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Publication numberUS782312 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 14, 1905
Filing dateJun 21, 1902
Priority dateJun 21, 1902
Publication numberUS 782312 A, US 782312A, US-A-782312, US782312 A, US782312A
InventorsAlfred Zehden
Original AssigneeAlfred Zehden
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electric traction apparatus.
US 782312 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

N0. 782,312. PATENTED P513114, 1905.


APPLICATION rILm) mm 21, 1902.

4 snnn'rs-snnn'r 1.



PATENTBD FEB. 14, 1905.




4 SHEETS-SHEET 2 m m u n u U mvigy A TIORNEYS.

PATENTED FEB. 14, 1905.





PATENTED FEB. 14, 1905.





INYENTOR f WW 5/ ATTORNEYS UNITED AT Patented February 14, 1905.


SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 782.312, dated Februery 14, 1905.

Application filed June 21, L902. Serial No. 112,716.

Be it known that l, Auuso Z1-2Ill)l-Z\',lhgl ncer, n suhjcct of the Emperor of Germany, and a resident of Clnirlottcnlmrg, in the lrow inec of Brandenburg. Hernuurv, have in rented certain new and useful improvements in Eluctric'l'raction Apparatus: and I do hereby dcclsrc the following to he a full clear, and exact description of the invention, such as will enable oi hers skilled in' the art to which it uppcrtains to make; and use the same, reference new had to the accompanying drawings; and toll-tiers of reference marked thereon, which form a pa r1. of this specification.

'My invention relates to the fact that instead ofm rotary lie-id, such as is common in polyphnso nppurnlns fortrnnslnling electrical into mechanical energy, and vice verse, :1 traveling, licld i. a hold moving on :1 line other than at circular line would result ii", as one might inuiginc, n rotary lleldmotor were opened out and were made inlinilclv lnrgcmnd in accordance therewith any prejudicial onesidcd attrnction that otherwise might occur between thcinducing and the induced parts is obviated, or .the attraction is turned to account by no appropriate arrangement of the said parts which avoids their too close juxtaposition, so that actual mcrhnnicnl contact is avoided and sterling is rendered easy without too large a current, even should a so-cnlled short-circult armature he used.

Figure l of the accompanying drawings is a diagram illustrating a simple apparatus in which is exemplified the fundamental idea undorlying the invention. Fig. 2 illustrates a modification; Fig. 3, a view taken at right angles to Fig. 2. Fig. 4 shows a further modification. Fig. 5 is an elevation of the induced part shown in Fig. 4. Fig. 6 is asectional view showing theinducing and induced parts shown in Fig. 4. Figs. 7, 8, and 9 show third, fourth, and lifth modifications. Fig. 10 is a side elevation of a traveling fiehhmngnet', together with its rail-like armature. Fig. 1 is a front or end view of such magnet and armsturc. Figs. 12 and 13 show a partially-wound rail, respectively from the side and .top. Fig. 14 shows the rail. the magnet, the mag;

"t-hnlimcing device, and the rail between them; and Fig. 15 is :1 diagram of the electrical 'ron-ncctioi is. pllcatiun of the invention to an elevator.

The example illustrates the conrersion of three-phase rotary field-motors into polyphnse motors having: traveling holds and, with the exception of that shown in Fig. 8, in relation to their use in electric-rail way propulsion: but it must he understood that the invention would embrace the use of single-phase and polyphese motors that can be similarly converted into motors having traveling fields, whether cmplorod for railway traction or forother motive purpos'csl'or example, for actuating cranes, iifcrential pulleys; lifts, and the reciprocating purtsof machine-tools. In such a polyphasc motor having the magnetically-reacting parts of infinite length a section of the some might comprise s laminated body of iron with triphnse windings thereon and an nrmzv ture of any desired length located thereunder.

