|Publication number||US7825455 B2|
|Application number||US 12/320,351|
|Publication date||Nov 2, 2010|
|Priority date||Aug 14, 2000|
|Also published as||CN1401140A, CN100358147C, CN101179079A, CN101179079B, EP1312120A1, EP2323164A2, EP2323164A3, EP2323164B1, EP2988331A1, US6881994, US6992349, US7129538, US8823076, US8853765, US8981457, US9171857, US20020028541, US20040206996, US20040214379, US20070029607, US20090173985, US20110156044, US20120223380, US20140217491, US20140225180, US20150044833, US20160079258, WO2002015277A2, WO2002015277A8, WO2002015277A9|
|Publication number||12320351, 320351, US 7825455 B2, US 7825455B2, US-B2-7825455, US7825455 B2, US7825455B2|
|Inventors||Thomas H. Lee, Vivek Subramanian, James M. Cleeves, Mark G. Johnson, Paul M. Farmwald, Igor G. Kouznetsov|
|Original Assignee||Sandisk 3D Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (250), Non-Patent Citations (153), Referenced by (27), Classifications (78), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This application is a Continuation of Ser. No. 11/544,666, filed Oct. 10, 2006, which is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/842,008, filed on May 10, 2004, now U.S. Pat. No. 7,129,538 which is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/927,648 filed on Aug. 13, 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,881,994, which are incorporated by reference in their entirety. Application Ser. No. 09/927,648 is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/801,233, filed on Mar. 6, 2001, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/745,125, filed on Dec. 21, 2000, both of which are incorporated by reference in their entirety. Application Ser. No. 09/927,648 is also a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/639,579 filed on Aug. 14, 2000, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. Application Ser. No. 09/927,648 is also a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/639,702 filed on Aug. 14, 2000, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. Application Ser. No. 09/927,648 is also a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/639,749 filed on Aug. 17, 2000, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety. Application Ser. No. 09/927,648 also claims benefit of priority of provisional application 60/279,855, filed on Mar. 28, 2001, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to semiconductor devices in general and to a three dimensional TFT array in particular.
2. Discussion of Related Art
As integrated circuits and computers have become powerful, new applications have arisen that require the ability to store large amounts of data. Certain applications require a memory with the ability to write and erase data and the ability to store data in a nonvolatile manner. There are many applications which can be enabled by bringing the price per megabyte of semiconductor memory down well below a dollar (US) per megabyte so that it becomes price competitive with, for example: (1) chemical film for the storage of photographic images; (2) Compact Disks (CDs) for the storage of music and textual data for distribution; (3) Digital Versatile Disks (DVDs) for the storage of video and multi-media materials for distribution; and (4) Video Tape and Digital Audio and Video Tape for the storage of consumer audio and video recordings. Such memories should be archival and non-volatile in that they should be able to withstand being removed from equipment and all sources of power for a period of up to about 10 years with no significant degradation of the information stored in them. Such a requirement approximates the typical longevity for CDs, DVDs, magnetic tape and most forms of photographic film.
Presently, such memories are formed with electrically erasable nonvolatile memories such as flash memories and EEPROMs. Unfortunately, these devices are typically fabricated in a single crystalline silicon substrate and therefore are limited to two-dimensional arrays of storage devices, thereby limiting the amount of data that can be stored to the number of devices that can be fabricated in a single plane of silicon.
It has also been known to fabricate nonvolatile memories that employed trapped charge in a dielectric layer. Typically, electrons are trapped in a layer of silicon nitride by, for instance, tunneling a current through the nitride layer. The silicon nitride is formed between a gate insulated from the channel of a field-effect transistor. The trapped charge shifts the threshold voltage of the transistor and thus, the threshold voltage is sensed to determine whether or not charge is trapped in the nitride layer. See U.S. Pat. No. 5,768,192 for an example of such memories.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,768,192, issued to B. Eitan, and the technical article entitled “NROM: A Novel Localized Trapping, 2-Bit Nonvolatile Memory Cell” by B. Eitan et al. in IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 21, No. 11, November 2000, pp. 543-545 teach a nonvolatile semiconductor memory cell which uses asymmetrical charge trapping in the nitride charge storage layer of the Oxide-Nitride-Oxide (ONO) stack to store two bits in one cell. The cell is written by hot electron injection into the charge storage layer above the drain junction. The cell is read in the opposite direction to which it was written, i.e., voltages are applied to the source and gate, with the drain grounded. The memory cell is constructed in a p-type silicon substrate. However, this silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) ITC memory is arranged in an NOR Virtual Ground Array with a cell area of 2.5F2 per bit, where F is the minimum feature size. This cell area is larger than desirable, and leads to a less than optimum cell density.
Prior art negative-resistance devices are also known. These devices were discovered around 1972 and are described in Thin-MIS-Structure Si Negative-Resistance Diode, Applied Physics Letters, Volume 20, No. 8, beginning on page 269, 15 Apr. 1972. The device described in the article is a junction diode, such as diode 5510 of
The device of
As the applied forward voltage increases, the n− region begins to deplete at the interface with the oxide just as in a normal MOSFET as the threshold voltage is approached. At a high enough voltage, this depletion region extends all the way to the junction to produce punch-through, resulting in a significant injection of holes from the p region into the n− layer. The holes cannot flow well through the oxide and consequently build up near the surface. This causes the n-region to invert more strongly near the oxide interface, and increasing the voltage drop across the oxide, recalling that V=Q/C. The electron tunneling current through the oxide rises by a super-exponential factor, increasing the forward bias across the diode and the current. At the same time holes flood the n− region, raising its conductivity and reducing its voltage drop. Since the voltage across the diode is relatively small (and changes little, even for large changes in current) a large reduction in the n−voltage drop reduces the voltage across the entire structure dramatically (assuming a suitable series resistance in the circuit to avoid device rupture). Thus, the regenerative action of the foregoing description causes a rapid increase in current, accompanied by a rapid decrease in voltage. It is this negative-resistance region that has been exploited to make the SRAM cells described in the above referenced patents.
At higher current levels, the device behaves essentially as an ordinary forward biased diode as most of the voltage is ultimately dropped across the PN junction. Overall, the V-I characteristics of the structure are shown in
When reverse biased, the diode is in its blocking state and the only current that flows through the oxide is electron leakage current. The reverse junction voltage is a fraction of the applied voltage because some is dropped across the oxide region. It should be noted that electrons carry current through the oxide region in both reverse bias and in a strong forward bias.
Another type of prior art memory device is disclosed in the technical article entitled “A Novel Cell Structure for Giga-bit EPROMs and Flash Memories Using Polysilicon Thin Film Transistors” by S. Koyama in 1992 Symposium on VLSI Technology Digest of Technical Papers, pp. 44-45. As shown in
The layout of Koyama requires two polycide contact pads to be formed to contact the source and drain regions of each TFT. The bit lines are formed above the word lines and contact the contact pads through contact vias in an interlayer insulating layer which separates the bits lines from the word lines. Therefore, each cell in this layout is not fully self-aligned, because the contact pads and the contact vias are each patterned using a non-self aligned photolithography step. Therefore, each memory cell has an area that is larger than desirable, and leads to a less than optimum cell density. The memory cell of Koyama is also complex to fabricate because it requires the formation of contact pads and bit line contact vias. Furthermore, the manufacturability of the device of Koyama is less than optimum because both bit lines and word lines have a non-planar top surface due to the non-planar underlying topography. This may lead to open circuits in the bit and word lines.
The Virtual Ground Array approach to crystalline silicon non-volatile memories has also been known for some time and is an elegant way of aggressively reducing memory cell size. Turning now to
“Virtual Ground” refers to the fact that there is no dedicated ground line in the array. Whenever a cell is chosen for read or program, a pair of buried n+ bitlines (BLs) is the source and drain with the source grounded. For example, to select the cell 5624 outlined in
In all of these approaches, the charge storage medium is a conducting floating gate made of doped polysilicon. By hot electron injection programming (the method of choice in all classic EPROM (erasable programmable read only memory) and single transistor Flash memory cells), electrons are injected onto the floating gate thus changing the threshold voltage of the inherent MOS transistor.
The above discussed SONOS (polysilicon-blocking oxide-nitride-tunnel oxide-silicon) charge trapping approach has reemerged as a viable candidate for non-volatile MTP memories arranged in a virtual ground array structure 5626, as shown in
The above described prior art devices are relatively expensive because their density is not optimized.
According to one preferred embodiment of the present invention, a semiconductor device comprises a monolithic three dimensional array of charge storage devices comprising a plurality of device levels, wherein at least one surface between two successive device levels is planarized by chemical mechanical polishing.
In another preferred embodiment of the present invention, a monolithic three dimensional array of charge storage devices is formed in an amorphous or polycrystalline semiconductor layer over a monocrystalline semiconductor substrate, and driver circuitry is formed in the substrate at least in part under the array, within the array or above the array.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a memory device comprising a first input/output conductor formed above or on a first plane of a substrate. The memory device also includes a second input/output conductor. A semiconductor region is located between the first input/output conductor and the second input/output conductor at an intersection of their projections. The memory device includes a charge storage medium wherein charge stored in the charge storage medium affects the amount of current that flows between the first input/output conductor and the second input/output conductor.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a nonvolatile read-write memory cell having an N doped region, a P doped region, and a storage element disposed between the two.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a method for operating a memory cell. The method comprises the steps of trapping charge in a region to program the cell, and passing current through the region when reading data from the cell.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides an array of memory cells, said array having a plurality of memory cells each comprising at least one semiconductor region and a storage means for trapping charge. The array also has control means for controlling the flow of current through the semiconductor region and the storage means of the cells.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a nonvolatile stackable pillar memory device and its method of fabrication. The memory device includes a substrate having a first plane. A first contact is formed on or above the plane of a substrate. A body is formed on the first contact. A second contact is formed on the body wherein the second contact is at least partially aligned over the first contact. A control gate is formed adjacent to the charge storage medium. A read current flows between the first contact and the second contact in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the substrate.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a field effect transistor, comprising a source, a drain, a channel, a gate, at least one insulating layer between the gate and the channel, and a gate line which extends substantially parallel to a source-channel-drain direction and which contacts the gate and is self aligned to the gate.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a three dimensional nonvolatile memory array, comprising a plurality of vertically separated device levels, each level comprising an array of TFT EEPROMs, each TFT EEPROM comprising a channel, source and drain regions, and a charge storage region adjacent to the channel, a plurality of bit line columns in each device level, each bit line contacting the source or the drain regions of the TFT EEPROMs, a plurality of word line rows in each device level, and at least one interlayer insulating layer located between the device levels.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides an EEPROM comprising a channel, a source, a drain, a tunneling dielectric located above the channel, a floating gate located above the tunneling dielectric, sidewall spacers located adjacent to the floating gate sidewalls, a word line located above the floating gate, and a control gate dielectric located between the control gate and the floating gate. The control gate dielectric is located above the sidewall spacers.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides an array of nonvolatile memory cells, wherein each memory cell comprises a semiconductor device and each memory cell size per bit is about (2F2)/N, where F is a minimum feature size and N is a number of device layers in the third dimension, and where N>1 Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a method of making an EEPROM, comprising providing a semiconductor active area, forming a charge storage region over the active area, forming a conductive gate layer over the charge storage region and patterning the gate layer to form a control gate overlying the charge storage region. The method also comprises doping the active area using the control gate as a mask to form source and drain regions in the active area, forming a first insulating layer above and adjacent to the control gate, exposing a top portion of the control gate without photolithographic masking, and forming a word line contacting the exposed top portion of the control gate, such that the word line is self aligned to the control gate.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a method of making an EEPROM, comprising providing a semiconductor active area, forming a tunnel dielectric layer over the active area, forming a conductive gate layer over the tunnel dielectric layer, patterning the gate layer to form a floating gate overlying the tunnel dielectric layer and doping the active area using the floating gate as a mask to form source and drain regions in the active area. The method also comprises forming sidewall spacers adjacent to the floating gate sidewalls, forming a first insulating layer above and adjacent to the sidewall spacers and above the source and drain regions, forming a control gate dielectric layer over the floating gate, and forming a word line over the control gate dielectric and over the first insulating layer.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a method of forming a nonvolatile memory array, comprising forming a semiconductor active layer, forming a first insulating layer over the active layer, forming a plurality of gate electrodes over the first insulating layer and doping the active layer using the gate electrodes as a mask to form a plurality of source and drain regions in the active layer, and a plurality of bit lines extending substantially perpendicular to a source-drain direction. The method also comprises forming a second insulating layer above and adjacent to the gate electrodes and above the source regions, drain regions and the bit lines, planarizing the second insulating layer, and forming a plurality of word lines over the second insulating layer extending substantially parallel to the source-drain direction.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a method of making an EEPROM array, comprising providing a semiconductor active area, forming a plurality of dummy blocks above the active area, doping the active area using the dummy blocks as a mask to form source and drain regions in the active area, forming an intergate insulating layer above and between the dummy blocks, planarizing the intergate insulating layer to expose top portions of the dummy blocks, selectively removing the dummy blocks from between portions of the planarized intergate insulating layer to form a plurality of vias between the portions of the intergate insulating layer, forming charge storage regions over the active area in the plurality of vias, forming a conductive gate layer over the charge storage regions, and patterning the conductive gate layer to form a control gate overlying the charge storage region.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a method of forming a TFT EEPROM, comprising forming a TFT EEPROM comprising an amorphous silicon or a polysilicon active layer, a charge storage region and a control gate, providing a crystallization catalyst in contact with the active layer, and heating the active layer after the step of providing the catalyst to recrystallize the active layer using the catalyst.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a two- or three-dimensional memory array constructed of thin film transistors disposed above the substrate. Spaced-apart conductors disposed in a first direction form contacts with memory cells formed in rail stacks disposed in a second direction different from the first direction. A local charge trapping medium receives and stores hot electrons injected by thin film transistors formed at the intersections of the spaced-apart conductors and the rail stacks. The local charge trapping medium may be used to store charge adjacent to a transistor drain and by reversing the drain and source lines, two bits per memory cell may be stored, if desired. A programming method insures that stored memory will not be inadvertently disturbed.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a non-volatile thin film transistor (TFT) memory device that is constructed above a substrate. It employs a source, drain and channel formed of transition metal crystallized silicon. A local charge storage film is disposed vertically adjacent to the channel and stores injected charge. A two- or three-dimensional array of such devices may be constructed above the substrate. Spaced-apart conductors disposed in a first direction form contacts with memory cells formed in rail stacks disposed in a second direction different from the first direction. The local charge storage film receives and stores charge injected by TFTs formed at the intersections of the spaced-apart conductors and the rail stacks. The local charge storage film may be used to store charge adjacent to a transistor drain and by reversing the drain and source lines, two bits per memory cell may be stored, if desired. A programming method insures that stored memory will not be inadvertently disturbed.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a flash memory array disposed above a substrate, the array comprising a first plurality of spaced-apart conductive bit lines disposed at a first height above the substrate in a first direction, and a second plurality of spaced-apart rail-stacks disposed at a second height in a second direction different from the first direction, each rail-stack including a plurality of semiconductor islands whose first surface is in contact with said first plurality of spaced-apart conductive bit lines, a conductive word line, and charge storage regions disposed between a second surface of the semiconductor islands and the word line.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a TFT CMOS device, comprising a gate electrode, a first insulating layer adjacent to a first side of the gate electrode, a first semiconductor layer having a first conductivity type disposed on a side of the first insulating layer opposite to the gate electrode, a first source and drain regions of a second conductivity type disposed in the first semiconductor layer, first source and drain electrodes in contact with the first source and drain regions and disposed on a side of the first semiconductor layer opposite to the first insulating layer. The TFT CMOS device further comprises a second insulating layer adjacent to a second side of the gate electrode, a second semiconductor layer having a second conductivity type disposed on a side of the second insulating layer opposite to the gate electrode, second source and drain regions of a first conductivity type disposed in the second semiconductor layer, and second source and drain electrodes in contact with the second source and drain regions and disposed on a side of the second semiconductor layer opposite to the second insulating layer.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a circuit comprising a plurality of charge storage devices and a plurality of antifuse devices.
