description, and to output the first modified query to the first search engine and the second modified query to the second search engine. The search executor also includes a combiner that combines a first ordered result from the first search engine and a second ordered result from the second search engine based on the associated condition to form combined results. The search executor also includes a result changer configured to generate modified results based on the results modification description and the combined results, and to output the modified results to fulfill the search query.
In another embodiment of the present invention, a method customizes a search of a plurality of search engines. The method includes receiving a search specification having a query modification description, a results modification description, and a specification of sections. The specification of sections includes a first section identifying a first search engine in the plurality of search engines and a second section identifying a second search engine different from the first search engine in the plurality of search engines. The specification of sections also includes a connecting section. The connecting section has an associated condition controlling results combined from the first and second sections. Finally, the method includes: receiving a search query; generating a first modified query and a second modified query based on the query modification description; and outputting the first modified query to the first search engine and the second modified query to the second search engine. The method also includes: receiving a first ordered result from the first search engine and a second ordered result from the second search engine generated based on the first modified query and the second modified query; combining the first ordered result and the second ordered result based on the associated condition to form combined results; generating modified results based on the results modification description and the combined results; and outputting the modified results to fulfill the search query.
Further embodiments, features, and advantages of the invention, as well as the structure and operation of the various embodiments of the invention are described in detail below with reference to accompanying drawings.
Embodiments of the invention are described with reference to the accompanying drawings. In the drawings, like reference numbers may indicate identical or functionally similar elements. The drawing in which an element first appears is generally indicated by the left-most digit in the corresponding reference number.
The present invention relates to systems and methods for customizing search engine behavior. While the present invention is described herein with reference to illustrative embodiments for particular applications, it should be understood that the invention is not limited thereto. Those skilled in the art with access to the teachings provided herein will recognize additional modifications, applications, and embodiments within the scope thereof and additional fields in which the invention would be of significant utility.
This specification may refer to components by number only, as opposed to letter and number. For example, this specification may refer to search engines 120 as opposed to search engines 120A. When a component is described by number only, that description may apply to each component with that number. For example, when search engines 120 is described, that description may apply to each search engine 120A-N.
Customizing Search Engine Behavior
In one example, search executor 110 and underlying search engine 120 operate on different remote computing devices and communicate with one another over one or more networks, including but not limited to, a local area network, medium-area network, and/or wide-area network, such as, the Internet. Alternatively, search executor 110 and underlying search engine 120 can be combined on one device or coupled locally to one another.
Search executor 110 can be implemented in software, firmware, hardware, or any combination thereof. In one example, not intended to limit the present invention, search executor 110 can be implemented as a server that can communicate with or is part of a web server (not shown). In this way, developers or searchers (users) can communicate with search executor 110 remotely over the Web through browsers from remote client devices.
In one embodiment, search executor 110 can receive a search specification 105 from a developer. The term “developer” is used broadly herein to refer to any user that desires to customize search engine behavior. Search specification 105 may have a query modification description and a results modification description. The query modification description includes information on query modification. The results modification description includes information on search results modification. User-interface components can also be specified in search specification 105. Search specification 105 is described further below with respect to an example shown in
According to one feature, not intended to limit the invention, search specification 105 can be provided in a language that is hierarchical, human readable/editable and machine-readable/editable for direct execution by a machine. Such a language can include, but is not limited to, XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language).
Search Executor Operation
Search executor 110 generates a modified query 114 based on the query modification description and outputs modified query 114 to search engine 120. Query modification is described in more detail below. Search engine 120 performs a search based on the modified query 114 and returns ordered results 116 (also called hits).
Search executor 110 receives ordered results 116 and generates modified results 118 based on the results modification description present in search specification 105. Search executor 110 then outputs modified results 118 to fulfill the original search query 112.
When there are multiple underlying search engines such as in
In this way, a developer can specify a search specification 105 acted upon by search executor 110 to customize search engine behavior of each underlying search engine 120. In a further feature, the developer can specify query modification and results modification independently to customize behavior of the search engine with more power, ease and flexibility than has been previously available to users of search engines or simple browser filter tools alone.
An example search specification 105 and search executor 110 is described further with respect to
Query modification description 202 includes information on query modification. For instance, this can include query modification parameters. In one embodiment, query modification (QM) parameters can include one or more parameters to add, to restrict, promote, to demote, or to remove search terms. These QM parameters are described further below with respect to the operation of search executor 110 shown in
In another example, query modification description 202 can include information on query modification that is at an even higher-level (such as, an indication of how certain terms or keywords are to be included, excluded, favored, or disfavored to tune search results) which may more easily specified by a developer. This information can then be later analyzed and automatically converted to QM parameters.