Such a device is illustrated in Fig. 1, in which the laminated magnet-body a, with the triphase winding 2: I o, is located at a certain distance (indicated by lines and arrows std) above the armature, which to form an equivalent to the copper windings and iron core of a. short-circuit armature may comprise a brass strip g and an iron strip f. The triphnse windings when excited produce three nmgnctic effects that combine to produce on resultant field whosehicximum and zero vn leg;v in the magnetic mass alternate at a rate corresponding to the periodicity of the current supplied,so that a traveling licld is produced whoserateof progress' is the product of the pole length and the periodicity of the current. By reason of the traveling of the field. currents are induced in the armature, and there is thus produced a mutual reaction resulting in a force tending to move the armature in the direction shown by arrow a'or by reversing two phases of current in the direction of the arrow 1'. If, as this invention provides, such a magnet Alluring its winding connected in parallel. in series, or in groups) be suspended under any vehicle-as, for instance, a railway-cnrriageaml for use overs continuous fixed armature, then such a vehicle possesses in contriulistiuction to other power-operated vehicles the :ulvuntuge theta 0 Fig. 16 illustrates thenpcertain part of the weightsometimes added to produce adhesion or stability may be dispensed with, as there exists between the magn t and the armature a strong force of al.- traction which is equal toastoppiug or overloai'liug of the vehielel \Yhcn it is desired to prevent this one-sided attraction between the magnet and the armature. a construction according to this invention is adopted in which an armaturwstrip is m'cl'crably placed l'dg'c upward. and this arrangement obviates the costly provision of both a nonanagnetic and a magnetic armaturca'ail, there being used either a single rail of non-magnetic material. such as brass. or of magnetic material---lorexample, steel or iron.

'hen a nonanagnetic armature-rail is used,

there is adapted to move along one side therc- I .of a magnet and along the other side a mass of laminated iron which is rigidly connected to the magnet and provides magnetic couduction for the lines of force from the magnet. The non-magnetic rail 1. Figs. land 3. is thus located in the middle and between the laminated poi'es e of the magnet and the laminated iron mass f. both of which. by means of insulating-stays /e, may be lixed beneath the body of a vehicle or on the. frame thereof. being also maintained thereby at the desired distance apart.

Vhen a magnetic armature-rail is used, a magnet is disposed at each side of the rail,

Figs. 4 and 6, the railf, of solid iron. being i located between two laminated magnets 1 The shape of the magnets and the way in which they are wound may therefore be of varied descriptions, as in polyphase-current dynamo-machines. ltwill,forinstam-cda:seen that while in the example illustrated in Fig. 1 each phase-winding fills up two grooves the winding according to Fig.- 4 is distributed over three grooves. The construction of the rail forming the short-circuit armature can also be very varied. is made with regular punched holcs l 'g. 5,

i and corresponds e gridtymffft'arrnat urc.

A great *mg in weight and a satisfactory 1 utilization of the induced currents is hereby obtained, because these currents cannot then proceed in an improper short circuit. The reduction of cross-section must be made only to such an extent that the rail between stopping-places has not less than the conduction corrcspondingtothe calculated minimum. At the starting-places, on the contrary, the holes will be made broader, so that the resistance of the longitudinal unit is greater there than between stopping-places, and hence starting can j be effected with less consumption of current. For strengthening the induced currents the armature-rail may, for instance. on sharp up- I ward gradients be provided with a short-circuit winding.

Figs. 12 and 13 show a partially-wound rail. respectively from the side and top. In case An advantageous form l the windings protruded beyond the plane of the armature the distance between the pole and the rail would of necessity be made corl'espondingly greater. and in such case the motor would operate at a proportionate disadvantage for the whole of the exposed (not wound) portion of the stretch. For this reason the windings as shown in these figures are located in vertically-arrauged grooves in the armature f, so that when uncovered this appears provided with ribs u. The cross-seetion of the winding-wire and also the method of winding, whether the individual coils are short-cirruitcd orswitched in partly in series, isregulated in any special case by the necessary electrical resistance.

1 Both in the modilication according to Fig.

l 2 and in that according to Fig. 4 some device 5 may be necessary to prevent mechanical coni tact between the armature-rail and the magnot during lateral oscillations of a vehicle upon which the |uagnet may be mounted.

' For this purpose the magnet may, according I to this invention, be suspended in such a way I that movement of the magnet at right angles to the direction of the rails can take place.

F This may be effected, for instance by rods m.

i carrying the magnet and supported by an l axis contained in a guide-frame 1, so as to l have some plagfor lateral movement, Fig. 6,

l there being in one or moreof the pole-pieces l of each magnet a small guide-wheel I, which projects slightly, but ordinarily does not comeinto contact with the rail,' although upon considerable lateral oscillations of the vehicle it may do so and prevent the magnet-poles from striking against the rail. In Fig. 10 is shown a traveling field-magnet guided in this manner, as seen from the side. and in Fig. 11