Another preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a semiconductor device comprising a semiconductor active region, a charge storage region adjacent to the semiconductor active region, a first electrode, and a second electrode. Charge is stored in the charge storage region when a first programming voltage is applied between the first and the second electrodes, and a conductive link is formed through the charge storage region to form a conductive path between the first and the second electrodes when a second programming voltage higher than the first voltage is applied between the first and the second electrodes.
The present inventors have realized that the cost of memory and logic devices would be decreased if the device density was increased. Thus, the present inventors have provided an ultra dense matrix array of charge storage semiconductor devices which has an increased density and a lower cost.
One method of improving device density is to arrange the devices in a monolithic three dimensional array of charge storage devices comprising a plurality of device levels. The term “monolithic” means that layers of each level of the array were directly deposited on the layers of each underlying level of the array. In contrast, two dimensional arrays may be formed separately and then packaged together to form a non-monolithic memory device.
In order to form such a three dimensional array, especially an array having four or more layers, at least one surface between two successive device levels is planarized by chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In contrast to other planarization methods, such as etch back, chemical mechanical polishing allows a sufficient degree of planarization to stack multiple device levels of a commercially feasible device on top of each other. The inventors have found that chemical mechanical polishing typically achieves flatness on the order of 4000 Angstroms or less within a stepper field (i.e., a peak to peak roughness value of 4000 Angstroms or less in an area on the order of 10 to 50 mm) in three-dimensional memory arrays, even after 4 to 8 layers of the array have been formed. Preferably, the peak to peak roughness of a layer in the array polished by CMP is 3000 Angstroms or less, such as 500 to 1000 Angstroms, within a stepper field. In contrast, etch back alone typically does not afford sufficient flatness to achieve a commercially suitable three-dimensional memory or logic monolithic array.
For example, the term “at least one surface between two successive device levels is planarized by chemical mechanical polishing” includes surfaces formed in the bottom and intermediate device layers, as well as surfaces of the interlayer insulating layers that are disposed in between the device layers. Thus, the surfaces of conductive and/or insulating layers in each intermediate and bottom device level of the array are planarized by chemical mechanical polishing. Thus, if the array includes at least four device levels, then at least three device levels should have at least one surface that is planarized by chemical mechanical polishing. The surfaces of the conductive and/or insulating layers in the top device level may also be planarized by chemical mechanical polishing.
Another method of improving device density is to vertically integrate the driver or peripheral circuits with the memory or logic array. In the prior art, the peripheral circuits were formed in the periphery of the monocrystalline silicon substrate, while the memory or logic array was formed in the other portions of the substrate, adjacent to the peripheral circuits. Thus, the peripheral circuits occupied valuable substrate space in the prior art devices. In contrast, a preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a monolithic three dimensional array of charge storage devices formed in an amorphous or polycrystalline semiconductor layer over a monocrystalline semiconductor substrate, while at least part, and preferably all, the driver (i.e., peripheral) circuitry is formed in the substrate under the array, within the array or above the array. Preferably, the driver circuitry comprises at least one of sense amps and charge pumps formed wholly or partially under the array in the substrate.
Another method of improving device density is self-alignment and using the same photolithography step to pattern different layers. The device cell area is enlarged by misalignment tolerances that are put into place to guarantee complete overlap between features on different layers. Thus, the present inventors have developed a fully or partially aligned memory cell structure that does not require misalignment tolerances or that requires a reduced number of misalignment tolerances. In such a cell structure, certain device features may be self aligned to other device features, and do not require a photolithography step for patterning. Alternatively, plural layers may be etched using the same photoresist mask or a lower device layer may be etched using a patterned upper device layer as a mask. Particular examples of aligned memory cells will be discussed in more detail below.
The charge storage devices of the array may be any type of semiconductor devices which store charge, such as EPROMs or EEPROMs. In the preferred embodiments of the present invention described in detail below, the charge storage devices are formed in various configurations, such as a pillar TFT EEPROM, a pillar diode with a charge storage region, a self aligned TFT EEPROM, a rail stack TFT EEPROM, and various other configurations. Each of these configurations provides devices with a high degree of planarity and alignment or self-alignment to increase the array density.
For example, in the pillar TFT EEPROM or a pillar diode with a charge storage region, at least one side of the semiconductor active region is aligned to one of the electrodes contacting the semiconductor active region. Thus, in a pillar TFT EEPROM configuration, the semiconductor active region is aligned to both the source and the drain electrodes. This alignment occurs because at least two sides of the active semiconductor region and one of the electrodes are patterned during a same photolithography step (i.e., etched using the same photoresist mask or one layer is used as a mask for the other layer).
In a self-aligned TFT, two sides of the active semiconductor region are aligned to a side of the gate electrode only in the channel portion of the active semiconductor region, but not in the source and drain regions. This alignment occurs because at least two sides of the channel region and the gate electrode are patterned during a same photolithography step (i.e., etched using the same photoresist mask or one layer is used as a mask for the other layer). In contrast, the source and drain regions are not etched.
In the following description, numerous specific details are set forth such as specific thicknesses, materials etc. in order to provide a thorough understanding of the present invention. It will be apparent to one skilled in the art that the present invention may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known concepts, circuit and fabrication techniques are not set forth in detail in order not to unnecessarily obscure the present invention.
Any feature of any embodiment described below may be used in another embodiment. The first set of embodiments describes various pillar devices, the second set of embodiments describes self-aligned TFT devices and the third set of embodiments describes rail stack TFT devices. The fourth and fifth set of embodiments describes how these devices may be used in a logic or memory circuit. The final set of embodiments describes the use of metal induced crystallization to improve the crystallinity of the device levels.
I. The Pillar Devices
The present embodiment is directed to thin film transistors (TFTs) and diodes arranged in a pillar configuration (i.e., the vertical direction with respect to the substrate, where the length of the device is perpendicular to the substrate) and their method of fabrication. Preferably, the pillar devices form a charge trapping memory that has a vertical read current. The memory includes a first input/output conductor formed on or above a plane of a substrate and a second input/output conductor located above and spaced apart from the first input/output conductor. The first input/output conductor and the second input/output conductor are positioned so that they overlap or intersect one another and preferably intersect perpendicular to one another. A semiconductor region, such as a doped silicon region, is formed between the first input/output conductor and the second input/output conductor at the intersection of the first input/output conductor and the second input/output conductor. A charge storage medium, such as but not limited to a charge trapping dielectric, is formed near the semiconductor region and affects the amount of current that flows through the semiconductor region between the first input/output conductor and the second input/output conductor for a given voltage applied across the first input/output conductor and the second input/output conductor. The amount of current (read current) for a single voltage that flows through the semiconductor region can be used to determine whether or not charge is stored in the charge storage medium and therefore whether or not the memory is programmed or erased. The read current that flows through the semiconductor region between the first input/output conductor and the second input/output conductor flows in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the substrate in which or on which the memory is formed. The structure of the charge trapping memory of the present embodiment, as well as its method of fabrication, is ideally suited for integration into a three dimensional array of memory devices.
As will be discussed below, the charge trapping memory device of the present embodiment can be fabricated with one of two general structures. In one embodiment the charge storage medium is formed adjacent to the semiconductor region and in a second embodiment the charge storage medium is formed above or below the semiconductor region.
1. A Three Terminal Pillar Memory with Adjacent Charge Storage Medium
An embodiment of the present invention is a three terminal nonvolatile stackable pillar memory device. A pillar memory device 100 in accordance with this embodiment of the present invention is broadly illustrated in
The programmed or unprogrammed state of the pillar memory device is determined by whether or not charge is stored in charge storage medium 110. The charge stored in the charge storage medium adds or subtracts from the voltage applied to the control gate, thereby altering the voltage required to form a conducting channel in body 104 to enable a current (e.g., read current IR) to flow between the first and second contact (source/drain) regions. This voltage is defined as the VT. The amount of voltage required to form a conducting channel in body 104 or the amount of current flowing in the body for a given control gate voltage can be used to determine whether or not the device is programmed or unprogrammed. Additionally, multiple bits of data can be stored in a single charge storage medium 110 whereby each different amount of stored charge creates a different VT each representing a different state of the charge storage medium. Because the charge storage medium can contain multiple states, multiple bits can be stored in a single charge storage medium.
During read operations of device 100, when a conductive channel is formed in body 104, current 114 flows vertically (z) (or perpendicular) with respect to the plane (x-y) of the substrate 101 above which pillar memory device is formed. By creating a memory device with a “vertical” read current path, the pillar memory cell of the present invention can be easily stacked in a three dimensional array with source/drain conductors 103 and 116 running parallel or perpendicular to each other and parallel to the plane of the substrate 101 without requiring the use of vertical interconnect strategies for the source and drain connections. The conductor 112 to the control gate may be run vertically (as shown in
Although memory device 100 shown in
Pillar memory 200, shown in
The thicknesses of P type silicon film 206 and tunnel dielectric 212 are dependent upon the desired programming and erasing voltage. If low voltage programming operations between 4 to 5 volts are desired, then P-type silicon film 206 can have a thickness between 1000-2500Å and the tunnel dielectric can have a thickness between 20 and 150Å, such as 20-50Å, preferably 80-130 Å. (If a nitride tunnel dielectric 212 is desired it would be scaled slightly thicker.) It is to be appreciated that the thickness of P-type silicon film 206 defines the channel length of the device. If higher voltage (6-10 volts) programming operations are desired the P type silicon film 206 can have a thickness between 6000-7000Å and tunnel dielectric 212 can have a thickness between 60-100Å. The control dielectric 216 typically has a thickness on order of tunnel dielectric 212 but is slightly (10-30Å) thicker, preferably 130 to 180 Å.
Pillar memory 200 is considered programmed or unprogrammed depending upon whether or not charge is stored on floating gate 214. Pillar memory device 200 can be programmed utilizing drain side programming whereby electrons are placed on floating gate 214 by grounding the source region 202 while a relatively high voltage is applied to the drain region 208 and while approximately 4-5 volts, for low voltage operations, or 6-10 volts, for high voltage operations, is applied to control gate 218 in order to invert a portion of P-type silicon region 206 into N type silicon so that a channel region is formed and electrons flow between the source region and the drain region. The high control gate voltage pulls electrons from the inverted channel region through the tunnel dielectric 212 and on to floating gate 214. Because electrons lose some of their energy tunneling through the tunnel oxide, they no longer have enough energy to escape from the floating gate which is surrounded by insulators. Other techniques such as but not limited to source side injection can be used to program memory device 200.
Memory device 200 can be erased by removing stored electrons from floating gate 214. Memory device 200 can be erased by placing a relatively high positive voltage (3 volts) on to the source region, while applying a negative voltage of approximately 4-5 volts in low voltage operations or 6-10 volts for high voltage operations on to control gate 218. The positive voltage on the source region attracts electrons on floating gate 214 and thereby pulls electrons off floating gate 214 through tunnel dielectric 212 and into the source region.
In order to read the state of memory device 200, a voltage (such as 3.3 volts) can be applied to the drain while a given control gate voltage is applied to the control gate. The amount of current (read current) that flows from the drain region through the channel region and into the source region for a given control gate voltage can be used to determine the state of the memory device. Alternatively, one can read the state of memory 200 by sensing the amount of control gate voltage necessary to cause a given read current to flow through body 206. When read current flows between the first and second source/drain regions 202 and 208 through body 206 it flows in a direction perpendicular (z) to the plane (x-y) of the substrate 201 on or above which it is built.
Like memory device 200, memory device 300 also includes a charge storage medium 211, and a control gate 218. When transistor 300 is turned on, a portion of the P-type silicon region inverts to form a conductive channel therein so that current can flow from one source/drain region 202 to the other source/drain region 208. The majority of the current path 306 through the ultra thin body 302 or channel from one source/drain region to the other source/drain region is in a direction perpendicular (z) to the plane (x-y) of the substrate above which the device is built.
An ultra thin channel or body transistor can be formed, for example, by using a “spacer etch” technique. For example, as shown in
Although devices 200-500 have been shown with a charge storage medium comprising a continuous film floating gate 214 isolated by a tunnel dielectric 212 and a control gate dielectric 216, the floating gate need not necessarily be formed from a continuous conductive film of silicon or metal but can alternatively be formed from a plurality of a electrically isolated nanocrystals 602 as shown in
Nanocrystals 602 can be formed from conductive material such as silicon, tungsten, or aluminum. In order to be self isolating, the nanocrystals must have a material cluster size less than one-half the pitch of the cell so that floating gates from vertically and horizontally adjacent cells are isolated. That is, the nanocrystals or material clusters 602 must be small enough so that a single nanocrystal 602 cannot bridge vertically or horizontally adjacent cells. Silicon nanocrystals can be formed from silicon by utilizing chemical vapor deposition to decompose a silicon source gas such as silane at very low pressure. Similarly, a tungsten nanocrystal floating gate can be formed by chemical vapor deposition by decomposing a tungsten source gas such as WF6 at very low pressures. Still further, an aluminum nanocrystal floating gate can be formed by sputter deposition at or near the melting temperature of aluminum.