Results modification description 204 includes information on results modification of ordered results returned from search engine 120. In particular, this can include results modification parameters. In one embodiment, results modification (RM) parameters can include one or more parameters to restrict, to promote, to demote or to remove results. These RM parameters are described further below with respect to the operation of search executor 110 shown in
In another example, results modification description 204 can include information on results modification that is at an even higher-level (such as, an indication of what websites (e.g. URLs) are to be included, excluded, favored, or disfavored in a search to tune search results) which may more easily specified by a developer. This information can then be later analyzed and automatically converted to RM parameters.
User-interface (UI) components description 206 includes information on one or more UI components to be included in a page displaying search results returned to a user. A UI component (such as, a search refinement block) may then be included to allow a user to specify QM parameters and/or RM parameters to allow further customized search. For instance, the UI component description 206 can include markup language defining a UI component that further has an associated query modification description and/or results modification description. One UI component includes a link to a new set of results. The new set of results can be defined with additional QM parameters and/or RM parameters. Example UI components including a query refinement block are described further below.
Specification of sections 208 defines one or more sections and/or one or more connecting sections. Each section may define a respective search engine 120A-N. A connecting section may define an associated condition and an operation. The associated condition determines when results obtained from search engines, referenced in the multiple sections, are to be combined. The operation identifies how results are to be combined and can include, but is not limited to, identifying whether to concatenate, to alternate, or to blend the results. In this way, specification of sections 208 provides a developer with a powerful, flexible way to obtain search results from multiple search engines and to control how such results are combined.
Specification of sections 208 may be structured as a tree, each node being a section. The tree has a root node. The root node may have child nodes. Referring to an example in
In an embodiment, a developer may author specification of sections 208 such that search executor 110 queries multiple underlying search engines. For example, one search engine may be a general web search engine and another search engine may be an academic search engine that particularly searches academic papers and conference proceedings. A searcher sends query 112 to search executor 110. Search executor 110 then searches both the general search engine and the academic search engine for relevant results. The results are combined, and the searcher receives results from both search engines from a single query. This example is illustrative and is not intended to limit the present invention.
Each of the components, including query modification description 202, results modification description 204, UI component description 206, specification of sections 208 and every section, of specification 105 may be named and re-used.
The operation of the example search executor 110 with at least one underlying search engine 120 will now be described further with respect to
Specification 305 includes a query modification description and a results modification description. In particular, specification 305 recites search engine keywords (“Macintosh” and “Apple”) intended to tune search engine behavior. Specification 305 also recites sites to search (e.g., a URL “www.mac.com”) and how the sites are to be searched (“these sites favored”). An example query 312 consists of the search terms “ipod headphones.”
In operation, specification analyzer 210 analyzes search specification 305 and outputs query modification data 310 to query modifier 220. In this example, based on the analysis of search specification 305, specification analyzer 210 may output query modification data 310 made up of QM parameters to add terms “Macintosh” and “Apple.” Query modifier 220 receives search query 312 and generates a modified query 114 based on the query modification data 310. In this example, the modified query 114 may include the terms “ipod,” “headphones,” “Macintosh,” and Apple.” Modified query 114 is sent to search engine 120. Search engine 120 then returns ordered results 116 that satisfy modified query 114.
Specification analyzer 210 further generates label definitions 320 based on at least one of the query modification description or the results modification description in specification 305 and outputs the label definitions 320 for storage in label store 230. Label applier 240 applies labels to the ordered results 116 received from search engine 120 based on the stored label definitions 320. In this example, label definitions 320 may be a label for www.mac.com. Label applier 240 will then apply label associated with “www.mac.com” for those results within ordered results 116 that are associated with the site “www.mac.com.” In one example, URL patterns may be used to facilitate fast labeling. In this case, a label will be applied for those results within ordered results 116 that are associated with the same URL pattern as the site www.mac.com. Labeled results 340 are then sent to results changer 250. The invention is not limited to using URL patterns and other types of pattern languages for document grouping can be used.
Specification analyzer 210 further generates results modification data 330 based on at least one of the query modification description or the results modification description in specification 305 and outputs results modification data 330 to results changer 250. Result changer 250 generates the modified results 118 based on the results modification data 330 received from specification analyzer 210 and outputs modified results 118 to the user to fulfill search query 305. In this example, specification analyzer 210 may generate results modification data 330 made up of a RM command to promote those labeled results 340 having the label associated with www.mac.com. These labeled results may then be moved up in ordering (for instance given a greater weight) within the ordered results to obtain the final modified results 118 sent to a user. The above example is illustrative and not intended to limited the present invention.