as seen from the front. The magnet-pole c,

which is laterally shiftableowing to the hanger m. by which it is carried. su pports, by iueansof a forked hanger q. a roller x, rotating upon its axis 1' a short distance removed from the l armaturef. Upon sidewise swinging of the l car these rollers prevent contact of the rail with the poles in the same manner as the l small wheels I in Fig. 4. For convenience at I the right-hand side of Fig. 11 the roller s, with its carrier (1, is removed, and the pole is therefore there seen in full. Instead of the small wheel a roller or a bell-shaped guide lixed to an external face of the magnet can be used. Instead of arranging the magnet in this or in a similar manner, so as to be movable. it can be simply suspended like a pendulum in order to obtain a similar effect. This idea is likewise illustrated in Fig. 6, all ready described, only 0 is now constructed as l a bearingin which the shafttrests. From this the hanger m is carried and is movable thereon and again carries the poles r. The poles hang pendent under the carriage and are themi selves, by means of the separating or guide i rollers retained, even under a. strong sidenmintaining u suilirieni distance hctwrcn the nmg'ncbpoh-s and the railway in some rakes 1 may be dis wnwd with. There rxish us w\tutrd in drtuil in lln- Iii-ginning ol' {hrsprrilicu'tiun. hl-iwc-i-n polr and rail :1 strongmli'airl 'il' inng'nrii |N)\.r-i \\lil('ll oprrutos iiinrl'nuuvlnrnt ul two p ll :ll thr sumo (lishumat both .-idn of the rail. Asthi! rlghtcurried.

hand pub-1 hm 1hr rllw-i to draw (hr rm to sion" typo by utilizingtho Lgirdorf', i

lilL' l -H and tho loft in rviurn luthv right, both nelr-u-Lirr Form-s :u'v in-nlruli'lird. mislum. lin' ullH'l hand. thr mil f is at thr point w nrurvr than tlnh-l't 1hr niacin-tic l'ori-vszirvnnt both in-utrzilizrd. but an ulirurlf, Fig. ll. hmwu Potion of a rail in u rurrv 1 toward lln' h-IL lln' our and tin pub.- ns a ruthat i- In -ny. in rviulion morn currrnt dors il ronsnnu'. s that W thr izi-nlril'ugiil lm'rc is ah ihr -u liuruol' lhr spa-rd and tho nn gnulic ultrarlinn :i-' lhv s unrr of tho rurri-nt itis pos'sibhio uniformly uilunw' linrrntril'ugul ion-v at all sprwh, rilhrr in :1 drhnitr purt or riunph-h-ly, by llllilllS ofthr inngnrlic pow or: l' ig. l-l shows two inolhwis by which this may w titft'fllllpllfilltll.

rilhrr that tin: rail on lh'v. rurrii uni laid: (Xil 'ii lwlwrrn hnlh pulrs, but is laid :1 short dislmirr nriirrr tho oulri' polv, u! that llw untrr .-hh of tho rail is thichnnrd by a picrr M.

This rnrryinguililj, Fign T, along: both shim-4 1 ut by a cable 7%. In the circuit-according of \rliirh tho niug'nvts II)U\'(!,(Z;UI b1 ruinl'urrrd upon lhr. outrr sidcof lhn ('lH'YK SU as to obtain a lnugnrl' uttriu'tion that \rilljrnd to cou'.itcract rrntril'ugal force, and that tun grnutor cxtcnt tho morn rnurgy is being $110k; upon tho propulsion ol' thr truin.

lnstrad of locating uiagnrt-polos on both sidw: of an miniature-rail tho nmrsidrd niugnrtic strrss can also be obviated by using a nmgunt or nmgnrls having poles facing inopposito directions toward two ltllllittlll'fifiiillh",

ilr-i shown dingriunnnitically In Fig. 8, in the ms:- of a hit, so that each of the two magnets.

I will not inductivcly upon ono of tho ruilsf. 'lhu ningnots nrnd not bu attached to thrhl'tcngodircrtly, but might hr. attached to the (jib bios thrrrol', and could in this case conrcni icntly be madcof sucn a. size that they would serve as countcrwcights to the cage, or since movement of the lift depends upon relative movement between the magnets and the armature of the motor the armature-mil could be ixcd to the lift-cage or serve as a counterweight or countcrwcights therefor and the nmgnets or magnet be stationary.

