US 7826293 B2
A voltage compensated sense amplifier includes a pair of digit line nodes respectively coupled to a pair of transistors. A first pair of switches are adapted to cross-couple the gates of the transistors to the respective digit line node and a second pair of switches are adapted to couple the gates of the transistors to a voltage supply. The first and second pair of switches are coupled to respective gates of the transistors independent of the pair of transistors being respectively coupled to the digit line nodes.
1. A sense amplifier comprising:
a pair of digit line nodes;
a pair of transistors respectively coupled to the pair of digit line nodes;
a first pair of switches adapted to cross-couple gates of the transistors to the respective digit line node; and
a second pair of switches adapted to couple the gates of the transistors to a voltage supply, the first and second pairs of switches adapted to couple the respective gates of the transistors independent of the pair of transistors being respectively coupled to the digit line nodes.
2. The sense amplifier of
3. The sense amplifier of
4. The sense amplifier of
5. The sense amplifier of
6. The sense amplifier of
7. The sense amplifier of
8. The sense amplifier of
9. A sense amplifier comprising:
a first node and a second node;
a first transistor coupled to the first node and a second transistor coupled to the second node;
a first switch circuit configured to couple the gates of the first and second transistors to a voltage supply, the first switch circuit operable in a first mode of operation to enable the first and second nodes to be set to the respective threshold voltages of the first and second transistors; and
a second switch circuit configured to cross-couple the gates of the first and second transistors to respective first and second nodes, the second switch circuit operable in a second mode of operation to enable the detection of a differential voltage between the first and second nodes.
10. The sense amplifier of
11. The sense amplifier of
12. The sense amplifier of
13. The sense amplifier of
14. The sense amplifier of
15. A method of sensing a differential voltage in a sense amplifier, the method comprising:
in response to a first enable signal, setting a first sensing node to a first voltage through a first input terminal and setting a second sensing node to a second voltage through a second input terminal;
in response to a second enable signal, cross-coupling a voltage supply to the second sensing node through the first input terminal and the voltage supply to the first sensing node through the second input terminal, the first and second sensing nodes having an offset corresponding to the difference between the first and second voltages; and
sensing a change in voltage on either the first or second sensing nodes.
16. The method of
17. The method of
18. The method of
19. The method of
20. A method of sensing a change in a differential voltage between a first digit line and a second digit line, the method comprising:
enabling a pair of input nodes to be coupled to a bias signal in a first mode of operation;
charging a first digit line node to a first voltage level and a second digit line node to a second voltage level responsive to the pair of input nodes receiving the bias signal, the differential voltage between the first and second digit line nodes corresponding to the differential voltage between the first and second voltage levels;
enabling the pair of input nodes to be cross-coupled to respective first and second digit line nodes in a second mode of operation; and
detecting the change in the differential voltage between the first and second digit lines responsive to at least one of the pair of input nodes detecting the change in the differential voltage.
21. The method of
22. The method of
23. The method of
24. The method of
25. A method of precharging a sense amplifier, the method comprising:
setting a first sense node to a voltage based on a threshold voltage of a first transistor having a drain coupled directly to the first node and setting the second node to a voltage based on a threshold voltage of a second transistor having a drain coupled directly to the second node, the first and second nodes offset to the differential voltage between the first and second threshold voltages.
Embodiments of the present invention relate generally to integrated memory devices, and more specifically, to a sense amplifier that compensates for threshold voltage differences in the transistors of the sense amplifier.
Memory devices are structured to have one or more arrays of memory cells that are arranged in rows and columns. Each memory cell stores data as an electrical charge that is accessed by a digit line associated with the memory cell. A charged memory cell, when the memory cell is selected, causes a positive change in voltage on the associated digit line, and a selected memory cell that is not charged causes a negative change in voltage on the associated digit line. The change in voltage on the digit line may be amplified and detected by a sense amplifier to indicate the value of the data bit stored in the memory cell.
