US 780425 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
No. 780,425. PTBNTED JAN.1'7,19o5-. G. M. HINKLEY.
BAND SAW MILL.
APPLICATION FILED MAY 2. 1901.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
v PATENTBD JAN. 17, 1905. G. M. HINKLEY.
BAN-D vSAW MILL.A
APPLIATION FILED MAY 2, lOl.
4 SHEETS-SHEET 3.
PATENTE JAN. 17 G. M.- Hmmm.
BAND SAW MILL, APPLICATION FILED MAY 2, -1901.
4 SHEETS-SEBIET 4.
No. 780,425. p V Patented January 17, 1905.' l
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
GEORGE M. HINKLEY, OF MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN, ASSIGNOR, BY MESNE ASSIGNMENTS, OF ONE-HALF TO ALLIS-OHALMERS COMPANY, A COR- PORATION OF NEW JERSEY.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 780,425, dated January 1'7, 1905.
Application ned May 2, 1901. senni No. 58,514.
T (2l/ZZ whom, t nfl/ay concern: through the same being unimportant, if 0C- Be it known that I, GEORGE M. HINKLEY, a curring, and less likely to occur because that 50 citizen of the United States, residing at Milportion Aof the blade is closely approaching waukee, in the county of Milwaukee and State the lower or driving wheel. M y invention 5 of Wisconsin, have invented certain new and will therefore be seen to pertain rather to the useful Improvements in Band-Saw Mills, of latter than to the former construction, though which the following is a specification. differing from the latter in employing fixed 5 5r My invention pertains to band-saw mills, bearings for the lower-wheel shaft and mainand has for its primary object the vertical adtaining a short blade-section below the log or IO justment of the upper band-carrying wheel cant or between it and the driving-wheel.
through a range or distance sufiicientto bring Various novel features of construction init near to though clear of the log or cant cidental to the general plan thus outlined will 6o whatever the size of the latter may be and `be explained in the ensuing description with lwithou-t changing the elevation or adjustthe aid of the accompanying drawings.
I5 ment of the lower vor driving wheelso that In said drawings,Figurel isaside elevation,
the cutting stretch or length of the saw may with portions broken away, of a band-saw mill be kept as short and as taut as practicable embodying my invention inapreferred form. 65 and the employment of saw-guides may be Fig. 2 is a front elevation of the same with Y rendered unnecessary. This result I attain the saw-blade partially broken away; Fig. 3,
2O by providing a third band-wheel, essentially a rear elevation of the upper portion of the likethe usual upper wheel preferably, and so mill; Fig. t, a side elevation of the swingarranging said third wheel that it shall nlainframe, showing also a trussed controlling- 7o tain constantly a proper and` approximately lever therefor; Fig. 5, a top plan view of the uniform tension'upon the saw blade or band. cross girth or brace for the main frame; Fig.
A mere idler bearing against the upgoing side 6, a detail view of one of the adjustable boxes of the saw blade or band is not broadly new; or bearings for the swing-frame; Fig. 7, an but to fulfil the requirements of a mill of this enlarged view of the adjusting mechanism 7'5 character various conditions must be eonsidfor the boxes of the upper band-wheel shaft; ered and special provisions must be made, as Fig. 8. a view illustrating a modified form of will be explained hereinafter. tension mechanism.l
In the more common types of band -mills The framework of the' mill is susceptible of two wheels are employed, the lower carried considerable variation, but must be such that 8o by a shaft turning in fixed bearingsand the the upper band-wheel may be dropped as low upper one by a shaft turning in bearings or carried as high as required by logs orcants having a limited vertical adjustment and of any size which the mill is designed to cut. pressed upward by suitable weight-and-lever It is essential, too, that the frame be so braced mechanism to maintain due tension upon the or of such proportions and design as to give 85 band. Such constructions necessitate the emdue rigidity and prevent injurious vibration ployment of guides above the log or cant to of any of its parts, and care is especially re- 40 prevent vibration or whippingof the blade quired to prevent the third wheel from twistand consequent irregularity of cut. To obingorgettingout of proper plane, and thereby viate the necessity for such guides and attain vcausing' the saw blade or band to take a wrong 9o other desirable ends, a construction has been path or to enter into Contact with the upper devised and patented wherein the band-carrywheel out of proper line or too far forward or ing mechanism, including both the upper and backward thereon. The importance of this lower wheels, is bodily elevated and lowered will be appreciated when it is borne in mind to bring the upper wheel close to the log or that the blade travels at a speed of approxicant, the vibration of the saw after passing mately two miles per minute and ,that it is held to its proper working position solely by the adjustment of the wheels and direction of the blade thereto and therefrom, a slight inclination of the band-wheel shafts in 'a vertical plane causing the blade to run to the front or the rear of the wheel-rim and a like horizontal adjustment of the shafts also effecting a variation of position of the blade on the wheels.