Additionally, alternative to the use of a dielectric isolated floating gate to store charge in the memory devices of the present invention, one can use a trapping layer formed in the dielectric stack 702 as shown in
It is to be appreciated that each of the memory devices 200-500 shown in
Additionally, as shown in
Alternatively, as shown in
The charge storage medium of the memory device of the present invention can be formed utilizing a “spacer etch” technique. For example, as shown in
It is to be appreciated that when the floating gate is made of nanocrytals or when the charge storage medium is a trapping dielectric, the films need not necessarily be etched from horizontal surfaces between adjacent cells because these films do not electrically couple adjacent cells. If desired, however, charge trapping dielectric and nanocrystal floating gates can be anisotropically etched back. Next, as shown in
A control gate can also be formed using a “spacer etch” technique. In such a case, a control gate material 1010, such as doped polysilicon, is blanket deposited over the control gate dielectric 1006 to the thickness desired of the control gate as shown in FIG. 10D. The control gate material 1010 is then anisotropically etched back as shown in
While it is necessary to isolate the floating gate from adjacent cells, the control gate can be shared between horizontal or vertically adjacent cells. Horizontally shared control gates can be achieved by utilizing lithography to form a conductor strip which connects horizontally adjacent transistors. Alternatively, as shown in
Additionally, vertical sharing of the control gate can be achieved by forming a control gate plug between adjacent cells after two or more levels of pillar have been formed as shown in
A method of integrating the pillar memory device of the present invention into a multi-level array of storage cells will now be described. As shown in
A process of forming a multilevel array of memory devices in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention begins by blanket depositing a first conductor layer 1308 over surface 1306 of substrate 1300. Conductor 1308 can be any suitable conductor such as but not limited to, titanium silicide, doped polysilicon, or a metal such as aluminum or tungsten and their alloys formed by any suitable technique. Conductor layer 1308 is to be used as, for example, a bitline or a wordline to couple a row or column of memory devices together. Next, a stack 1310 of films from which the first level of pillars is to be fabricated is blanket deposited over conductor 1308 as shown in
It is to be appreciated that other memory devices in accordance with the present invention can be fabricated by depositing appropriate film stacks to achieve their pillar configurations such as metal/silicon/metal strip to form a device 400 as shown in
Next, as shown in
Next, as shown in
Silicon nanocrystals can be formed by depositing silicon in a manner whereby silicon has a very high surface diffusivity relative to its sticking coefficient. For example, silicon nanocrystals can be formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), by decomposing silane (SiH4) at a very low pressure, between 1 millitorr to 200 millitorr, at a temperature between 250-650° C. In such a process, a very thin deposition, between 50-250Å, will form little islands 1322 of silicon. If H2 is included with silane during the deposition, higher pressures can be utilized and still obtain nanocrystals. In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, metal nanocrystals such as aluminum nanocrystals, can be formed by sputtering from a metal target at a temperature near the melting temperature of the metal, so that the metal agglomerates and forms nanocrystals.
Tungsten nanocrystals can be formed by chemical vapor deposition utilizing a reactant gas mix comprising a tungsten source gas such as WF6 and germane (GeH4). In still yet another embodiment of the present invention, a continuous film of floating gate material can be deposited and then caused to precipitate (by heating) to cause islands to form in the film.
It is to be appreciated that although nanocrystals are preferred for the floating gate because of their self isolating quality, the floating gate can be formed from a continuous film such as, but not limited to, a metal such as tungsten or a silicon film such as polycrystalline or amorphous silicon doped to the desired conductivity type (typically N+ silicon for an N+/P−/N+ pillar). If a continuous film is used as floating gate material 1322, the film 1322 would be anisotropically etched at this time to remove the portion of the floating gate material 1322 between strips 1318 to electrically isolate the strips.
Next, as also shown in
Next, as shown in
Next, an interlayer dielectric (ILD) 1334 such as an oxide, is blanket deposited over the top of strips 1318 as well as on and into recesses 1331 over control gate 1332. The deposited oxide layer 1334, as well as the control gate dielectric, the nanocrystals, and tunnel dielectric on the top of strips 1318 are then polished or etched back as shown in
Next, as shown in
Next, a film stack 1338, such as an N+/P−/N+ stack, used to form the second level of pillars, is blanket deposited over second conductive layer 1336 as shown in
Next, as illustrated in
Once the second pillar film stack 1338 and second conductor 1336 have been patterned by etching into a strip 1340, the etch is continued to remove the portion 1341 of the first pillar strips 1318 not covered or masked by the second pillar strips 1340 as shown in
At this time, if desired, the substrate can be subjected to successive ion implantation steps to alter the doping density of each newly revealed surface of P type body 1314 of pillar 1342 (see
Next, as shown in
The floating gate material need not be anisotropically etched to remove floating gate material from gaps 1343 between adjacent pillars 1342 in order to isolate the pillars because although the floating gate material is conductive the non-continuous nature of the nanocrystals provides isolation between the pillars. In this way, the tunnel dielectric, floating gate, and control gate dielectric can be used to isolate a subsequently formed control gate from the first metal conductor. Additionally, because the floating gate 1346 is formed from nanocrystals, it is self isolating from the floating gate positioned directly above in Level 2 even though they have been formed at the same time.
Next, as shown in
At this point, the fabrication of the first level of memory devices is complete. Each pillar 1342 on the first level includes a separate floating gate and control gate on each face of the pillar for a total of four independently controllable charge storage regions as shown in
The process as described with respect to
In this way, a second level of memory pillars 1362 are fabricated which contain four independently controllable control gates and four associated and isolated floating gates. A first pair of control gates 1350A and B are formed along laterally opposite sidewalls of the second level of pillars 1362 and are shared with memory pillar 1342 located on the first level as well as with horizontally adjacent cells. A second pair of control gates 1364A and B are formed along the third and fourth laterally opposite faces of the second level of pillars 1362 and are shared with the subsequently formed pillars in the third level of the memory array.
The above described processes can be repeated as many times as desired to add additional levels of pillar memory to the array. The final level of memory cells can be patterned from a pillar stack strip while patterning the final I/O.
Although the three terminal memory pillar devices of the present invention have been shown integrated into a three dimensional memory array in a specific preferred embodiment, it is to be appreciated that other methods may be utilized to fabricate a three dimensional memory array without departing from the scope of the present invention.
2. Memory Cells Utilizing a Charge Storage Medium Located Above or Below a Semiconductor Region
The region 2921 comprises an oxide with a thickness, typically between 1-5 nm, and preferably 2-3 nm. In one embodiment, the region 2921 is referred to in this application as a tunnel dielectric. The region 2922 is a region that stores trapped charge, as known in the prior art such as a nitride region (discussed in more detail below). In one embodiment, the region 2922 is referred to in this application as a storage dielectric. The region 2923, which may comprise an oxide, acts as a barrier for retaining a trapped charge and in one embodiment is referred to in this application as a blocking dielectric. It may have thicknesses similar to those of region 2921.
Because electrons carry the forward current in the diode once punch through occurs, these are the species that are trapped at the tunnel dielectric-storage dielectric interface 2925 and within the region 2922. Note that these electrons are of a polarity to encourage the premature inversion of the N region at the interface region 2921. Thus, stored electrons reduce the voltage at which first appears the negative-resistance portion of the cell's characteristic, see curve 2926 versus curve 2927 of
In one embodiment, programming consists of applying a sufficient forward bias to the diode to cause the device to conduct and allowing forward current to persist long enough for sufficient charge to become trapped thereby shifting the voltage threshold from the peak forward voltage shown for curve 2927 to the peak forward voltage shown for curve 2926. While throughout the discussion that follows, binary programming is discussed, multiple bits may be stored per cell by employing multiple values of threshold shifts. By analogy, some flash memories store 2-4 bits per cell or even more.
Reading (sensing) may be performed by applying a forward voltage that falls between the peaks 2928 and 2929. If current in excess of a predetermined threshold value flows, the cell is programmed; if conduction does not occur it is not programmed. The conduction that does flow through a programmed cell during a read operation reinforces the trapped charge.
Erasing is accomplished by applying a sufficient reverse bias to the memory cell that electrons tunnel out of the traps, through the blocking oxide 2923 or through the flow of holes so as to neutralize the trapped electrons. This action necessarily requires the diode to operate in breakdown, so the erase voltage will require at least the lower end of a breakdown voltage.
A storage stack comprising a dielectric (e.g., oxide) region 2933, trapping layer 2934 and a second dielectric (e.g., oxide) region 2935 is formed on the region 2932.
The dielectric region 2933 may be a grown oxide layer or a deposited silicon dioxide region. When comprising oxide, this region may be 1-5 nm thick. Ordinary processing may be used to form these regions.
The trapping region 2934 and the other trapping regions discussed in this application may be formed from a compound of nitrogen as well as other materials. In the prior art, silicon nitride (nitride) was most commonly used for this purpose. Other layers that may be used that have compounds of nitrogen are oxynitride (ON) and oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO). Other materials, alone or in combination, that exhibit charge trapping characteristics can be used. For instance, alumina (Al2O3) and silicon dioxide with insulated regions of polysilicon exhibit these characteristics. The trapping region is generally between 2-20 nm thick, and preferably 3-10 nm thick.
The regions 2933 and 2934 have thicknesses determined by factors well-known in the art for SONOS memories. For example, the tunnel dielectric region needs to be thin enough to permit tunneling without excess voltage drop and to provide longevity, while the trapping dielectric region must be thick enough not to allow significant spontaneous detrapping of charge. As mentioned above, typical thicknesses are in the range of 1-5 nm, and preferably 2-3 nm for the oxide region 2933 and 3-10 μm for the trapping region where nitride is used.
The layer 2935 is an oxide or other dielectric region which may have the same thickness as region 2933. Other dielectrics that may be used include perovskites, ceramics, diamond (and diamond-like films), silicon carbide, and undoped silicon (including polysilicon). This region may be formed by well-known deposition techniques. The region 2933, as previously mentioned, is referred to as a tunnel dielectric layer and is responsible, at least in part, for the negative-resistance characteristics previously discussed. The layer 2935, on the other hand, prevents trapped charge from region 2934 from leaking to, for instance, contact 2938. Hence, layer 2935 is sometimes referred to as the blocking dielectric.
The storage stack comprising regions 2933, 2934 and 2935 may be fabricated in a single, continuous process where, for instance, gas mixtures in a deposition chamber are altered to first provide oxide then nitride and finally oxide again. Because of the relative thinness of these regions, the entire stack may be laid down in a matter of seconds.
To operate the cell of
To sense the presence of this charge, a potential is applied between lines 2937 and 2938 again to forward bias the diode defined by regions 2931 and 2932. However, this time the potential is in a range greater than the voltage 2928 shown in
It should be noted that during a read operation the read current passes through a programmed cell, and then passes through the region 2933, trapping region 2934 and the oxide region 2938. This is unlike the typical sensing that occurs where trapped charge is used to shift a threshold voltage in, for example, a field-effect transistor where the current does not pass through the trapped charge region itself when reading the state of the cell. As mentioned earlier, when the current does pass through the region 2934 for reading it, in effect, refreshes the cell; that is if the cell was originally programmed it will remain programmed when the data is read from the cell.
Care must be taken when reading data from the cell not to exceed a current represented by line 2924. If a current exceeds this limit, for example, 5000-10,000 amps/cm2, one or both of the oxide regions 2933 or 2935 may be permanently damaged and may likely provide a short circuit or open circuit.
To erase the data in the cell the diode is reverse biased: that is, the anode is brought negative relative to the cathode. When sufficient potential is applied, the diode breaks down and (e.g., avalanches, Zeners, or punches through) and strips the charge from the region 2934. It may be necessary to float the substrate 2930 during erasing to prevent forward biasing the junction between layer 2932 and the substrate 2930. Other isolation methods such as shallow-trench isolation (STI) or silicon-on-insulator (SOI) may be used as well.
In this embodiment, rather than forward biasing a diode, a positive potential is applied to gate 2946 and contact 2948 is maintained positive relative to contact 2947.
This is done for programming and reading of the cell. To erase the cell, contact 2948 is negative relative to contact 2947, causing trapped charge to be removed from the region 2944. For both the embodiments of
In U.S. application Ser. No. 09/560,626, filed Apr. 28, 2000, and its co-pending continuation-in-part, U.S. application Ser. No. 09/814,727, filed on Mar. 21, 2001 both assigned to the assignee of the present invention and entitled “Three-Dimensional Memory Array Method of Fabrication,” a three-dimensional memory array fabricated on the substrate and employing rail-stacks is disclosed. The technology described in this patent application may be used to fabricate three-dimensional charge trapping or storage memories in accordance with the present embodiment of present invention, as discussed below.
More specifically, referring to rail stack 5, it includes the center conductor or input/output 2953, for instance, an aluminum or silicide conductor, n+ regions 2954 and 2956 disposed on both sides of the conductor and n− regions 2955 and 2957 disposed on the regions 2954 and 2956, respectively. The n+ regions may be doped to a level of >1019 cm−3 and the n−regions to a level of 5×1016-1018 cm−3. Rail-stacks 4 and 6 again include a conductor or input/output, such as conductor 2960 with p+ regions disposed on both sides of the conductor shown as p+ regions 2961 and 2962 for one of the rail-stacks. The fabrication of these regions and the entire set of rail-stacks is described in the above-referenced application, which is hereby incorporated by reference herein.
In the above-referenced application, a blanket layer of an anti-fuse material is used between the rail-stacks. With the present invention three blanket layers are used between each level of rail-stacks. Specifically, layers 2963 are disposed between the rail-stacks 5 and 6 and layers 2964 between the rail-stacks 4 and 5. The layers 2963 and 2964 correspond to the layers 2933, 2934 and 2935 of, for example,
A cell in the array of
The cells of
With the configuration of
In the above-referenced application there are several embodiments having different rail-stack configurations that may be used to fabricate a three-dimensional array using a preferred storage stack of the present invention.