Conventional sense amplifiers are typically coupled to a pair of complementary digit lines to which a large number of memory cells (not shown) are connected. Sense amplifiers typically improve the accuracy of determining the state of the selected memory cells. As known in the art, when memory cells are accessed, a row of memory cells are activated and sense amplifiers are used to amplify cell data for the respective column of activated memory cells by coupling each of the digit lines of the selected column to voltage supplies such that the digit lines have complementary logic levels. Each sense amplifier typically includes a pair of cross-coupled NMOS transistors and a pair of cross-coupled PMOS transistors coupled to the digit lines. The sources of the NMOS transistors are coupled to a common node, which during operation receives an NMOS activation signal RNL_. Similarly, the sources of the PMOS transistors are also coupled to a common node that receives a complementary activation signal ACT. The RNL_ signal is typically provided by ground or a negative supply voltage and the ACT signal is typically provided by a power supply voltage. When a memory cell is accessed, the voltage of one of the digit lines increases or decreases slightly, depending on whether the memory cell coupled to the digit line is charged or not, resulting in a voltage differential between the digit lines. While the voltage of one digit line increases or decreases slightly, the other digit line does not and serves as a reference for the sensing operation. Respective transistors are enabled due to the voltage differential, thereby coupling the slightly higher voltage digit line to the ACT node and the other digit line to the RNL_ node to further drive each of the digit lines in opposite directions and amplify the selected digit line signal.
The digit lines are equilibrated during a precharge period, such as to Vcc/2, so that a voltage differential can be accurately detected during a subsequent sensing operation. However, due to random threshold voltage mismatch of transistor components, the digit lines may be abruptly imbalanced before a voltage change is detected on one of the digit lines. Such threshold voltage deviations can cause the sense amplifier to erroneously amplify input signals in the wrong direction. A portion of a prior art threshold voltage compensated sense amplifier 100 is shown in
During the precharge period, the switches 120A,B are initially disabled and the switches 121 A,B are enabled to place the sense amplifier 100 in a normal cross-coupled (latch) configuration, and the sense nodes 112, 114 and the RNL_ node are initially precharged and equilibrated to Vcc/2. While in this compensation period, the RNL_ node is next coupled to ground and the switches 120A,B are enabled while the switches 121A,B are disabled to place the transistors 116, 118 in a diode-coupled configuration. The voltage at sense node 112, which is cross-coupled to the gate and drain of the transistor 118 is set to a voltage equal to a threshold voltage VTN0 of the transistor 118, since the voltage across the transistor 118 is equal to its threshold voltage. Similarly, the voltage at sense node 114 is set to a voltage equal to a threshold voltage VTN1 of the transistor 116. The switches 120A,B are then disabled and the switches 121A,B are enabled such that the transistors 116, 118 are again placed in a normal latch configuration before the sensing operation begins. Therefore, any offset due to mismatches in transistor parameters of the transistors 116, 118 are compensated for by the voltage differential between sense nodes 112, 114 before sensing occurs.
Although the prior art sense amplifier 100 reduces threshold voltage mismatches between the NMOS transistors 116, 118, the switches 121A,B which are directly in the sensing path between the sense nodes 112, 114 and the transistors 116, 118, can negatively affect performance due to mismatches between the switches 121A,B. That is, by placing additional components on the sensing path may cause further digit line offsets as a result of mismatched switch components 120A,B. Additionally, the switches 121A,B may reduce sensing gain of the sense amplifier 100.
There is, therefore, a need for an alternative sense amplifier design that reduces threshold voltage mismatches.
Certain details are set forth below to provide a sufficient understanding of embodiments of the invention. However, it will be clear to one skilled in the art that embodiments of the invention may be practiced without these particular details. Moreover, the particular embodiments of the present invention described herein are provided by way of example and should not be used to limit the scope of the invention to these particular embodiments. In other instances, well-known circuits, control signals, and timing protocols have not been shown in detail in order to avoid unnecessarily obscuring the invention.