Referring now to the drawings, I shall explain a preferred embodiment of my invention and shall thereafter describe some of the many variations that may be made in carrying the same into practice.
A indicates a substantial base or .bed suitably fashioned to rest upon timbers B or other support at or about the floor-level of. the millbuilding, said base being preferably carried forward and adapted to receive the slabs and boards or planks eut from the log or cant. A saw-guide C is advisably located at the forward edge of said base, as shown in Fig. l, its upper end being'just below the top line of the log-carriage D, which travels on tracks past the saw, as usual; but the guide is not essential.
Beneath the bed 0r base A are yokes or hangers E, in which are adjustably mounted boxes or bearings F, designed to carry the main driving-shaft Gr, with its belt wheel or pulley H and lower or driving band-wheel I, as usual.
Rising from the base or bed A is an upper frame comprising two side plates or castings J, connected near their upper ends by a strut or cross brace K, preferably of the form shown in Fig. 5. This brace, being the main cross tie or connection for the top of the frame, should be of such design and dimensions as to insure great strength and rigidity. Hence it has inwardly-extending arms which, passing' on opposite sides of the upper band-wheel, are bolted to the side plates or frames well inward, as indicated by dotted lines in Fig. land by full lines in Fig. 5. Each side plate or casting J is formed with an overhanging top and with a socketed boss ai', between which extends a vertical standard or column L. These standards or columns are preferably seated at their lower ends in the soeketed bosses d and are bolted or otherwise made fast to the overhanging tops of the side plates or` frames J, as shown, though they may be otherwise held, if desired. Their purpose is to guide and sustain vertically-movable slides M, which carry the boxes or bearings for the shaft O of the upper saw-carrying wheel P.
The slides M are of considerable length to give a long bearing and guiding support and to prevent cramping or binding, and at the lower end of each below the wheel P there is formed a box or bearing. Extending across the space from slide to slide and journaled in these two bearings is a shaft Q, carrying pinions a, which are fast upon the shaft and mesh with racks I) on the forward faces or edges of the side plates or castings J of the upper frame of the mill, as seen in Figs. l, 9., and 7. Keyed or otherwise made fast upon the shaft Q is a worm gear-wheel R, advisabl y contained within a shell or casing S, cast with or secured to one of the slides M. As best shown in Fig. 7, a worm or screw T is carried within the same casing S, which is formed with an offset or space therefor, its upper and lower ends bearing against plane surfaces formed for that purpose within the offset.
U indicates a vertical shaft which passes through and is guided in openings in the top and bottom of the offset of the shell, passing also axially through the worm or screw 'l`. The shaft is grooved or splined, and the worm is splined or grooved, or the shaft and the opening in the worm are made polygonal, so that thetwo parts shall be caused to rotate in unison, while the worm is free to slide vertically upon and relatively to said shaft. The lower end of the shaft U is stepped or swiveled in a suitable bearing at its lower end and is connected, by bevel-gearing c al, Fig. 7, with a horizontal shaft V, which is here represented as extending to a motor W of any suitable character, by which it may be turned as required, though of course it may be manually rotated, if preferred, in which case a winch or hand-wheel will be provided, as is common in this class of machinery. The worm ',l` is held in mesh with worm-wheel R by the shaft U, and when the latter is turned vertical motion is imparted, through the worm-gear, the shaft Q, and pinions ay a, meshing with racks to the slides M, and in this way the upper band-wheel shaft and its wheel are elevated er lowered, as required.
To provide for properly leveling` or tipping the shaft O, its boxes N are carried in yokes X, having vertical shanks or stems guided in boxes formed upon the slides M, said shanks or stems being tapped to receive heavy adjusting-screws X, the lower ends of which rest upon brackets e, also formed upon the slides M, as seen in Figs. l, Q, and 8. The boxes N, which carry shaft O, are free to tip in their yokes and are adapted to be adjusted horizontally toward and from the upright frame-plates J in a manner well understood.
The range of movement provided for the slides M is such as will permit wheel l to bc carried upward clear of the largest log or cant that the mill is designed lo handle and to fall as low as may be desirable in sawing the smallest log, cant, or timber.