in auroral of thrm'rangomcnts hcreinbefore described the invention provides for prevention of one-sided nmguvtic attraction by using twoopposrd magnetic forces; but in some instances. as when using nmgnrtic attraction to increase udhrsion or stability, the eliect is rvndcrcd nscl'ul ruthrr thun prejudicial. Anolhrr nmnnrr of miiizing such unbalanced nmgnvlisin is the ro vcrsrof that just referred to and provides that [hr magnetic efl'ect countrrncts instcud of assists gravity, and hrnce ruducrs 1hr cti'rulivr night of the load to be This drricr run he uscd. for in: sinner, on railways of tho somnllud sun mm 5). rurrird by tho nniin supports of'thc railway. us'thr aru'mturc. inthis case the imdcr Aurl'ucc and not the side of the rails serves as tho induction-face and furthis reason is made of appropriately hn-ge dimcnsionfi. The magni-ts r are lixrd to [lie whicle-t-op directly undrr tho girdrr, and as soon as a poiyphuse alternating current is cuusrd to pass through in: windings it produces inducednmgnctisrn in tho girdcr. and accordingly reduces the eft'rriirr weight of the yrhicle by rciwon of the wpporting magnetic attraction. A guide for pri-rrnting contact bctwcrn the magnet-poles and he armature may be dispensed with in this urriuig'rlnont.

'lhr most important pccuiiariticsof the electrirnl ronibinzttions of one of the poles with (h;- conducioi s iiu shown in Fig. l5. ll: isa tlirvu-plmse-cuii'uit arrangmncnt. From the high-tunsiuu conductor X the current is condom-ted to tho car by means of the conducting wires y 3f. It is in principle the same whrthrr thr food-wires arc subtcrraneim or ubm'itho car or :it the side of the same. Within tho car tho conducticn may be curried m Fig. 15 are arranged a three-polo'higlr- .tcnsion sufvty-fuso A and a three-polo hightqnsion cutout switch B. riu-cd to the cubic Z by means of clamps 6' b If, so that the poles have no morahie parts.

'lhcir winding in Fig. i5 is uccoiili'ng to the scheme of Fig. 4, as this serve-S for series; winding. It is usually not necessary to switifh n stnrtrr into the. circuit. as the alteration of rrsistuncc necessary intho second circuit for starting is ohtuincd bythc increased openings of tho arnmtnrc-ruil at the stations, as mentioned earlier in tho-tut. The starting is accomplished in the simplest manner by closing of the main switch. For tho fcwcascs in which the individual trains of a rapid-transit The poles are so tween the poles of said magnet, so that by road must stop between stations, and must the cooperation of these parts the carriage is necessarily start again, where the armature resistance is too small an induction starter D is carried, which is commonly, by means of the switch E, switched out. 'hen the car must be started in an open stretch, switch B is opened and E, on the contrary, closed, until the train, through gradual increase of the pole-potential (tension) with aid of the starter D, has almostattained its normalspced. B is then again closed, and E, which thereby becomes almost \vithciut current, is again switchedout. Of course the induction starter D may be used at the same time in the wellknown manner as a transformer and the pole P correspondingly serve for low tension.

Having thus described my invention, what 1 claim as new therein, and desire to secure hjv Letters Patent of the United States of Americe, is

1. The combination of a rail-like armature, a traveling field-magnet, and means for neutralizing the magnetic attraction of the latter,

substantially as set forth.

2. The combination of a plurality of raillike armaturcs, anti a plurality of traveling field-magnets arranged to act thereon in opposite directions, substantially as set forth.

3. The combination of a rail-like armature located between the rails, and a traveling field-magnet, said armature being located henot only moved forward, but also its weight, namely \vheelpressure, diminished, substantially as set forth.

4. The combination of a rail-like armature provided with openings, and a traveling fieldmagnet arranged iujuxtaposition to said ar mature, substantially as set forth.

5. The combination of a rail-like armatu re provided with openings of different breadths, a traveling held-magnet, and means for non tralizing the magnetic attraction of said magnot, substantially as set forth.

(5. The combination of a rail-like armature, a traveling field-magnet movable transversely to said armature, means for neutralizing the magnetic attraction of said magnet, and means for guiding said magnet out of contact with said armature, substantially as set forth.

7. The combination of a rail-like armature, reinforced at its outer sides at curves, a traveling held-magnet, and means for neutfidizing the magnetic attraction of said magnet, substantially as set forth.

ln testimony that 1 claim the foregoing as my invention l have signed my name in presence of two subscribing witnesses.



llnxm' I Ins-run, \YULDHHAR llaur'r.

Referenced by
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US2831131 *Dec 20, 1955Apr 15, 1958IbmLinear-motor paper feed
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US8488415Aug 26, 2010Jul 16, 2013Curtis E. GraberSubmersible electro-dynamic acoustic projector
US8783192Jun 5, 2012Jul 22, 2014Ronald H. SmithGlobal rapid transit infrastructure using linear induction drive
Cooperative ClassificationH02K41/025