In U.S. Pat. No. 6,034,882 a three-dimensional memory array is disclosed employing a plurality of levels, each level having parallel, spaced-apart conductors. The conductors at the alternate levels are perpendicular to one another. Pillar structures are formed at the intersection of a conductor in adjacent levels. The structures, as described in the patent, are formed in alignment with the conductors. The fabrication technology described in this patent may be used to fabricate memory arrays employing the cell having a charge storage or trapping region of the present embodiment.
As described in the above patent, the conductors 2980 and 2981 are shared with cells disposed above and below the single cell shown in
The thicknesses of the various regions shown in
II. Self-Aligned EEPROM TFT Array
Another cell configuration that differs from pillar configuration is the self aligned TFT. The present inventors have realized that memory and logic cell area is enlarged by misalignment tolerances that are put into place to guarantee complete overlap between features on different layers. Thus, the present inventors have developed a fully aligned memory or logic cell structure which does not require misalignment tolerances. Therefore, such a cell structure has a smaller area per bit (i.e., per cell) and uses fewer mask steps. The fully aligned cell structure increases array density and decreases die size and cost. Furthermore, by optionally stacking the cells vertically in the Z-direction, the array density is further increased, which leads to further decreases in the die size and cost.
As described with respect to the preferred embodiments of the present invention, there are several different ways of achieving a fully aligned or self-aligned memory or logic cell. In cases of memory or logic cells containing an EEPROM, full alignment may be achieved by self alignment of the word line to the control gate. Preferably, the word line extends substantially parallel to the source-channel-drain direction of the EEPROM, while the bit line extends substantially perpendicular to the source-channel-drain direction of the EEPROM. In this configuration, bit line contact pads (i.e., source and drain electrodes) and bit line contact vias are not required because the bit lines may be formed in self alignment with the EEPROM gate(s) directly on the source and/or drain regions of the EEPROMs. Furthermore, since the EEPROMs are fully self aligned, the bit and word lines may have a substantially planar upper surface, which improves the reliability of the device.
Preferably, the EEPROMs are TFTs arranged in a three dimensional virtual ground array (VGA) non volatile flash memory, where each vertically separated level is separated from an adjacent level by an interlayer insulating layer. However, the EEPROMs may be formed in a single level array or in a bulk semiconductor substrate. The preferred aspects of the present embodiment may also be applied to non volatile flash memory architectures other than VGA, e.g., to NOR-type memory and Dual String NOR (DuSNOR) memory. Furthermore, the present invention is not limited to TFT EEPROM flash memory arrays, and also encompasses other semiconductor devices within its scope. For example, the self aligned transistors may be MOSFETs in a bulk substrate or non-EEPROM TFTs formed over an insulating substrate. These self aligned transistors may be used as non-flash EEPROMs (i.e., EEPROMs where each transistor is erased separately), UV erasable PROMs (EPROMs), mask ROMs, dynamic random access memories (DRAMs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and microprocessors.
First, a substrate having an insulating surface (i.e., a Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) substrate) is provided for the formation of the memory array. The substrate may comprise a semiconductor (i.e., silicon, GaAs, etc.) wafer covered with an insulating layer, such as a silicon oxide or nitride layer, a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, or a ceramic substrate. In a preferred aspect of the first embodiment, the substrate is a monocrystalline bulk silicon substrate that has received prior processing steps, such as forming CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) transistors in the substrate. The CMOS transistors may comprise peripheral or driver circuitry for the memory array. In the most preferred aspect, the circuitry comprises row and column address decoders, column input/outputs (I/O's), and other logic circuitry. However, if desired, the driver circuitry may be formed on an insulating substrate, such as a silicon-on-insulator substrate, a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, or a ceramic substrate. The silicon-on-insulator substrate may be formed by any conventional method, such as wafer bonding, Separation by Implantation of Oxygen (SIMOX), and formation of an insulating layer on a silicon substrate. After the peripheral circuitry is completed, an interlayer insulating layer 4003 is conformally deposited over the circuitry as shown in
A semiconductor active area layer 4005 is then deposited over the insulating layer 4003 to complete the SOI substrate. The semiconductor layer will be used for the transistor active areas. Layer 4005 may have any desired thickness, such as 20 to 120 nm, preferably 70 nm, and is chosen so that in depletion regime the space charge region below the transistor gate extends over the entire layer. Preferably, the semiconductor layer 4005 comprises an amorphous or polycrystalline silicon layer doped with first conductivity type dopants. For example, layer 4005 may be p-type doped by in-situ doping during deposition, or after deposition by ion implantation or diffusion.
If desired, the crystallinity of the semiconductor layer 4005 may be improved by heating the layer 4005. In other words, an amorphous silicon layer may be recrystallized to form polysilicon or a grain size of a polysilicon layer may be increased. The heating may comprise thermal or laser annealing the layer 4005. If desired, catalyst induced crystallization may be used to improve the crystallinity of layer 4005. In this process, a catalyst element such as Ni, Ge, Mo, Co, Pt, Pd, a silicide thereof, or other transition metal elements, is placed in contact with the semiconductor layer 4005. Then, the layer 4005 is thermally and/or laser annealed. During the annealing, the catalyst element either propagates through the silicon layer leaving a trail of large grains, or serves as a seed where silicon crystallization begins. In the latter case, the amorphous silicon layer then crystallizes laterally from this seed by means of solid phase crystallization (SPC).
It should be noted that the deposition of amorphous or polysilicon layer 4005 may be omitted if a single crystal SOI substrate is used. In this case, using the SIMOX method, oxygen ions are implanted deep into a single crystal silicon substrate, forming a buried silicon oxide layer therein. A single crystal silicon layer remains above the buried silicon oxide layer.
Next, the surface of the active area layer 4005 is preferably cleaned from impurities and a native oxide is removed. A charge storage region 4007 is then formed on the layer 4005. In the first preferred embodiment of the present invention, the charge storage region 4007 comprises an oxide-nitride-oxide (ONO) dielectric triple layer. This dielectric comprises a first (bottom) SiO2 layer, also called a tunnel oxide, a charge storage Si3N4-xO1.5x layer, where x is 0 to 1, and a second (top) SiO2 layer, also called a blocking oxide. The tunnel oxide is either grown by thermal oxidation on the active area layer 4005, or deposited over the active area layer by atmospheric pressure, low pressure or plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (APCVD, LPCVD or PECVD) or other means. The tunnel oxide has a thickness of 1.5 nm to 7 nm, preferably 4.5 nm. The charge storage silicon nitride or silicon oxynitride (Si3N4-xO1.5x) layer is deposited over the tunnel oxide, and its thickness is at least 5 nm, preferably 5-15 nm, most preferably 6 nm. The blocking oxide layer is arranged on the surface of the charge storage layer and has a thickness of 3.5 nm to 9.5 nm, preferably 5.0 μm. The charge storage and blocking layers may be deposited by APCVD, LPCVD, PECVD, or other means, such as sputtering.
It should be noted that different materials and different layer thicknesses may be used as desired. For example, the charge storage layer need not necessarily be formed from Si3N4-xO1.5x. For example, in an alternative aspect of the first embodiment, the charge storage layer may be formed from a plurality of electrically isolated nanocrystals, such as silicon, tungsten or aluminum nanocrystals dispersed in a silicon oxide, nitride or oxynitride insulating layer. If a nanocrystal charge storage layer is used, then the tunnel and/or the blocking oxide layers may be omitted if desired.
After the charge storage region 4007 (i.e., the ONO dielectric) formation, a first gate layer 4009 is deposited over the charge storage region. The first gate layer 4009 may comprise any conductive layer, such as n+-doped polysilicon. Such a polysilicon layer may have any appropriate thickness, such as 50 to 200 nm, preferably 100 nm, and any appropriate dopant concentration, such as 1019-1021 cm−3, preferably 1020 cm−3.
If desired, an optional protective layer 4011, such as a protective silicon oxide layer, is formed on the surface of the first gate layer 4009. Layer 4011 may have any appropriate thickness, such as, for example 3-10 nm, preferably 5 nm. Materials other than silicon oxide may be used for layer 4011, if desired.
A sacrificial blocking layer 4013 is then deposited over the protective layer 4011. In a preferred aspect of the first embodiment, the blocking layer is made of any conductive or insulating material which may be selectively etched with respect to other layers of the device. Preferably, the blocking layer 4013 comprises a silicon nitride layer. The blocking layer may have any thickness. Preferably the blocking layer 4013 has the thickness that is desired for the whole control gate or an upper part of a control gate, as will be described in more detail below. For example, layer 4013 has a thickness of 100 to 250 nm, preferably 160 nm.
Next, a bit line pattern is transferred to the in process device wafer or substrate using a reverse bit line mask, as shown in
The mask features are etched into the blocking nitride 4013, the protective oxide 4011, and the first gate layer 4009, using the photoresist layer as a mask, to form a plurality of gate stacks 4015. The ONO dielectric 4007 serves as an etch stop layer. Then, the photoresist layer is stripped from the patterned gate stacks 4015. The photoresist may be removed after the blocking nitride 4013 is etched, in which case the nitride may be used as a hard mask for etching the first gate layer 4009. The gate stacks 4015 include a patterned first gate electrode 9, an optional protective oxide 4011 and a patterned blocking layer 4013. If desired, a thin layer of silicon nitride, oxynitiride or oxide is grown to seal the first gate electrode 4009 sidewalls.
Transistor source and drain regions 4017 are formed by self-aligned ion implantation, using the gate stacks 4015 as a mask. The photoresist layer may be left on the gate stacks during this implantation or removed prior to the implantation. The ion implantation is carried out through the ONO dielectric 4007. However, if desired, the portions of the ONO dielectric 4007 between the gates 4009 may be removed prior to the ion implantation.
Channel regions 4019 of the active layer 4005 are located below the gate electrodes 4009. The regions 4017 are doped with a second conductivity type dopant different from the first conductivity type dopant of the channels 4019. Thus, if the channels 4019 are p-type doped, then the source and drain regions 4017 are n-type doped, and vice-versa.
It should be noted that in a memory array, the designations “source” and “drain” are arbitrary. Thus, the regions 4017 may be considered to be “sources” or “drains” depending on which bit line a voltage is provided. Furthermore, since no field oxide regions are preferably used in this memory array, each region 4017 is located between two gate electrodes 4009. Therefore, a particular region 4017 may be considered to be a “source” with respect to one gate 4009, and a “drain” with respect to the other gate 4009.
Next, gate stack sidewall spacers 4021 are formed on the sidewalls of the gate stacks 4015, as shown in
The salicide process is then used to form silicide regions 4023 in the silicon source and drain regions 4017 in a self-aligned fashion. The salicide process comprises three steps. First a layer of metal, such as Ti, W, Mo, Ta, etc., or a transition metal such as Co, Ni, Pt or Pd is blanket deposited over the exposed regions 4017, the sidewall spacers 4021 and the blocking layer 4013 of the gate stacks 4015. The device is annealed to perform a silicidation by direct metallurgical reaction, where the metal layer reacts with the silicon in regions 4017 to form the silicide regions 4023 over regions 4017. The unnreacted metal remaining on the spacers 4021 and the blocking layer 4013 is removed by a selective etch, e.g., by a piranha solution. The silicide regions 4023 and the doped silicon regions 4017 together comprise the bit lines 4025.
A conformal insulating layer 4027 is then deposited to fill the trenches above the bit lines 4025 and between the sidewall spacers 4021. The insulating layer 4027 may comprise any insulating material, such as silicon oxide, silicon oxynitride, PSG, BPSG, BSG, spin-on glass, a polymer dielectric layer (such as polyimide, etc.), and/or any other desired insulating material that is different than the material of the blocking layer 4013. The insulating layer 4027 is then planarized using chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), etch back and/or any other means to expose the upper surface of the silicon nitride blocking layer 4013 on the gate stacks 4015.
Next, the blocking silicon nitride layer 4013 is etched selectively without substantially etching the spacers 4021 and the insulating layer 4027. The protective oxide layer 4011, if present, is then removed by etching it from the upper surface of the first gate electrodes 4009 in the stacks 4015. These etching steps form a gate contact via 4029 above each gate 4009, as shown in
A second gate electrode conductive material 4031 is then deposited over the entire device, as shown in
Next, a photoresist layer (not shown) is applied over the material 4031 and is exposed through the word line mask and developed. The photoresist layer is used as a mask to etch the second gate electrode material 4031 to form a plurality of word lines 4041. The ONO stack 4007 and the exposed active area layer 4005 are then etched using the word lines 4041 as a mask. The photoresist layer may be left on the word lines 4041 during this etching step or it may be removed prior to this etching step. The bottom insulating layer 4003 under the active area layer 4005 and the intergate insulating layer 4027 over the bit lines 4025 serve as etch stop layers. Thus, the second gate electrode material 4031 is patterned into a plurality of word lines 4041 which overlie the intergate insulating layer 4027 as shown in
If desired, the exposed active area 4005 and gate electrode 4009/4043 sidewalls may be optionally sealed by growing a thin layer of silicon nitride or oxide on them, for example by thermal nitridation or oxidation. This completes construction of the memory array. An insulating layer is then deposited, and if necessary planarized, over the word lines 4041.
The word line photolithography step does not require misalignment tolerances, since the word lines are patterned using the same mask as the charge storage regions 4007 and the active layer 4005 (i.e., channel regions 4019) of each TFT in the cell. Therefore, the word lines 4041 are not only self aligned to the control gate 4009/4043 of the TFT EEPROM by being deposited in the self aligned vias 4029, but the word lines 4041 are also self aligned to the charge storage regions 4007 and the channel regions 4019 of each memory cell. By using a fully self aligned memory cell, the number of expensive and time consuming photolithography steps is reduced. Furthermore, since no misalignment tolerances for each cell are required, the cell density is increased. Another advantage of the device of the first embodiment is that since a thick intergate insulating layer 4027 is located between the bit lines 4025 and the word lines 4041, the parasitic capacitance and a chance of a short circuit between the bit lines and the word lines are decreased.