It is always desirable to provide tension devices for maintaining' a uniform strain upon the saw and to prevent overstraining thereof when placing and adjusting the saw upon the wheels. lt will readily be seen that with screws and other powerful adjusting devices there would be danger of applying undue strain to the saw if there were no automat- IOO I ically-yielding device adapted to limit the possible tension, and though other theories have often been assigned this is the real purpose and office of such automatic tension deblade, which would otherwise become slack when the wheel P is lowered. A mechanism of this sort in order to be eflicient and to avoid injury to the blade should embody'a large guiding and supporting wheel for the blade, and this should be so mounted, held, and guided as to preclude any twisting or deection, as slight deviation from a proper plane of travel would cause the saw-blade to contact with wheel P too near the front or the rearface thereof or at an angle, and consequently to take an improper position thereon.. This matter of properly directing the blade to the upper wheel is of especial importance in mills of this type, in which an upper sawguide is usually dispensed with, such being,
in fact, one of the leading objects of the. vertical movement of the wheel other than mere adjustment for tension.y In view of the requirements noted and in orderto meet these and at the same time maintain a substantially uniform tension upon the blade IA provide the special tension and ytake-up mechanism illustrated in Figs. 1, 3, 4, and 6 and in a modiied form in Fig. 8. Describing rst the form` illustrated in Figs. 1, 3, 4, and 6, Y indicates a swinging frame or yoke the upper end of which is hung upon a heavy tubular axle or pivot-shaft Z, the ends of which latter pass through openings f in the side frames or castings J of theupper frame of the mill. The openings f are madesomewhat larger in diameter than the axle Z, and each is surrounded by a collar g, projecting from the face of the side frame or casting J in which it is formed. Passing `radially through the collars g are adjusting-screws la., four being represented in Figs. 1 and 6 for each collar. By means of these screws the ends of the axle or shaft Z can be perfectly adjusted to cause the yoke or frame Y, carried by it, to swing in the precise path or plane required. Each leg of the yoke Y is formed with a split tubular barrel Yand provided with draw-bolts z', by which to contract it, if required. Within each barrel Y there is arranged the cylindrical shank or stem j of a yoke c, in which is pivotally supported a box or bearing Z, the two boxes serving to carry which lug or cross-bar passes a heavy screw or bolt m, fashioned to receive a rod or leve-r and provided just below the cross-bar with clamping-nut n and binding-nut 0, as best to move said stems inwardly or outwardly, as
required, and alsoto hold them where `adjusted. The bolts z'` may contribute to the latter result, if found desirable; but their primary purpose is'to prevent undue looseness or play. From the foregoing description it will be apparent that through the screws /t adjusting the axle of swing-frameY and through the adjusting-screws m vshaft A and wheel B may be 'set or adjusted so that the latter shall run in the precise plane required. While these adjustments are deemed adequate, it is obvious'that any common or well-known form of adjustable bearing-blocks may be used in to each other to a point below the boxes Z, where they are connected by a cross-bar s, being thence carried inward or made to converge toward a medial line, theirlower or outer extremities being united by a second and shorter cross-bar t, all as seen in Fig. 4 and on va smaller scale in Fig. 1. This construction, which is adopted because of its combining strength and lightness, is not essential, but is advisable. The purpose of lever C is to afford a connection for a iiexible'band, rope, or chain D', which after passing about a suitable guiding and supporting pulley or pu-lleys carries at its end a weight E to exert a constant strain or draft on lever C and therethrough upon yoke Y and its shaft A and the saw blade or band with varying advantage as to direction. Hence it is desirable to vary the leverage of the swing-frame automatically and in harmony, so that the eectiveness of the wheel B in producing tension shall be substantially uniform or constant. This result I attain by properly arranging the pivot or axle of the swing-frame Y, determining its extreme range of movement and properly locating the pulley u, to which the band D passes from lever C' of the `swingframe.