Specification of sections 307 is a component of specification 305. Specification of sections 307 defines various sections. The sections could include a results section, user-interface component section, or connecting section (not shown in
A connecting section has one or more child sections. Also, a section may contain a condition. Either the connecting section or the child sections may include a condition. If the connecting section is a conditional connecting section, the connecting section may use the condition associated with a child section to decide when to execute the child section. An example is discussed further with respect to
Referring again to
Ordered results 116A through 116N get returned to label applier 240A through 240N. Each label applier 240A through 240N assigns labels to objects or URLs included in ordered results 116A through 116N, resulting in labeled results 340A through 340N. Each result changer 250A through 250N receives a corresponding labeled result 340A through 340N. Each result changer 250A through 250N modifies a labeled result 340A through 340N based on result modification data 330 as defined in specification 305. Each label applier 240A through 240N and result changer 250A through 250N may add labels and may modify results differently according to specification 305. Combiner 314 combines modified results 118A through 118N according to specification of sections 305. Combiner 314 outputs combined results 122 to fulfill query 312.
Combiner 314 uses connecting sections in specification of sections 307 to combine the results and labels. Connecting sections may have any number of child sections. Based on an operation specified in the connecting section, combiner 314 may concatenate the results from all of the child sections in order, alternate results from each child section, or intersperse or blend results from all child sections using a pre-defined algorithm. These examples are illustrative and do not limit the invention.
As mentioned above, search specification 305 is flexible, and search executor 110 may respond in a number of ways to modify queries and modify ordered results. In addition to the adding of terms described above, query modifier 220 may also restrict or remove one or more search terms in original query 312 to generate the modified query 114. In a further example, query modifier 220 can also promote or demote one or more search terms in the original query 312 to generate the modified query 114. Similarly, in addition to the promoting described above, result changer 250 can restrict, remove, or demote certain labeled results. Other operations and combinations of operations may be performed as would be apparent to a person skilled in the art given this description.
Search specification 305 is also flexible in that specification of sections 307 may combine component sections in a variety of ways using connecting sections. For example, a connecting section includes an operation to concatenate the results from all of the child sections in order, to alternate results from each child section in order, or to intersperse or blend results from all child sections using a pre-defined algorithm. The connecting section may also have an associated condition. The associated condition indicates when to combine the results from different sections. In one example, the condition may indicate to combine the results with those of another section only if the number of results from one section exceeds a certain threshold. In another example, the condition may indicate to combine the results only if the query contains a particular string providing even more flexibility and control to a developer over which results are combined and how they are combined. Each connecting section may also have one or more child sections. These examples are illustrative and do not limit the invention.
Also, in certain cases, search executor 110 may be configured based on likely or actual capabilities of a particular underlying search engine 120. The capabilities of the underlying search engine 120 can then be taken into account when generating modified queries 114 and/or generating modified results 118 (including the defining of labels and changing of the ordered results). One or more of the search executor 110 components including the specification analyzer 210, query modifier 220, label applier 240 and results changer 250, may then may be configured to accommodate capabilities of a particular underlying search engine 120.
For instance, if a search engine 120 supports weighting of search terms, specification analyzer 210 and/or query modifier 220 may then assign weights to terms in the modified query 114 to support promotion or demotion of these terms.
Also, if a search engine 120 returns ordered results with metadata specifying a language type (such as English), then specification analyzer 210 may add an “English” label definition and results changer 250 may restrict label results to pass only English labeled results.
See also, further examples of query modification, results modification, and UI components specified in a search specification set forth below.
Example Specification of Sections
In an example operation with specification of sections 307, a query “academic papers” may come in. In generating the results page, search executor 110 looks to conditioning connecting section 408. Because section 408 is a conditioning conditional connecting section, section 408 evaluates the condition of any child sections to determine whether to execute that child section. Section 408 has a child section 430 containing a condition.
Section 430's condition is to execute only when the query contains the word academic. Here, the query does contain the word “academic”, so the section 430 is executed. To execute section 430, search executor 110 sends the modified query 114A to the underlying search engine defined by “scholar.” This will return ordered results 116A.
As section 420 does not have a condition, it is also executed. To execute section 420, search executor 110 sends the modified query 114N to the underlying search engine defined by “scholar.” This will return ordered results 116N.
Combiner 314 combines ordered results 116A and ordered results 116B. This may be done by concatenating the results, blending the results, alternating the results, or other ways of combining results as defined by section 408.
Section 410 is a section defining a user interface component. As an example, the user interfaces component may be a set of links.