The gate electrode 4109 of the device 4100 is made thicker than the gate electrode 4009 in the first embodiment. For example, the gate electrode 4109 may have any appropriate thickness, such as 160 to 360 nm, preferably 260 nm. Since the blocking 4013 layer is omitted, the gate sidewall spacers 4121 are formed on the patterned gate electrode 4109 covered by a protective silicon oxide layer (not shown) after the formation of the source and drain regions 4117. The sidewall spacers 4121 extend to the top of the gate electrode 4109. The silicide regions 4123 are then formed on the source and drain regions 4117 by depositing a metal layer and reacting the metal layer with the source and drain regions 4117. No silicide is formed on the gate electrode 4109, which is covered by the silicon oxide protective layer, and on the sidewall spacers 4121. The insulating layer 4127 is then deposited between the sidewall spacers 4121 and over the gate electrodes 4109. Preferably, the layer 4127 is silicon oxide, but may comprise any other insulating material, as in the first embodiment. Layer 4127 is then planarized to expose the upper surface of the gate electrode 4109. The insulating layer 4127 is preferably planarized by CMP, but may be planarized by etch back and/or any other means. During the planarization, the protective silicon oxide layer is also removed to expose the upper surface of the gate electrode 4109, as shown in
Since the selective nitride blocking layer 4013 etch step is not performed in the second embodiment, the spacers 4121 may be composed of silicon nitride, rather than silicon oxide. Silicon nitride spacers are advantageous because they conform to the underlying topography better than oxide spacers. The spacers 4121 and the gate 4109 may act as a polish or etch stop during the planarization of layer 4127.
After the gate electrodes 4109 are exposed, the memory array of the second preferred embodiment is completed just like the array in the first preferred embodiment. As in the first embodiment, one or more conductive layers is/are deposited directly over the tops of the sidewall spacers 4121 and exposed gate electrodes 4109. For example, the conductive layers may comprise a silicide 4135 layer between polysilicon layers 4133 and 4137. As shown in
If desired, the exposed active area 4105 and gate electrode 4109 sidewalls may be optionally sealed by growing a thin layer of silicon nitride or oxide on them, for example by thermal nitridation or oxidation. This completes construction of the memory array. An insulating layer is then deposited, and if necessary planarized, over the word lines 4141.
The word line photolithography step does not require misalignment tolerances, since the word line is patterned using the same mask as the charge storage regions 4107 and the active layer 4105 of each TFT in the cell. Therefore, the word lines 4141 are not only self aligned to the control gate 4109 of the TFT EEPROM by being deposited directly over the exposed upper surfaces of the gates 4109 and spacers 4121, but the word lines 4141 are also self aligned to the charge storage regions 4107 and the channel regions 4119 of each memory cell. By using a fully self aligned memory cell, the number of expensive and time consuming photolithography steps is reduced. Since no misalignment tolerances are required, the cell density is increased. Furthermore, eliminating blocking nitride deposition and selective etch steps of the first embodiment, reduces the step count by three, which simplifies the process flow.
As shown in
The first gate electrode 4209 is formed and patterned on the tunnel oxide layer 4206, as in the first and second embodiments. However, in the third embodiment, the first gate electrode 4209 comprises a floating gate rather than a control gate. The floating gate 4209 is self-aligned to the transistor channel 4219, as in the first and second embodiments.
The device illustrated in
The other deviation from the first and second embodiments is the formation of a control gate dielectric 4212 over the floating gate 4209, as shown in
Then, as shown in
A control gate dielectric 4212 is then formed, for example, by thermal oxidation, on the exposed floating gate 4209 inside the via 4229 as shown in
According to the second preferred method, a gate stack 4215 comprising a floating gate 4209, the control gate dielectric 4212 and a sacrificial blocking layer 4213 are formed over the tunnel dielectric 4206. The source and drain regions 4217 are implanted into the active area 4205 using the gate stack 4215 as a mask, such that a channel region 4219 is formed below the tunnel dielectric 4206. Then, sidewall spacers 4221 are formed over the gate stack 4215. An insulating layer 4227 is formed adjacent to the spacers and planarized to expose the blocking layer 4213, as shown in
Then, as shown in
As shown in
In the methods of
The device illustrated in
In a preferred aspect of the fourth embodiment, the top surface of the upper portion of the floating gate 4310 is textured or roughened to further increase the capacitive coupling between the floating gate and the control gate/word line. For example, at least the upper portion of the floating gate 4310 may be made of hemispherical grain silicon (HSG), or the upper surface of the floating gate may be roughened by etching or coarse polishing. In other words, the upper portion of the floating gate may be textured or roughened similar to the texturing or roughening methods used to texture or roughen bottom conductive plates of DRAM capacitors.
While the first through fourth preferred embodiments describe and illustrate a TFT EEPROM nonvolatile flash memory array, the present invention should not be considered to be so limited. For example, rather than a self aligned word line in a TFT EEPROM array, any gate line may be self aligned to a MOSFET (i.e., metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) gate according to the preferred embodiments of the present invention. Furthermore, the EEPROM array may be formed in a bulk silicon substrate rather than over an interlayer insulating layer.
The first through the fourth preferred embodiments describe and illustrate a cross-point array of word lines and bit lines at a horizontal level and a method of making thereof. Each memory cell consists of a single programmable field effect transistor (i.e., TFT), with its source and drain connected to the jth bit line and the (j+1)st bit line, respectively, and a control gate being either connected to or comprising the kth word line. This memory arrangement is known as the NOR Virtual Ground (NVG) Array (also referred to as VGA). If desired, the memory array may also be arranged in non volatile flash memory architectures other than VGA, such as NOR-type memory or Dual String NOR (DuSNOR) memory, for example. The DuSNOR architecture, where two adjacent cell strings share a common source line but use different drain lines, is described in K. S. Kim, et al., IEDM-95, (1995) page 263, incorporated herein by reference. The DuSNOR memory may be fabricated using the same process as the VGA memory, except that an additional masking step is used to pattern the active area layer to separate the drain regions of adjacent cells. The process sequence of the first through third preferred embodiments of the present invention requires only two photolithographic masking steps. One masking step is for gate patterning/self aligned bit line formation. The other masking step is for word line patterning. The methods of the preferred embodiments of the present invention exploit self-alignment to reduce alignment tolerances between the masks. The memory cell area achieved with the foregoing process is about 4F2, where F is the minimum feature size (i.e. 0.18 microns in a 0.18 micron semiconductor process). The term “about” allows for small deviations (10% or less) due to non-uniform process conditions and other small deviations from desired process parameters. If the charge storage medium used in the transistor is not conductive, e.g., it is formed from nitride or oxy-nitride (i.e. using the ONO charge storage medium), or electrically isolated nanocrystals, the localized nature of charge storage can be exploited to store two bits per cell. In this case, the effective cell area per bit equals about 2F2.
The NVG array of the first through fourth preferred embodiments is very suitable for vertical stacking of horizontal planar NVG arrays.
The memory array also contains a plurality of bit line columns 4425, each bit line contacting the source or the drain regions 4417 of a plurality of TTT EEPROMs. The columns of the bit lines 4425 extend substantially perpendicular to the source-channel-drain direction of the TFT EEPROMs (i.e., a small deviation from the perpendicular direction is included in the term “substantially perpendicular”). It should be noted that the columns of the bit lines 4425 may extend substantially perpendicular to the source-channel-drain direction of the TFT EEPROMs throughout the entire array 4400 or only in a portion of the array 4400. The bit lines in each device level are shaped as rails which extend under the intergate insulating layer. The bit lines include the buried diffusion regions formed during the source and drain doping steps and the overlying silicide layers. The source and drain regions are formed in the bit lines where the word lines intersect (i.e., overlie) the bit lines and the doped regions are located adjacent to the EEPROM channel regions.
The memory array also includes a plurality of word line rows 4441. Each word line contacts the control gates 4443 of a plurality TFT EEPROMs 4400 (or the word lines comprise the control gates). The rows of word lines extend substantially parallel to the source-channel-drain direction of the TFT EEPROMs (i.e., a small deviation from the parallel direction is included in the term “substantially parallel”). It should be noted that the rows of the word lines 4441 may extend substantially parallel to the source-channel-drain direction of the TFT EEPROMs throughout the entire array 4400 or only in a portion of the array 4400. The plurality of word lines 4441 are self aligned to the control gates 4443 of the array of TFT EEPROMs (or the word lines themselves comprise the control gates). If floating gates, but not control gates are included in the array, then the word lines are self aligned to the floating gates and to the control gate dielectric.
Each device level 4445 of the array is separated and decoupled in the vertical direction by an interlayer insulating layer 4403. The interlayer insulating layer 4403 also isolates adjacent word lines 4441 and adjacent portions of the active areas 4405 below the respective word lines 4441 in each device level 4445. The effective cell area per bit in the resulting three dimensional memory array is about 2F2/N, where N is the number of device levels (i.e., N=1 for a two dimensional array and N>1 for a three dimensional array). The array of nonvolatile memory devices 4400 comprises a monolithic three dimensional array of memory devices. The term “monolithic” means that layers of each level of the array were directly deposited on the layers of each underlying level of the array. In contrast, two dimensional arrays may be formed separately and then packaged together to form a non-monolithic memory device.
Each cell in one level 4445 of the memory array can be formed using only two photolithographic masking steps. However, additional masking steps may be needed to form contacts to the bit lines 4425. In a sixth preferred embodiment of the present invention, a conductive layer is formed over the array of memory devices. The conductive layer is then patterned to form a plurality of word lines or word line contact layers and at least one bit line contact layer which contacts at least one of the plurality of the bit lines. Thus, a separate bit line contact deposition and patterning step may be avoided, since the same conductive layer may be patterned to form the word lines/word line contacts and the bit line contacts. Of course, if desired, the word lines/word line contacts and the bit line contacts may be made from different materials and/or patterned using different masks.
Then one or more conductive layers, such as silicide layer 4555 and doped polysilicon layer 4557 are deposited on the interlayer insulating layer 4503 and in the vias 4551 and 4549. The one or more conductive layer(s) 4555, 4557 are then photolithographically patterned using the same mask to form both a word line contact 4559, the bit line contact 4547, and plurality of word lines in the memory layer above the memory layer shown.
The word line and bit line contacts can reach down to lower levels, e.g., every other lower level, or several lower levels at the same time. Thus, in
As in the previously described embodiments, the process starts with a deposition of a semiconductor active area, such as an amorphous silicon or polycrystalline silicon layer 4605 over an interlevel insulating layer 4603, as shown in
Preferably, the active layer 4605 comprises amorphous silicon and the dummy blocks 4604 are formed of a material which is deposited at a temperature below 600° C. to avoid recrystallizing the amorphous silicon layer 4605 into a polysilicon layer with a small grain size. For example, the dummy blocks 4604 may be formed by depositing a low temperature PECVD silicon nitride layer over the active layer 4605 and patterning the silicon nitride layer into a plurality of dummy blocks 4604 using photolithography.
In a preferred aspect of the seventh embodiment, the dummy blocks 4604 comprise a plurality of layers, including a sacrificial channel dielectric layer 4667, a sacrificial gate layer 4669, and a protective oxide layer 4671, as shown in
Subsequently, TFT source and drain regions 4617 are implanted into the active layer 4605 using the dummy blocks as a mask. The channel layers 4619 are located in layer 4605 between regions 4617 and below the blocks 4604. If the dummy blocks 4604 contain a polysilicon layer, then preferably, sidewall spacers 4621 are formed on the dummy block 4604 sidewalls to separate silicide from the source/drain junctions, to prevent subsequent silicide formation on the dummy blocks and to increase flexibility in source/drain engineering. The spacers 4621 may be composed of silicon oxide or silicon nitride, or two different layers, as shown in
A metal layer, such as Ti, W, Mo, Ta, etc., or a transition metal such as Co, Ni, Pt or Pd is blanket deposited over the exposed regions 4617 and the dummy blocks 4604. The device is annealed to perform a silicidation by direct metallurgical reaction, where the metal layer reacts with the silicon in regions 4617 to form the silicide regions 4623 over regions 4617, as shown in
After the formation of the buried bit lines 4625 which contain the source and drain regions 4617 and the silicide 4623 regions, a conformal intergate insulating layer 4627 is deposited between and above the dummy blocks 4604. Preferably, layer 4627 comprises silicon oxide (HDP oxide), as in the other preferred embodiments. The layer 4627 is then planarized by CMP and/or etchback to expose the top portions of the dummy blocks 4604. For example, if the dummy blocks 4604 contain a silicon oxide protective layer 4671 and silicon oxide spacers 4621, then these layers may be removed together with the top portion of layer 4627 during planarization. In this case, the top portions of the sacrificial gates 4669 are exposed after planarization, as shown in
Next, the dummy blocks 4604 are selectively etched (i.e., removed) without substantially etching the intergate insulating layer 4627. For example, if the dummy blocks 4604 include the sacrificial polysilicon gates 4609, then these sacrificial gates 4609 are selectively etched without substantially etching the spacers 4621 and the intergate insulating layer 4627. If the dummy blocks include a sacrificial gate dielectric layer 4667, then this layer 4667 can be removed using plasma etch back or wet etch methods. As shown in
After the surface of the active layer 4605 above the channel regions 4619 is exposed by removing the dummy block materials, the “real” or permanent gate dielectric material is immediately grown and/or deposited on the exposed regions. Preferably, this dielectric comprises a charge storage region 4607 selected from the ONO triple layer or the plurality of electrically isolated nanocrystals, as shown in
Subsequently, a conductive material is deposited over the intergate insulating layer 4627 and the charge storage regions 4607. The conductive material may comprise polysilicon or a combination of polysilicon 4633, 4637 and silicide 4635 layers, as in the other embodiments. The conductive material fills the vias 4629 and overlies the charge storage layer 4607. The conductive material is then patterned to form a plurality of word lines 4641, as in the other embodiments. The active layer 4605 and the charge storage layer 4607 is then patterned using the word lines 4641 as a mask as in the other embodiments. The portions of the word lines 4641 located in the vias 4629 comprise the control gates 4609 of the TFT EEPROMs, as shown in
In an eighth preferred embodiment of the present invention, the TFTs in a plurality of the levels of the three dimensional array of
Thus, in a first preferred aspect of the eighth embodiment, amorphous silicon or polysilicon active areas of TFTs in a plurality of levels are recrystallized at the same time. Preferably, TFTs in all levels are recrystallized at the same time. The recrystallization may be effected by thermal annealing in a furnace or by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) in an RTA system. The thermal annealing may be carried out at 550 to 800° C. for 6-10 hours, preferably at 650 to 725° C. for 7-8 hours.