By referring to Fig. 1 and carefully noting the positions of the parts indicated by full and by dotted lines, which may be taken to `represent very nearly the extreme adjustments, it will be seen that when wheel P is near its uppermost position the deiiection of saw blade or band F' in passing from wheel I to'wheel P ISO is relatively slight and that wheel B moves against the blade or band in a direction at approximately a right angle to a straight line drawn tangent to the said wheels. Of course this offers the greatest possible advantage for the wheel B in applying tension to the blade; but at such time the yoke or swing-frame makes its nearest approach to a vertical position, andthe distance from the pivot or axle Z of the swing-frame Y to the band D' measured to the nearest point is proportionally less than when the lever C and yoke Y are swung upward to a more nearly horizontal position. In other words, as the deflection of the saw between wheels I and P decreases the effective leverage of yoke or swing frame Y decreases, and as the deiiection increases and tends to reduce the effectiveness of action of wheel B in applying strain or tension, as it must do because of the direction taken by the upper stretch of the saw-blade, as indicated by dotted lines in Fig. l, the effective leverage of the swing-frame or yoke increases. This will be plain upon referring to Fig. l, where the dotted line drawn from axle or pivot Z of the swing-frame Y to the dotted line indicating band D is seen to be about forty per cent1 longer than the sameline measured to the full lines representing'said band D. While this arrangement does not give absolute uniformity, it nevertheless so closely approaches thereto that the variance is negligible. The device is automatic in its action, and by providing any simple means of lifting the weight E band-wheel B may be readily dropped to permit the removal or replacement of a blade, which operation is usually performed several times during the ordinary working day. While I prefer the swing-frame or yoke thus described, I do not mean to restrict myself closely thereto, as a sliding wheel-carrier may be employed instead, such, for instance, as is shown in Fig. 8. Under the constructionhere shown the side frames J are formed with rearwardly or outwardly extending parallel arms J, each of which is provided with a guide-rod w. Upon each rod w is supported and guided a slide G, provided with barrels Y2. carrying yokes y' c, in which are pivoted boxes or bearings Z to support the shaft A of wheel B, all substantially as described in connection with Figs. 1, 3, 4:, and 6, except for the fact that the slides G are arranged to move longitudinally upon the rods w instead of being carried by a swinging yoke or frame. The slides G may and preferably will be connected by a cross-bar to insure simultaneous and equal movement, though the band,
rope, or chain D will be divided at a point between Ithe slides and the pulley u into two branches, extending separately to the two slides. The construction and arrangement of the slides G is practically identical with that of the slides M, supporting the shaft O of wheel I, as illustrated in Figs. l and 8, the
similarity extending to the :uljusting-screws X. By giving to the arms J" a proper angle the wheel B is caused to move in a direction approximately at right angles to a line drawn tangent to the wheels I and P on that side of the mill on which the saw blade or band passes upwardly. and hence it acts with nearly uniform effect whether the upper wheel be raised or lowered. The inclination of thearms J is sufficient to cause the slides G to run downward or inward by gravity when the weight E is raised, and consequently the saw may be readily applied to and removed from the wheels, being first passed between the arms J; butin order to do this yone branch of the band or rope D must be unhooked or otherwise disconnected to enable the saw to pass out of and return into the space between the two branches. For various reasons the swingframe construction is preferred, the mill being more symmetrical and involving less diiiiculty in placing' or removing the saw blade or band.
It will be observed that although the main saw-carrying wheels I and I) are of dillerent diameters the saw on the down-going or cutting side passes vertically from one to the other. In other words, their peripheries are in the same vertical plane on the log side ol the mill. It is obvious, however, that, if desired, the upper and lower wheels may be made of like diameters. By slightly reducing the diameter of the upper wheel, however, I am enabled to make the wheels I) and B ol the same or substantially the same diameter, and while this is not essential it is desirable that the wheel B be made approximately as large as the wheel I) in order that the saw blade or band may pass about it without undue bending and may be subject to the same degree and character of resistance or drag, il any there'be, upon each wheel.
I am aware that it is not broadly new to carry the blade ol a band-saw mill aboutthree wheels, one of which is adjustable to provide or maintain tension upon the blade; but so far as I am aware no one has before constructed a mill of this type with an upper wheel adapted to rise and fall through a range suilicient to bring it close to the smallest log or cant and to carry it clear of the largest log or cant and combined therewith means for taking up the slack of the saw and maintaining adequate tension under all adjustments.
By my construction I am enabled to dispense entirely with the upper saw-guide and to give to the saw proper guidance, tension, and support under all adjustments of the mill. Se far as I am aware this result has not hitherto been accomplished in a mill having the lower or main driving-wheel carried in normally iixed boxes or bearings.