Finally, connection section 412 includes an operation to concatenate the results of section 408 and section 410. Again, this is merely exemplary. In practice, each connecting section may have one or more children to concatenate. Together, they form modified results 118 outputted by the search executor.
For example, a developer may author specification of sections 307. Specification of sections 307 specifies that search executor 110 queries multiple underlying search engines: a search engine defined by “web” and a search engine defined by “scholar”. The search engine defined by “web” may be, for example, a general web search engine. The search engine defined by “scholar” may be, for example, an academic search engine that particularly searches academic papers and conference proceedings. In this example, a searcher sends query 112 to search executor 110. Search executor 110 then searches both the “web” search engine, and the “scholar” search engine for relevant results. The results are combined, and the searcher receives results from both search engines from a single query. This example is illustrative and is not intended to limit the present invention.
Method of Customizing Search Engine Behavior
Control then proceeds to step 550 as shown in
As shown in
Method 500 can further include enabling a developer to define or edit the query modification and the results modification descriptions in the search specification to customize the behavior of the search engine which is apparent to a user. Such enabling may allow a developer to define or to edit the query modification and the results modification descriptions independent of one another.
Method of Customizing Search Engine Behavior with Multiple Underlying Search Engines
Method 600 differs from method 500 in that it starts with receiving a search specification having a query modification description, a results modification description, and a specification of sections at step 610. At step 620, search executor 110 receives a search query.
Once the modified results have been determined for all the sections, the method combines the sections based on the connecting sections (step 660) and outputs the combined results to fulfill the search query (step 570). The connecting sections may include a condition (and operation) for controlling results combined from multiple search engines identified by multiple sections. The combining in step 660 can include executing (or interrupting) a specification of sections like specification of sections 307 described above. Each modified query may be identical to each other, or a modified query may be different from other modified queries.
In another embodiment a section may be processed by the method only if a condition is met.
After iterating through the sections, control proceeds to step 660. As shown in
Iterating through the loop inside method 600 allows search executor 110 to query multiple search engines for a single query from a searcher. The multiple search engines each return results. The results are combined, and the searcher recieves results from both search engines from a single query. This saves the searcher time, provides more comprehensive search results and makes looking for information easier.
In a further feature, combining sections based on the connecting sections in step 660 provides even further flexibility and control over the combination of results. A connecting section may allow a developer to define sections, conditions for when sections are to be combined, (that is, when results from search engines identified in the sections are to be combined), and an operation controlling how the results are combined (e.g., concatenate, alternate, blend, or other combining).
Example Web-Based CSE Creator and Host
Network 705 may be any network or combination of networks that can carry data communication. Such network 705 can include, but is not limited to, a local area network, medium area network, and/or wide area network, such as the Internet. Network 705 can support protocols and technology including, but not limited to, World Wide Web protocols and/or services. Intermediate web servers, gateways, or other servers may be provided between components of system 700 depending upon a particular application or environment.
Clients devices 702, 704 and at least one underlying search engine 120 can also be coupled over network 705. Clients devices 702, 704 can be any type of client device including, but not limited to, a computer, workstation, mobile computing device (such as, a PDA, music player, or phone), embedded system, game console, television, set-top box, or other computing device. Custom search engine creator 706 and a custom search engine host 710 can each be servers running on any type of processing device. One or more web servers (not shown) can also be included to support web protocols and communication.
Custom search engine creator 706 can support creation of different custom search engines over the Web for developers at one or more client devices 702. For example, custom search engine creator 706 can allow a developer to create a custom search engine by specifying a name. Custom search engine creator 706 can then serve one or more forms or other queries to a developer to allow the developer to define a search specification 105. For example, a content document, such as, an HTML form may be served to a developer for display on a browser at client device 702. The HTML form may include fields to enter any one or more of basic information (search engine name and search engine description), keywords (e.g., terms used to describe the content or subject of the customized search engine), a desired search engine language type, sites to search (a list of one or more sites to search), and how to search (search only these sites, favor or demote these sites, or restrict or remove these sites). User-interface components can also be specified in search specification 105. Once the user enters necessary data into client device 702, the data may be sent to custom search engine creator as, for example, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) parameters in an HTTP request. Custom search engine (CSE) creator 706 may store the data as a CSE definition 712. CSE definition 712 may include a search specification.
Custom search engine host 710 hosts one or more search executors 110. A search specification 105 having query modification description 202, results modification description 204, UI component description 206, and/or specification of sections 208 can be created based on the input from a developer at client device 702 and sent or accessed by a search executor 110. Search executor 110 then operates as described above to customize the behavior of underlying search engine 120 that is apparent to a user performing a search query at client device 704.