Furthermore, since a silicide layer 4423 contacts the source and drain regions 4417, the silicide may act as a catalyst for recrystallization, especially if nickel, cobalt or molybdenum silicide is used. The metal atoms diffuse though the active areas of the TFTs, leaving behind large grains of polysilicon. Thus, recrystallizing the amorphous silicon or polysilicon active areas after depositing the bit line metallization leads to larger grains and allows the use of lower recrystallization temperatures, such as 550 to 650° C. Furthermore, no separate metal deposition and patterning for metal induced crystallization is required. Thus, each level of the array may be subjected to a recrystallization anneal after the bit line metallization is formed for this level. Alternatively, all levels of the array may be subjected to a recrystallization anneal after the bit line metallizations for every level of the array have been formed. Furthermore, in an alternative aspect of the eighth embodiment, silicide formation step and the recrystallization steps may be carried out during the same annealing step for each level of the array.
In a second preferred aspect of the eighth embodiment, the doped regions in a plurality of levels are activated at the same time. Preferably, the doped regions in all of the levels are activated at the same time. The doped regions comprise the TFT source and drain regions as well as any other doped region formed in the three dimensional array. Preferably, the doped regions are activated by subjecting the array to an RTA treatment. However, if desired, the activation may be carried out by thermal annealing at about 700 to about 850° C. for 20 to 60 minutes. The activation may be carried out before or after the crystallization anneal.
In a third preferred aspect of the eighth embodiment, the recrystallization and dopant activation are carried out in the same annealing step of a plurality of levels or for all the levels of the array. The annealing step should be conducted at a sufficiently high temperature and for a sufficient length of time to activate the dopants and to recrystallize the TFT active areas, without causing the source and drain region dopants to diffuse into the channel regions of the TFTs. Preferably, the combined recrystallization and dopant activation annealing step comprises an RTA treatment.
In a fourth preferred aspect of the eighth embodiment, an extra photolithographic masking step is provided to form crystallization windows used to deposit the crystallization catalyst material. For example, as shown in
Next, a catalyst, such as Ni, Ge, Fe, Mo, Co, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, Os, Ir, Cu, Au, a silicide thereof, or other transition metal elements or their silicides, is deposited. The catalyst comes in contact with the amorphous silicon active layer 4705 only in the open windows 4701. The catalyst material may be deposited as a solid layer or as a catalyst solution. Alternatively, the catalyst may be ion implanted or diffused into the active layer 4705. Then, the device is annealed for several hours at a temperature below 600° C., preferably at 550° C. This low anneal temperature is preferred to minimize spontaneous nucleation in the amorphous silicon. Polysilicon grains in the present embodiment start growing from the seed regions in the windows 4701 and grow laterally. At the completion of anneal, the grain boundaries 4702 are aligned as shown in
III. Rail Stack TFTs
The following preferred embodiments provide an array of TFTs with a charge storage region, such as EEPROM TFTs, arranged in a rail stack configuration. The embodiments described herein are in the context of a non-volatile reprogrammable semiconductor memory and methods of fabrication and utilization thereof. Those of ordinary skill in the art will realize that the following detailed description of the embodiments of the present invention is illustrative only and is not intended to be in any way limiting. Other embodiments of the present invention will readily suggest themselves to such skilled persons having the benefit of this disclosure. Reference will now be made in detail to implementations of the present invention as illustrated in the accompanying drawings. The same reference indicators will be used throughout the drawings and the following detailed description to refer to the same or like parts.
In the interest of clarity, not all of the routine features of the implementations described herein are shown and described. It will, of course, be appreciated that in the development of any such actual implementation, numerous implementation-specific decisions must be made in order to achieve the developer's specific goals, such as compliance with application- and business-related constraints, and that these specific goals will vary from one implementation to another and from one developer to another. Moreover, it will be appreciated that such a development effort might be complex and time-consuming, but would nevertheless be a routine undertaking of engineering for those of ordinary skill in the art having the benefit of this disclosure.
The present embodiment is directed to a two- or, more preferably, a three-dimensional many-times-programmable (MTP) non-volatile memory. The memory provides a bit cell size of 2F2/N where F is the minimum feature size (e.g., 0.18 microns in a 0.18 micron semiconductor process and 0.25 microns in a 0.25 micron semiconductor process) and N is the number of layers of devices in the third (i.e., vertical) dimension. Thus, for a 0.18 micron process with 8 devices stacked vertically, the effective bit cell size projected on the substrate is only about 0.0081 square microns. As a result, a 50 mm2 chip with 50% array efficiency in a 0.18 micron technology and with 8 layers of memory devices would have approximately 3.1 billion memory cells for a capacity of approximately 386 megabytes with two bits stored per cell and 193 megabytes with one bit stored per cell. The three-dimensional versions of the memory use an extension to three dimensions of the “virtual ground array” commonly used with single crystalline silicon memory devices. The preferred memory process architecture uses N+ doped polysilicon rails perpendicular to rail stacks of P− doped polysilicon/charge trapping layer/N+ polysilicon in a cross-point array forming NMOS transistor memory devices with a SONOS charge trapping layer which may be duplicated vertically. Of course a PMOS memory can also be made.
Adjacent pairs of N+ polysilicon rails and a rail stack of P− doped polysilicon/charge trapping layer/N+ doped polysilicon define the source, drain and gate, respectively, of a unique NMOS memory device. Programming and erasing change the threshold voltage of this NMOS. With hot electron injection programming, two bits per NMOS can be stored and erasing can be performed either with hot hole injection or with Fowler-Nordheim tunneling.
Turning now to
A process of forming a multilevel array of thin film transistor (TFT) memory devices above the substrate in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention begins by blanket depositing a first conductor layer 5188 over surface 5186 of substrate 5180. Conductor 5188 can be any suitable conductor such as, but not limited to, titanium silicide, doped polysilicon, or a metal such as aluminum or tungsten and their alloys formed by any suitable technique. Conductor layer 5188 is to be used as, for example, a bitline or a wordline to couple a row or column of memory devices together. Next, a planarization is performed by depositing or growing an insulating layer such as a silicon oxide over conductor layer 5188 to fill spaces between bit lines. A conventional chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) step completes the planarization and exposes the bitlines.
Turning now to
The memory array structure of
Turning now to
Those of ordinary skill in the art will realize that semiconductors of the opposite conductivity types may also be used. Where a conductor other than doped polysilicon is used for the wordlines and bit lines it will be necessary to form a doped region in semiconductor layer 5094 in some way other than by out diffusion.
Turning now to
Turning now to
Turning now to
Turning now to
Turning now to
An alternative bottom gate TFT embodiment is illustrated in
The approach of
Another alternative embodiment of a top gate TFT array is illustrated in
The charge storage medium film used herein (also referred to herein as a “local charge storage film”) needs to be able to retain a localized charge, i.e., it must not laterally conduct. In one embodiment, a charge trapping layer may be formed in a dielectric stack 5160 as shown in
The charge storage medium film may alternatively be formed from a plurality of electrically isolated nanocrystals 5172 as shown in
Nanocrystals 5172 can be formed from conductive material such as silicon, tungsten or aluminum. In order to be self isolating the nanocrystals must have a material cluster size less than one-half the pitch of the cell so that floating gates from vertically and horizontally adjacent cells are isolated. That is, the nanocrystals or material clusters 5172 must be small enough so that a single nanocrystal 5172 cannot bridge vertically or horizontally adjacent cells. Silicon nanocrystals can be formed by depositing silicon in a manner whereby silicon has a very high surface diffusivity relative to its sticking coefficient. For example, silicon nanocrystals can be formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), by decomposing silane (SiH4) at a very low pressure, in a range of about 1 millitorr to about 200 millitorr, at a temperature in a range of about 2500 to about 650° C. In such a process, a very thin deposition, in a range of about 50 Å to about 250 Å, will form little islands of silicon. If H2 is included with silane during the deposition, higher pressures can be utilized and still obtain nanocrystals. In an alternative embodiment of the present invention, metal nanocrystals such as aluminum nanocrystals, can be formed by sputtering from a metal target at a temperature near the melting temperature of the metal, so that the metal agglomerates and forms nanocrystals. Tungsten nanocrystals can be formed by chemical vapor deposition at very low pressures by utilizing a reactant gas mix comprising a tungsten source gas such as WF6 and germane (GeH4). In still yet another embodiment of the present invention, a continuous film of floating gate material can be deposited and then caused to precipitate (by heating) to cause islands to form in the film.
It is to be appreciated, that although nanocrystals are preferred for the floating gate, because of their self isolating quality, the floating gate can be formed from a continuous film such as, but not limited to, a metal such as tungsten or a silicon film such as polycrystalline or amorphous silicon doped to the desired conductivity type (typically N+ silicon). If a continuous film is used as a local charge storage film, the film would be anisotropically etched at this time to remove portions of it in order to electrically isolate strips of the film.
Similarly, small pieces of floating gate material, such as heavily doped polysilicon, may form a local charge storage medium when embedded in an insulator such as an oxide layer.
An issue with using N+ out diffusion in a multi-level device is that the various levels will be exposed to different thermal processing. That is, the bottom layer will be exposed to each thermal processing step while the top layer is only exposed to the last thermal processing steps. Since it is undesirable to have the MOS memory transistors exhibiting substantially different performance characteristics depending upon level in the array and it is undesirable to allow lateral diffusion to swamp the MOS memory transistors, care needs to be given to the thermal budget and mechanisms for forming source/drain regions. Where N+ doping is used for the bitline and P− doping for the semiconductor film, it is possible to use antimony as the dopant instead of phosphorous as antimony exhibits a smaller diffusivity than phosphorous. It is also possible to engineer the dopant profile in the bitline polysilicon to allow different out diffusions. This is shown in
Turning now to
To read the first bit, BL(m+1,j) is now the source and BL(m,j) is the drain. The former is grounded and the latter is raised to a read voltage (˜50 mV to 3V, preferably 1-3V) while WL(m,j) is pulsed to a read voltage (˜1-5V). Again, all BL's to the left of BL(m,j) are held at the same potential as BL(m,j) and all BL's to the right of BL(m+1,j) are grounded. All other WL's on the same level are grounded to shut off all other MOS devices between the same two BL's. All other BL's and WL's on all other levels can be left floating.
To program and read the second bit in the same cell, the voltages on BL(m,j) and BL(M+1,j) are reversed compared to the above.
Notice that the body region of the MOS memory transistor is floating and can be made thin (defined by the deposition tool, e.g., preferably several hundred Angstroms). By making this region thin, snapback of the device can be avoided and so rapid increase in programming currents can also be avoided.
Erasing of the memory can take place in blocks and may employ a combination of slow Fowler-Nordheim tunneling and hot hole injection. The erase current will be small since the MOS body is floating resulting in very little band-to-band tunneling and avalanche breakdown. Erase can take place with the wordlines either grounded or held negative (˜−5V) and all bitlines held at some positive voltage. The erase procedure will take over 100 ms and can be done at each memory level up to the full memory at one time.
Non-selected bits with common wordline should be able to withstand the programming voltage on the wordline for a worst case period of time.
If each bit (i.e. half cell) needs time t to program and there are N cells on each WL then, in a worst case, a programmed bit would experience (2N−1)t of time where the programming voltage would be applied to the WL. The gate stress program disturb would be fine if any programmed cell did not shift its Vt by a certain “minimal” amount. Since programming is achieved using hot electrons, the times and voltages are short and small respectively compared to voltages and times needed to tunnel out of charge traps. In addition, the total stress on any one bit may be effectively reduced by floating unselected bitlines during the programming of the selected cell. In this way, only the selected bitline at ground will experience a true full programming voltage across the dielectric(s).
Non-selected bits with a bitline in common with the selected bit should be able to withstand the programming voltage on the drain for a worst case period of time.
Again, if there are M cells on any one bitline and it takes time t to program any one bit, then the worst case drain stress on a programmed bit will be (M−1)t in time. So the Vt shift in a programmed bit after experiencing such a stress should be minimal.
Read disturb or “soft write” occurs if the hot carriers generated during a read of the cell are sufficient to eventually (over 10 years lifetime) program a previously erased (unwritten) bit. Accelerated testing is usually carried out here to make sure that the read voltages required do not shift the threshold voltage of a neutral cell by more than a minimal amount.
In the devices set forth above, N+ or P+ doped polysilicon should be doped to a dopant density of about 1×1019 to 1×1021 atoms/cm3 and have a thickness preferably in a range of about 500 Å to about 1000 Å. P− or N− doped semiconductor films should be doped to a dopant density of about 1×1016 to about 1×1018 atoms/cm3.
It is to be appreciated that each of the memory devices shown can be made of opposite polarity by simply reversing the conductivity type of each of the silicon regions and maintaining dopant concentration ranges. In this way, not only can NMOS devices be fabricated, but also PMOS devices can be formed if desired. Additionally, the silicon films used to form the device may be recrystallized single crystal silicon or polycrystalline silicon. Additionally, the silicon film can be a silicon alloy film such as a silicon germanium film doped with n-type or p-type conductivity ions to the desired concentration.
Where it is desired to increase the lateral conductivity of polysilicon wordlines and bitlines, a layer of a conductive metal may be deposited in the wordline or bitline as illustrated in
IV. Flash Memory Array in a Rail Stack Configuration
In the previous embodiments, the TFTs were arranged in a virtual ground array (VGA). In a VGA illustrated in the previous embodiments, the programming of each EEPROM occurs by hot carrier injection. In hot carrier injection, a voltage is placed across a diode (i.e., between a source and a drain of a TFT EEPROM). The hot carriers (i.e., hot electrons and holes) that are travelling from source to drain through the channel of the TFT EEPROM are injected into the charge storage region which is disposed adjacent to the channel. This procedure is a relatively high power event.
For low power portable applications where both program/erase and read power are important, a flash nonvolatile memory using Fowler-Nordheim tunneling (“FN tunneling”) for both program and erase may be used. FN tunneling results from applying a voltage across a dielectric. Thus, in a TFT EEPROM, a voltage is applied between a control gate and a source and/or a drain) region of the TFT, for writing and erasing the TFT EEPROM. This is in contrast with hot carrier injection programming, where a voltage is applied between the source and the drain regions.