A portion of a threshold voltage difference compensated sense amplifier 200 is shown in
The operation of the sense amplifier 200 of
Assuming the threshold voltage of the transistor 218 has a magnitude VTN0 and the threshold voltage of the transistor 216 has a magnitude VTN1, any mismatch between the magnitude of VTN0 and VTN1 may be compensated by offsetting the voltages of the sense nodes 212, 214 from the precharge voltage Vcc/2 to provide a voltage differential equal to VTN1−VTN0. Therefore, at time T1, the switches 230A,B are disabled by the CISW signal 304 going low and the switches 232A,B are enabled by the high DISW signal 302 such that the gates of the transistors 216, 218 are coupled to DBIAS at node 245. Although not shown in
At time T3, a memory cell is accessed and digit lines D and D_ are coupled to the sense nodes 212, 214, respectively. As a result, the voltage of the sense node 214 increases slightly. In the present example, the memory cell is storing charge, which causes the voltage of the sense node 214 to increase when accessed. The ACT signal 320 is driven to Vcc at time T4 so that voltage differential between the sense node signals 312 and 314 is sensed and amplified, as shown in
As illustrated in
The operation of the sense amplifier 400 is similar to the operation of the sense amplifier 200, in that during the precharge period and after the digit lines and the RNL_ node 440 have been precharged and equilibrated, the switches 430A,B are disabled and the switches 432A,B are enabled to diode-couple the transistors 416, 418. The RNL_ node is subsequently pulled up towards VCC such that the transistors 416, 418 are turned on for a brief period of time. Assuming the threshold voltage of the transistor 416 is VTN1 and the threshold voltage of the transistor 418 is VTN0, the voltage at the node 412 is set to VCC−VTN1 and the voltage at the digit line node 414 is set to VCC−VTN0 due to the transistors 416, 418 being conductive and diode-coupled through the switches 432A,B. As a result, the voltage differential between the nodes 412, 414 is equal to VTN1−VTN0 before a sensing operation, which provides compensation for any threshold voltage difference between the transistors 416, 418. The RNL_ node 440 is subsequently pulled to ground or a negative voltage to turn off the transistors 416, 418, and the switches 432A,B are disabled while the switches 430A,B are enabled to place the sense amplifier 400 in the normal latch configuration before sensing occurs.
It will be appreciated that although the previously described embodiment refers to the portion of the sense amplifier 400 that includes NMOS transistors 416, 418 and the RNL_ activation node 440, embodiments of the invention can be modified to include PMOS transistors as well, where applicable, without departing from the scope of the embodiments of the invention. Those ordinarily skilled in the art will obtain sufficient understanding from the description provided herein to make such modifications as needed to practice the embodiments of the sense amplifier 400 as applied to PMOS transistors.
In summary, the sense amplifiers 200, 400 may be configured to compensate for threshold voltage mismatches between transistors without having to place switches 230, 430 or other components in the sensing path between the sense nodes and the transistors of the sense amplifier, thus avoiding negative effects of threshold voltage mismatches that may result from dissimilar switch components.
In response to the decoded row address, the activated row address latch and decoder 510A-D applies various signals to a corresponding memory bank 512A-D, including a row activation signal to activate a row of memory cells corresponding to the decoded row address. Each memory bank 512A-D includes a memory-cell array having a plurality of memory cells arranged in rows and columns. Data stored in the memory cells in the activated row are sensed and amplified by sense amplifiers 511 in the corresponding memory bank. The sense amplifiers 511 are designed according to embodiments of the invention. The row address multiplexer 504 applies the refresh row address from the refresh counter 508 to the decoders 510A-D and the bank control logic circuit 506 uses the refresh bank address from the refresh counter when the memory device 500 operates in an auto-refresh or self-refresh mode of operation in response to an auto- or self-refresh command being applied to the memory device 500, as will be appreciated by those skilled in the art.