It is particularly to be noted that under my construction the upper wheel has a right-line movement and cannot twist or get out of proper plane, and it will also be seen that the bearings for all the wheels are so supported that any chattering, shifting, or .movement thereof, except. movement incident to making of the adjustments bymeans provided for that purpose, will be avoided. It is essential in machinery of thissort that the construction' be as rigid as possible, owing to the tremendous strains to which the parts are subjected, to the rapidity of movement of the saw blade or band,` and to the disarrangement of parts which would occur upon the breakage or running off of the saw or blade if the parts were not firmly held in position and prevented from vshifting or jumping from place. Having thus described my invention, I
1 In a band-saw mill, the combination of a main frame; a main driving-shaft carried in normally fixed bearings in said frame,.and provided with a saw-carryingwheel; a second shaft carried in-vertically-movable supports on said frame, and provided with a saw-carrying wheel; means for adjusting and holding said supports; a swing-frame pivoted or hung in the main frame; an adjustable pivot shaft or axle for said swing-frame; a saw-supporting wheel carried by said swing-frame; and means for urging saidwheel outward against the up-going side of the saw-blade, substantially as described.
2. In a band-saw mill, the combination of a main frame; a main saw carrying and driving wheel having its shaft mounted in normally 'fixed boxes or bearings; a second saw-carrying wheel vertically adjustable with reference to the cutting-point; a swing-frame hung or pivotally supported in the main frame, vand provided with a third saw-supporting wheel;
and means substantially such as described forv bringing said thirdl wheel into proper plane relatively to the saw-carrying wheels and the saw.
3. In combination with the main frame of a vband-saw mill and with upper and lower sawcarrying wheels; a swing-frame mounted in .the main frame and provided with separated journal boxes or bearings; an adjustable pivot or axle for said swing-frame; means for ad-v justing the journal boxes or bearings carried by said frame; a shaft journaled in said boxes or bearings; a saw-carrying wheel carried by said shaft; and means for urging or pressing said wheel against the saw-blade.
4:. In combination with the main frame and upper and lower saw-carrying wheels of a said boxes or bearings and serving to move pivoted in the main frame and provided with a third saw-supporting wheel; a pulley located above said swinging frame; and aiiexible band passing about said pulley connected at one end with the swinging frame and provided on the other side of said pulley with a weight or straining device, the location of the pulley being such with reference to the pivot-axis of the swingingframe and to the upper and lower saw-carrying wheels that as the effective pressure of the wheel against the saw-blade decreases,` the elfective leverage of the swinging carrying wheel movable independently of the second; and means substantially such as described and shown whereby said third wheel is caused toexert a practically uniform strain or tension upon the saw-blade.
7 In\ combination with the base and side plates or frames of a band-saw mill, a strut or truss connecting said frames and having inwardly-extending bracing-arms, substantially as described and shown.
8. In combination with b'ase A and side plates or frames J, connecting brace or strut K having necks extending through and secured in openings in the side frame and pro. vided with inwardly-extending bracing-arms,
substantially as shown.
9.' In combination with the base A, side platesJ and brace K, and with upper and lower saw-carrying wheels; swinging frame Y hung in said main frame and provided with a sawcarrying wheel substantially'as shown and described.
l0. In combination with the main frame of a' band-saw mill, andl with upper and lower ,band-carrying'wheels;' a swinging frame hung band-saw mill; va pendulous frame hung or TOO ITO
connected with the outer end ofsaid lever C',
and serving to move the swinging frame upwardly and outwardly.
11. In a band-saw mill, the combination with the main frame, driving shaft and wheel;
.of vertically-movable slides M provided with vertical sleeves or boxes and with brackets 6,- vertically-adjustable yokes X mounted in said sleeves or boxes;` adjusting-screws X for said yokes; journal boxes or bearings carried by the yolies; a shaft mounted in said boxes or bearings; and a saw-carrying wheel mounted upon said shaft, substantially as shown.
l2. In Combination with the main frame and carrying-Wheels and shaft of a band-saw mill; slides M movable vertically upon guides or Ways of the main frame; a cross-shaft Q carried in bearings in said slides and provided With pinions a and With worm-Wheel R; a bracket, shell or easing S carried by one of said slides; a worm or screw T meshing with the worm-wheel Rand carried in said bracket vshell or easing; and a shaft U passing freely through the Worm or screw 'l but incapable of rotation independently thereof, whereby 1 5 the slides M and the shaft and wheel carried by them may be raised or lowered and held at any desired elevation.
In testimony Whereotl l have signed my naine to this specification in the presence of two sub- 2O seribing` witnesses.
GEORGE M. HlNKLEY.
Titnessesz FRANK W. GRnnNLnAF, B. A. BRENNAN.