A flash memory array which uses FN tunneling for program and erase is advantageous because thousands of bits in such a flash memory array may be programmed at the same time.
Also, FN tunneling is a very efficient way of programming since most (close to 100%) of the current goes to program the device. This is in contrast with hot carrier injection where only about 1-2% of the source-drain current goes to program the device.
Thus, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, charge storage devices, such as TFT EEPROMs, are arranged in a flash memory array configuration. The TFT EEPROMs may be arranged in the pillar, self-aligned TFT or rail stack configurations of the previous embodiments. Preferably, the TFT EEPROMs are arranged in the rail stack configuration.
The VGA is not compatible with FN tunneling since the whole channel polysilicon inverts along the length of the pulsed-high word line and will then program cells in addition to the one that needs programming. Therefore, the FN tunneling rail stack (crosspoint) flash array differs from the VGA in that in the FN tunneling array the active polysilicon layer is patterned into polysilicon islands to allow FN tunneling programming. Thus, an extra photolithographic masking step is added to the process of making the rail stack array during which the polysilicon active layer is etched into islands in each device cell. The same photoresist mask can be used to define (i.e., etch) the charge storage regions in each cell.
The array 5230 contains a first plurality of spaced-apart conductive bit lines 5233 disposed at a first height above the substrate in a first direction. The array also contains a second plurality of spaced-apart rail-stacks 5235. The rail stacks are disposed at a second height in a second direction different from the first direction. Preferably, the bit lines 5233 and the rail stacks 5235 are arranged perpendicular to each other. The TFT EEPROM 5232 is formed at the intersection of the rail stacks 5235 and the bit lines 5233.
Each rail-stack 5235 includes a plurality of semiconductor islands 5237, which comprise the active regions of the TFT EEPROMs 5232. One surface of the islands 5237 is in contact with the bit lines 5233. Each rail stack 5235 also includes a conductive word line 5239 and a charge storage region 5241 disposed between a second surface of the semiconductor islands 5237 and the word line 5239.
The semiconductor islands 5237 preferably comprise polysilicon of a first conductivity type (i.e., P− or N−). However, the islands may comprise amorphous silicon if desired. The polysilicon islands 5237 include source and drain regions 5243 of a second conductivity type (i.e., N+ or P+). The source and drain regions 5243 are located at contacting intersections between the bit line conductors 5233 and the rail stacks 5235.
The bit lines 5233 preferably comprise polysilicon of the second conductivity type (i.e., N+ or P+). The bit lines 5233 contact the source and drain regions 5243. Preferably, the source and drain regions are formed by outdiffusion of dopants from the bit lines. Furthermore, an optional metal or a metal silicide layer (not shown in
The charge storage regions 5241 may comprise a dielectric isolated floating gate, electrically isolated nanocrystals or an O—N—O dielectric stack, as in the previous embodiments. An exemplary array having a dielectric isolated floating gate is illustrated in
As shown in
The word line 5239 comprises a polysilicon layer of a second conductivity type (i.e., N+ or P+) and a metal or a metal silicide layer in contact with the polysilicon layer. The word line 5239 acts as a control gate of the TFT EEPROM in locations where it overlies the charge storage regions 5241. Thus, formation of a separate control gate for each TFT is not required.
In one preferred aspect of this embodiment, the rail stacks 5235 are disposed above the bit lines 5233, as shown in
As shown in
While the flash memory array may comprise a two dimensional array, preferably, the flash memory array comprises a monolithic three dimensional array comprising a plurality of device levels. For example, three device levels are shown in
To program the selected TFT EEPROM 5232, either its drain bit line or its source bit line 5233 (or both) are grounded while the positive programming voltage is applied to the selected word line 5239 adjacent to the device 5232 (which is a high impedance node). All other word lines on the same device level are grounded while all other bit lines on the same level device can float or are placed at a slight positive voltage. This means that only the selected cell 5232 experiences the programming voltage across it. Through capacitive coupling, the floating gate 5247 is pulled high while the source and/or drain 5243 are grounded. Electrons tunnel to the floating gate 5247 from the source and/or drain 5243 and an inversion channel is formed in the silicon channel 5237. The current to program such a cell to get a threshold voltage shift of about 5V in approximately one millisecond is several picoamps.
To erase the cell, the same bit lines 5233 can be grounded and a negative voltage pulse is applied to the selected word line 5239. All other word lines can either be grounded or can float. All other bit lines float or are placed at a slight negative voltage. A plurality (or all) of EEPROM cells in the array can be erased at the same time by pulsing a plurality of word lines to a high negative value while all bit lines are grounded. Alternatively, the selected wordline is grounded while the selected cell's bit lines are pulsed positive. All other word lines float or are pulsed slightly positive while all the other bitlines are grounded.
Programming and erasing using FN tunneling alone allows use of low current programming and erasing, which lends itself to “massive parallelism” in programming and erasing. Therefore, many cells 5232 can be programmed in parallel. For example, to get 5V shift, one thousand cells would need about 2 nA in total current and would program in about 1 microsecond per cell, average. During programming and erasing, the parasitic leakage currents are small because no large voltages are placed across polysilicon diodes (i.e., source/channel/drain junctions). During reading, the parasitic leakage currents are also small because source to drain voltages are also small. A programming voltage of 10-20V may be used to program the cells. In the above approach of
As shown in
To program the floating gate 5247 of a cell 5232/5261, its source bit line 5233A is grounded, its drain bit line 5233B floats, and a high positive voltage pulse is applied to the selected cell's word line. This tunnels electrons to the floating gate. All other bit lines on the same device level are left floating or are placed at a slight positive voltage while all other word lines on the same level are grounded. To read, the selected cell's word line is pulsed to a read voltage of above the access transistor's threshold voltage while the cell's source bit line is grounded and drain bit line is set at a low positive voltage, such as 1 to 3 V. All other bit lines at the same level are left floating or grounded while all word lines at the same level are grounded. To erase the cell, its word line is pulsed to a high negative value while its source bit line is grounded. To erase the whole array, all word lines can be pulsed to a high negative value while all source bit lines are grounded.
In another preferred aspect of the flash memory array, a gate to drain offset region 5267 is provided to reduce TFT band-to-band defect related drain leakage, as shown in
If desired, ONO or isolated nanocrystal charge storage regions may be used instead of the floating gate charge storage regions in the embodiments of
In the flash memory array of
The method of making the flash memory array of
A stack of layers including a first semiconductor layer 5237 and a charge storage film are deposited on the exposed bit line conductors 5233A, B and the planarized insulating layer 5245, as shown in
A second photoresist layer (not shown) is formed on the stack and photolithographically patterned into a mask. Using this photoresist layer as a mask, the stack of layers 5237, 5249 and 5247 is etched to form a plurality of first rail stacks 5271 (only one such rail stack is shown in
If floating gate type EEPROMs are to be formed, then the control gate insulating layer 5251 is deposited over the first rail stacks 5271 and in the spaces 5273 between the first rail stacks, as shown in
A second conductive layer 5239 is deposited over the control gate insulating layer 5251. Preferably, layer 5239 comprises polysilicon and metal silicide sublayers. A third photoresist mask (not shown) is formed over the second conductive layer 5239. The second conductive layer 5239, the control gate dielectric 5251 and the first rail stacks 5271 are then etched to form a plurality of second rail stacks 5235, as shown in
The source 5243A and drain 5243B regions are formed by outdiffusing dopants of a second conductivity type (i.e., N+ or P+) into the semiconductor islands 5237 of a first conductivity type (i.e., P− or N−) from the first plurality of spaced-apart conductors. The source and drain regions may be formed at any time during the fabrication sequence after the semiconductor layer 5237 is deposited on the bit line conductors 5233A, 5233B. For example, the device may be annealed after the formation of the second rail stacks 5235 to outdiffuse the dopants into the source and drain regions and to recrystallize the amorphous silicon layer 5237 into a polysilicon layer (or to increase the layer 5237 grain size). The outdiffusion anneal and the crystallization anneal may occur during the same or during separate heating steps. For example, the recrystallization anneal may take place right after layer 5237 is deposited.
The side surfaces of the second rail stacks 5235 are aligned in a plane perpendicular to the substrate and parallel to a direction which extends from the source 5243A to the drain 5243B of the TFT EEPROM 5232, as shown in
A second insulating layer 5257 is then deposited over the second rail stacks 5235 and planarized by CMP to be level with the second rail stacks, as shown in
If desired, a plurality of additional device levels of the array may be monolithically formed above layer 5259 to form a three dimensional monolithic array having at least three device levels, as shown in
In an alternative method of making the flash memory array, the word line in each device level may be formed below the bit line conductors (i.e., bottom gate TFT EEPROMs rather than top gate TFT EEPROMs are formed). In the alternative method, the second rail stacks 5235 comprising the gate lines 5239, the charge storage regions 5251/5247/5249 and the semiconductor islands 5237 are formed first, as shown in
Trenches are then formed in the first insulating layer 5245. Source and drain regions 5243 are formed in the semiconductor islands 5237 by ion implanting (or diffusing) dopant ions through the trenches. The photoresist layer (not shown) used during the etching of the trenches may be removed before or after the ion implantation. A second conductive layer (such as a layer comprising polysilicon and silicide sublayers) is formed in the trenches and over the first insulating layer, as shown in
Similar methods may be used to form the flash memory array having TFT EEPROMs with an access transistor, as shown in
Such a structure may be achieved by two different etching methods. The first etching method includes forming a first photoresist mask 5275 having a first width over the stack, as shown in
The second etching method includes forming a first photoresist mask 5279 having a first width over the stack and etching the tunnel dielectric layer 5249 and the floating gate layer 5247 using the first photoresist mask 5279 to expose a portion of the first semiconductor layer 5237, as shown in
To form the TFT EEPROMs with an access transistor 5261 of
To form the TFT EEPROMs with a drain offset region 5267 of
The nonvolatile, multiprogrammable flash memory array of the preferred embodiment provides many-times -programmable cells in a crosspoint (i.e., rail stack) array. FN tunneling is used for program and erase. This allows many cells to be written in parallel and provides high density, low power file storage. In addition, the cell sizes per layer compare very favorably with cell sizes of commercially available flash memories.
V. CMOS Array for Logic and Memory Circuits
In the previous embodiments, arrays of NMOS or PMOS devices were described. However, in another preferred embodiment of the present invention, an array of CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) transistors is provided. Preferably, adjacent NMOS and PMOS transistors have a common gate. However, the adjacent NMOS and PMOS transistors may have separate gates if desired. The array of CMOS devices may comprise an array of vertical pillar CMOS devices, an array of self aligned CMOS TFTs or an array of rail stack TFTs, as described in any previous embodiment. The CMOS devices are preferably formed as a three dimensional monolithic array above the substrate. However, the CMOS devices may also be formed in a two dimensional array in or above a semiconductor substrate, if desired.
The NMOS and PMOS transistors of the CMOS array may be formed adjacent to each other in the same device level in an alternating fashion (i.e., as alternating NMOS and PMOS transistors). However, in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the one charge carrier type transistors (i.e., NMOS or PMOS) are formed above the other charge carrier type transistors (i.e., PMOS or NMOS) with a common gate line (also known as a word line in memory devices) between them. Thus, the array preferably comprises a plurality of vertically stacked, common gate CMOS transistors.
The array includes a plurality of gate lines (i.e., word lines) 5303 (only one gate line is shown in the cross sectional view of
A first insulating layer 5311 is disposed adjacent to a first side of the gate electrode 5303. This insulating layer 5311 may be a conventional gate dielectric. Preferably, the insulating layer 5311 is a charge storage layer (i.e., charge trapping media), such as an ONO stack or isolated nanocrystals, to form charge storage CMOS TFTS, such as EEPROM CMOS TFTs. If floating gate type EEPROM CMOS TFTs are desired, then a floating gate and a control gate dielectric may be added between the insulating layer 5311 and the gate line 5303.
A p-type semiconductor layer 5313, such as a P− polysilicon layer, is disposed on a side of the first insulating layer opposite to the gate 5303. This layer contains the NMOS TFT bodies. N+ source and drain regions 5315 are disposed in layer 5313. The portions of layer 5313 between regions 5315 comprise NMOS TFT channel regions.
Preferably, the source and drain regions 5315 are formed by outdiffusion of n-type dopants from the source and drain electrodes (i.e., bit lines) 5317. However, regions 5315 may be formed by any other method, such as by masking and ion implantation. The electrodes 5317 contact the source and drain regions 5315 and are disposed on the bottom of the p-type semiconductor layer 5313 (i.e., on the side of layer 5313 opposite to the first insulating layer 5311). Preferably, the electrodes 5317 comprise N+ polysilicon rails which extend in a direction perpendicular to the gate line 5303. If desired, an optional metal or metal silicide layer is formed in contact with electrodes 5317 to increase their conductivity. However, the electrodes 5317 may comprise metal or metal silicide instead of the heavily doped polysilicon, if desired. A planar insulating filler layer 5318, such as silicon oxide, is disposed between the source and drain electrodes 5317.
Thus, each NMOS TFT 5319 is located between adjacent source and drain regions 5315 and comprises a portion of layers 5305, 5311, 5313 and 5317, as illustrated in
The PMOS TFTs 5321 include a second insulating layer 5323 adjacent to a second side of the gate electrode 5303. In
An n-type semiconductor layer 5325, such as an N− polysilicon layer, is disposed above the second insulating layer 5323. Layer 5325 is disposed on the opposite side of layer 5323 from the gate electrode 5303. P+ source and drain regions 5327 are disposed in layer 5325, such that regions of layer 5325 between the source and drain regions 5327 comprise channel regions of PMOS TFTs. Source and drain electrodes 5329 are disposed over the N− polysilicon layer 5325 and in contact with the source and drain regions 5329. Thus, the electrodes 5329 are disposed on top side of the N− polysilicon layer 5325 opposite to the second insulating layer 5323. A planar insulating filler layer 5331, such as silicon oxide, is disposed between the source and drain electrodes 5329. If desired, an optional metal or metal silicide layer is formed in contact with electrodes 5329 to increase their conductivity.