Further Example Query, Results and UI Modifications
This is a further discussion of example modifications that can be specified in a search specification 105 in XML to modify the results from an underlying search engine or document corpus. This example is illustrative and not intended to limit the present invention. Each section in the specification of sections may be named and reused.
A simple sort of query modification says to always add terms to the original query. There may be several different ways to specify this, such as
<RestrictTo><Query>term1 OR term2</Query></RestrictTo>
<Promote weight=“0.5”><Query>term1 term2</Query></Promote>
The expressiveness of a query can be limited by the expressiveness of the queries of the underlying search engine. However, one can imagine that at least the following operations would generally to be supported in a search engine 120:
Returning only objects that match the given terms,
Promoting objects that better match the given term,
Demoting objects that better match the given term, and
Removing any object which matches the given terms.
A more complicated form of query modification is rewriting a term in the user query. This includes adding additional terms at the location of the original, such as synonyms
<Synonym><OriginalTerm>AAAI</OriginalTerm><NewTerm>American Association of Artificial Intelligence</NewTerm></Synonym>
Similar to the query modification, a user can specify how a given set of objects should be changed in the original results set. Consider the example of naming ordered results by URL patterns. Search executor 110 can then support the following operations:
Returning only objects with URLs in the set,
Promote objects with URLs in the set,
Demote objects with URLs in the set, and
Remove objects with URLs in the set.
Using Conjunctive Normal Form
Search specification 105 can include a number of Query Modifications and Results Modification instructions. Search executor 110 can accept a conjunctive normal form for specifications. Search executor 110 can accept a series of modification instructions and apply an AND of them; that is, apply all of those instructions. Using conjunctive normal form is merely an example. In practice, a disjunctive form or other forms may be used. Each instruction implicitly contains an OR in indicating the modifications to make.
For example, in a Query Modification
says to restrict to only those documents when contain the word “fish” or the word “bass.”
says to promote a page if it is from google.com or from yahoo.com.
On the other hand,
Says to only return documents that contain the word fish and remove any result with a URL from google.com.
Further, search executor 110 can allow a group of URL patterns to be named as a “label”. The association of a label with a URL pattern is known as an annotation.
This defines the label “good_universities” to be an or of the patterns specified. Labels can then be used anywhere where url patterns are allowed.
User Interface Components
A user can also be able to specify new user interface components. Some components may need to specify to issue a modified query, adding or removing terms and other query parameters. Here is one example of such an interface component, a faceted query refinement block.
<Facet title=“Information type”>
may be rendered something like
where each of “News”, “Reviews”, “Good”, “Bad” are hyperlinks to new searches.
Another possible user interface component would be to display the contents of a given location (such as a picture or a web page) inline.
Specification of Sections
A user may also be able to specify sections.
As an example, a concatenating connecting section is at the root of the tree. The concatenating section is represented by the tag at 802. The concatenating section has two children: a conditioning section and a refinements section. This example is illustrative. In practice, there may be one or more children of a connecting section such as a concatenating section. The refinements section is a user interface component section and is represented by the tag at 816. The refinements section contains a facet.
The conditioning section is represented by the tag “FirstNApplicableSection” at 804. The conditioning section has two child sections: a first results sections and a second results section. The first results section is represented by the tag at 806. The first results section maps to an underlying search engine defined as “web”. This is shown by the attribute “source=‘webm’”. The first results sections contains a query modification description and a results modification description. The query modification description is represented by the tag “RestrictTo” at 808. The results description modification is represented by the tag “Promote” at 810.
The second results section is represented by the tag at 812. The second results section maps to an underlying search engine defined as “scholar”, as shown by the attribute “source=‘scholar’”. The second results section contains a condition at 814. The condition executes the query only if the query contains the words “academic” or “professor”, and not “school”.
Exemplary embodiments of the present invention have been presented. The invention is not limited to these examples. These examples are presented herein for purposes of illustration and not limitation. Alternatives (including equivalents, extensions, variations, deviations, etc., of those described herein) will be apparent to persons skilled in the relevant art(s) based on the teachings contained herein. Such alternatives fall within the scope and spirit of the invention.
Further, the purpose of the Abstract is to enable the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and the public generally, and especially the scientists, engineers and practitioners in the art who are not familiar with patent or legal terms or phraseology, to determine quickly from a cursory inspection the nature and essence of the technical disclosure of the application. The Abstract is not intended to be limiting as to the scope of the present invention in any way.
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|Jan 15, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: GOOGLE INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:RILEY, PATRICK;GUHA, RAMANATHN;ANDERSON, CORIN;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20080108 TO 20080115;REEL/FRAME:020368/0066
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