A column address is applied on the ADDR bus after the row and bank addresses, and the address register 502 applies the column address to a column address counter and latch 514 which, in turn, latches the column address and applies the latched column address to a plurality of column decoders 516A-D. The bank control logic 506 activates the column decoder 516A-D corresponding to the received bank address, and the activated column decoder decodes the applied column address. Depending on the operating mode of the memory device 500, the column address counter and latch 514 either directly applies the latched column address to the decoders 516A-D, or applies a sequence of column addresses to the decoders starting at the column address provided by the address register 502. In response to the column address from the counter and latch 514, the activated column decoder 516A-D applies decode and control signals to an I/O gating and data masking circuit 518 which, in turn, accesses memory cells corresponding to the decoded column address in the activated row of memory cells in the memory bank 512A-D being accessed.
During data read operations, data being read from the addressed memory cells is coupled through the I/O gating and data masking circuit 518 to a read latch 520. The I/O gating and data masking circuit 518 supplies N bits of data to the read latch 520, which then applies two N/2 bit words to a multiplexer 522. In the embodiment of
During data write operations, an external circuit such as a memory controller (not shown) applies N/2 bit data words DQ, the strobe signal DQS, and corresponding data masking signals DM on the data bus DATA. A data receiver 528 receives each DQ word and the associated DM signals, and applies these signals to input registers 530 that are clocked by the DQS signal. In response to a rising edge of the DQS signal, the input registers 530 latch a first N/2 bit DQ word and the associated DM signals, and in response to a falling edge of the DQS signal the input registers latch the second N/2 bit DQ word and associated DM signals. The input register 530 provides the two latched N/2 bit DQ words as an N-bit word to a write FIFO and driver 532, which clocks the applied DQ word and DM signals into the write FIFO and driver in response to the DQS signal. The DQ word is clocked out of the write FIFO and driver 532 in response to the CLK signal, and is applied to the I/O gating and masking circuit 518. The I/O gating and masking circuit 518 transfers the DQ word to the addressed memory cells in the accessed bank 512A-D subject to the DM signals, which may be used to selectively mask bits or groups of bits in the DQ words (i.e., in the write data) being written to the addressed memory cells.
A control logic and command decoder 534 receives a plurality of command and clocking signals over a control bus CONT, typically from an external circuit such as a memory controller (not shown). The command signals include a chip select signal CS*, a write enable signal WE*, a column address strobe signal CAS*, and a row address strobe signal RAS*, while the clocking signals include a clock enable signal CKE and complementary clock signals CLK, CLK*, with the “*” designating a signal as being active low. The command signals CS*, WE*, CAS*, and RAS* are driven to values corresponding to a particular command, such as a read, write, or auto-refresh command. In response to the clock signals CLK, CLK*, the command decoder 534 latches and decodes an applied command, and generates a sequence of clocking and control signals that control the components 502-532 to execute the function of the applied command. The clock enable signal CKE enables clocking of the command decoder 534 by the clock signals CLK, CLK*. The command decoder 534 latches command and address signals at positive edges of the CLK, CLK* signals (i.e., the crossing point of CLK going high and CLK* going low), while the input registers 530 and data drivers 524 transfer data into and from, respectively, the memory device 500 in response the data strobe signal DQS. The detailed operation of the control logic and command decoder 534 in generating the control and timing signals is conventional, and thus, for the sake of brevity, will not be described in more detail. Although previously described with respect to a dynamic random access memory device, embodiments of the present invention can be utilized in applications other than for a memory device where it is desirable to reduce the effects a threshold voltage mismatch when the voltage level of an input signal is amplified.
From the foregoing it will be appreciated that, although specific embodiments of the invention have been described herein for purposes of illustration, various modifications may be made without deviating from the spirit and scope of the invention. Accordingly, embodiments of the invention are not limited except as by the appended claims.