Thus, each PMOS TFT 5321 is located between adjacent source and drain regions 5327 and comprises a portion of layers 5309, 5323, 5325 and 5329, as illustrated in
The TFT CMOS device array 5300 illustrated in
The TFT CMOS array 5300 is also self aligned. The gate electrode 5303, the first insulating layer 5311, the p-type semiconductor layer 5313, the second insulating layer 5323 and the n-type semiconductor layer 5325 comprise a rail stack which is located in a plane parallel to the substrate. The rail stack extends perpendicular to the source and drain electrodes 5317, 5329. Thus, the gate electrode 5303, the first insulating layer 5311, the p-type semiconductor layer 5313, the second insulating layer 5323 and the n-type semiconductor layer 5325 are self aligned in a plane perpendicular to the substrate and parallel to the source to drain direction, as will be described in more detail below.
The TFT CMOS array 5300 is preferably arranged in a monolithic three dimensional array comprising a plurality of device levels vertically separated by one or more interlayer insulating layers. Each device level the array contains TFT CMOS devices 5300, as in the previous embodiments. A peripheral or driver circuit (not shown) is arranged in the substrate, preferably below the array and at least in partial vertical alignment with the array, or alternatively, within or above the array and at least in partial vertical alignment with the array.
A stack of layers is then deposited on the block 5332. These layers include the p-type polysilicon (or amorphous silicon) layer 5313, the first insulating or local charge storage film 5311, the gate layer 5303, the second insulating or charge storage film 5323 and the n-type polysilicon (or amorphous silicon) layer 5325. A photoresist mask (not shown) is then formed over this stack, and the stack of layers is patterned to form a plurality of rail stacks 5333 (only one rail stack 5333 is shown in
An insulating layer 5331, such as a silicon oxide layer, is then deposited over the rail stack 5333, such that it fills in the spaces 5335 between the rail stacks 5333, as shown in
If desired, optional sidewall spacers (not shown) are formed on the sidewalls of the rail stack 5333 before the deposition of layer 5331. Preferably, the spacers are made from an insulating material that is different from the material of layer 5331. The spacers are preferably made of silicon nitride. The spacers protect the sidewalls of the stack 5333 during the etching of the trenches. The spacers keep the trench etch from extending too far past the top of the gate lines in the area between gate lines, to protect against gate to source/drain shorts.
Using layer 5331 and/or the photoresist as a mask, p-type ions (i.e., boron or BF2) are implanted into the exposed n-type semiconductor layer 5325 through the trenches 5339. The ions form P+ source and drain regions 5327 in layer 5325, as shown in
A p-type polysilicon layer is then deposited over layer 5331 and in the trenches 5339. The polysilicon layer is planarized by CMP or etched back to form a plurality of spaced apart P+ electrodes 5329 embedded in the planarized insulating layer 5331. The electrodes 5329 are located above the rail stacks 5333 and contact the P+ source and drain regions 5327. Since the electrodes 5329 and source and drain regions 5327 are formed during the same lithography step, there is no misalignment between the electrodes 5329 and source and drain regions 5327. Alternatively, the source and drain regions 5327 may be formed by outdiffusion from the electrodes 5329 rather than by ion implantation into the trenches 5339.
The array is annealed to form N+ source and drain regions 5315 by outdiffusion from N+ electrodes 5317 and to recrystallize the amorphous or polysilicon semiconductor layers 5313 and 5325. The outdiffusion and recrystallization may be carried out during the same or different annealing steps at any desired point in the fabrication process.
If desired, an interlayer insulating layer is formed over the array shown in
As shown in
According to a preferred embodiment of the present invention, a circuit comprising a plurality of charge storage devices and a plurality of antifuse devices is provided. The circuit may comprise a field programmable gate array or a programmable logic device. Preferably, the plurality of charge storage devices and the plurality of antifuse devices comprise a same set of devices. This greatly simplifies the fabrication of the circuit. These devices function as charge storage devices when a first programming voltage is applied to the devices to turn these devices off by increasing their threshold voltage. These devices also function as antifuses when a second programming voltage higher than a first voltage is applied to the devices. The second voltage may be any voltage which is sufficient to form a conductive link through the charge storage region. For example, the first (i.e., charge storage voltage) may be less than 5 volts, while the second voltage sufficient to form the conductive link may be 5-50 volts, depending on the device characteristics. The voltages are provided to the devices by the driver or peripheral circuit. However, if desired, charge storage and antifuse semiconductor devices having a different structure may be provided.
It should be noted that any charge storage devices which function as an antifuse when a conductive link has been formed through its charge storage region are within the scope of the present invention. Thus, any device is within the scope of the present invention if the device contains a semiconductor active region, a charge storage region adjacent to the semiconductor active region, a first electrode and second electrodes, and where charge is stored in the charge storage region when a first programming voltage is applied between the first and the second electrodes, and a conductive link is formed through the charge storage region to form a conductive path between the first and the second electrodes. Therefore, a charge storage device which is capable of being used as an antifuse is not limited to rail stack TFT EEPROMs. Such charge storage devices may include the pillar or self aligned TFT EEPROMs and diodes with charge storage regions of the previous embodiments, as well as EPROMs and EEPROMs formed in a single crystal semiconductor substrates.
The cell is accessed by placing a positive voltage on the word line 5395. Data is input onto and read out of BL and BL-bar, which are provided into bit lines 5396 and 5397, respectively. Voltages VSS and VDD are provided into bit lines 5398 and 5399, respectively.
VI. Metal Induced Crystallization
A preferred embodiment of the present invention is directed to a non-volatile thin film transistor (TFT) memory or logic device constructed above a substrate and including a source, drain and channel region made of deposited or grown amorphous silicon or polysilicon that has been crystallized by means of a transition metal-induced lateral crystallization (MILC) process. A two- or, more preferably, a three-dimensional many-times programmable (MTP) non-volatile memory or logic is constructed of such thin film transistor memory devices.
In accordance with the first aspect of the present embodiment, it is desirable to improve the performance characteristics of TFT-based non-volatile memory or logic cells having a channel formed in a deposited thin layer of silicon, such as amorphous silicon (a-Si) or polysilicon. This can be accomplished if the grain size of the a-Si or polysilicon can be increased to resemble monocrystalline silicon.
In the past, crystallization of a-Si has been accomplished in a number of ways. In accordance with a first approach, a-Si may be partially crystallized to form polycrystalline silicon with an anneal step taking tens of hours at about 600° C. This approach is not advantageous because the devices formed in that material have lower-performance characteristics and they take a relatively long amount of time to fabricate. Thus, crystallization can be enhanced by the use of transition metal or germanium catalysts to induce lateral crystallization at seeding sites.
Unfortunately, most transistor-based devices fabricated in this manner suffer from relatively poor performance characteristics (relative to monocrystalline silicon) and exhibit subthreshold slope values on the order of 100's of mV/dec and an Idsat of 10's of μA/μm. The metal-induced lateral crystallization (MILC) is carried out at a temperature of about 400° C. to about 700° C. to achieve lateral crystallization growth rates of several or more μm/hr. To further enlarge the silicon crystal sites to hundreds of microns, a relatively short duration high temperature anneal step, e.g., 900° C. for 30 minutes, is added to simultaneously crystallize multiple layers of a-Si (or another semiconductor material). Note that a crystallization temperature range of about 750° C. to about 975° C. will also provide satisfactory results if the time of the anneal is adjusted accordingly. This short duration high temperature anneal will not saturate the diffusion regions of the devices contemplated herein and can be applied once to a multi-level device, as can the low temperature anneal step.
An example of a process for recrystallizing a deposited a-Si layer in accordance with a specific embodiment of the present invention is now described and illustrated in
Turning now to
The first step 5406 of the process 5408 is to grow (or deposit) a thick oxide layer 5410 (
The next step 5426 is to deposit a transition metal layer 5428 (e.g., 100 Å Ni (nickel)) over LTO layer 5420. Other transition metals may be used although Ni is presently preferred. Other transition metals which may also be used, but which are less desirable than Ni are: Fe (iron), Co (cobalt), Ru (ruthenium), Rh (rhodium), Pd (palladium), Os (osmium), Ir (iridium), Pt (platinum), Cu (copper) and Au (gold). Germanium may also be used if desired. The transition metal may also be introduced into the seeding window by implantation and other mechanisms well known to those of ordinary skill in the art.
The next step 5430 is to anneal for initial lateral crystallization. This step, illustrated in
The next step 5432 is to strip the remaining transition metal layer 5428. This may be performed with H2 SO4:H2O2 (4:1) at 70° C. Then step 5434 is the LTO layer 5420 is stripped with HF.
Finally, a high temperature anneal step 5436 (e.g., 900° C., 30 minutes, N2 ambient) is conducted (if desired) to further crystallize the partially crystallized a-Si to form even larger grain silicon crystals, (>100 μm in size). This step gives the crystallized a-Si layer (i.e., a large grain polysilicon layer) performance characteristics similar to conventional SOI (silicon on insulator) CMOS technology. Note that transition metal-crystallized semiconductor material as used herein will contain trace detectable amounts of the transition metal(s) used for facilitating the crystallization. In normal semiconductor processing, trace amounts of transition metals (typically Fe, Ni) will escape the structure of the semiconductor fabrication equipment (usually containing stainless steel) and embed themselves into the semiconductor film where the TFT channel would be formed. Normally these transition metals are present at a level of less than about 1014 atoms/cc. In transition metal crystallization, , however additional trace amounts of transition metals in excess of about 1014 atoms/cc and up to about 1018 atoms/cc will remain in the crystallized semiconductor material after processing. This is generally not a contamination problem, however, where it is desired to create a gradient of such contaminants, a gettering material, e.g., P (phosphorous), may be placed in the source and/or drain regions of the TFT to reduce the concentration of such contaminants in the channel region by increasing the concentration of such contaminants in the respective source and/or drain regions. Formation of devices in the region of the seeding windows 5424 should be avoided due to excessive transition metal contamination.
The above described metal induced crystallization method may be used to recrystallize the active semiconductor layer of any of the above described devices. Thus, pillar TFTs, self-aligned TFTs, rail stack TFTs and diodes (i.e., an active semiconductor layer which contains one or more p-n junctions) of various configurations may be formed in the recrystallized a-Si or polysilicon.
In the various embodiments described above, a metal silicide layer was formed in contact with a silicon layer, such as a polysilicon word line or bit line. One preferred method of forming a titanium silicide layer in contact with a silicon layer is by using a silicon cap and a TiN layer. The titanium silicide layer is formed on an undoped amorphous silicon cap layer. The cap layer is formed on a heavily doped silicon layer, such as a polysilicon or amorphous silicon layer doped to a concentration in excess of 1019 cm−3, such as 1019 cm−3 to 1021 cm−3. The cap layer is preferably deposited on P+ polysilicon or N+ amorphous silicon layers. The N+ amorphous silicon may then be recrystallized into N+ polysilicon during subsequent annealing steps.
A method of forming a titanium silicide (TiSi2) layer comprises the following steps. A heavily doped polysilicon layer is deposited. For example, a P+ polysilicon layer is boron doped to a concentration of 5×1020 cm−3, and has a thickness of about 1400 Angstroms. A cap layer of undoped amorphous silicon is deposited on the P+ polysilicon layer. The cap may be 600 Angstroms thick, for example. A titanium layer is deposited on the cap. The titanium layer may be 250 Angstroms thick, for example. A titanium nitride layer is deposited on the titanium layer. The titanium nitride layer may be 100 Angstroms thick, for example. Other layer thicknesses may be used, as required.
The layers are annealed at a temperature below 650° C. for less than five minutes to react the titanium and the silicon in the cap to form a C49 phase TiSi2 layer. The anneal may be carried out at 600° C. for 1 minute, for example. If desired, another P+ polysilicon layer is deposited over the stack and the stack is etched into a thin “wire” or “rail”, such as a word line or bit line. The wire or rail may be 0.25 mm wide or less. The titanium silicide is then transformed from the C49 to the C54 phase by a high temperature (i.e., above 650° C.) anneal. The anneal can take place before or after the wires or rails are patterned, at 800° C. for one minute, for example. By annealing each Si/Ti/TiN film stack below 650° C., dopant diffusion and thermal grooving of the TiSi2 is minimized. Multiple film stacks can be deposited and etched sequentially.
The foregoing description of the invention has been presented for purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed, and modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teachings or may be acquired from practice of the invention. The drawings and description were chosen in order to explain the principles of the invention and its practical application. The drawings are not necessarily to scale and illustrate the arrays in schematic block format. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the claims appended hereto, and their equivalents.
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|US20140242786 *||Jul 19, 2013||Aug 28, 2014||Kabushiki Kaisha Toshiba||Method of manufacturing nonvolatile semiconductor memory device|
|U.S. Classification||257/315, 257/E29.3, 257/E29.309, 257/324|
|International Classification||H01L21/336, H01L27/06, H01L29/786, H01L27/10, H01L29/423, H01L21/8246, H01L21/822, H01L27/115, H01L27/112, H01L29/861, H01L27/12, H01L21/8247, H01L29/792, H01L21/20, H01L29/788|
|Cooperative Classification||H01L29/511, H01L29/517, H01L29/0626, H01L27/11286, H01L29/518, G11C16/14, H01L29/42364, H01L27/11558, H01L27/11568, H01L29/861, G11C16/26, G11C16/10, H01L27/11582, H01L27/11526, H01L29/1604, H01L27/11573, H01L29/16, H01L27/11578, H01L27/115, H01L27/11521, H01L27/0688, H01L29/792, H01L21/8221, H01L27/112, H01L29/42324, H01L29/8616, G11C16/3427, H01L29/7881, H01L27/1203, G11C2211/5612, H01L29/42332, H01L29/66833, H01L27/12, H01L29/66825, H01L27/11556, H01L29/7926, H01L27/1158, H01L27/11551, H01L29/7889|
|European Classification||H01L29/66M6T6F17, H01L21/822B, G11C16/34D4, H01L29/792, H01L29/66M6T6F18, H01L27/115F10, H01L29/792V, H01L29/861F, H01L27/112, H01L27/12B, H01L29/423D2B2, H01L27/115G4, H01L27/115F4, H01L27/06E, H01L27/115G10, H01L27/115, H01L27/115F10C2, H01L27/115G10C2, H01L29/423D2B2C, H01L29/788B|
|Apr 2, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Mar 30, 2016||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SANDISK TECHNOLOGIES INC., TEXAS
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:SANDISK 3D LLC.;REEL/FRAME:038300/0665
Effective date: 20160324