|Publication number||US7830299 B2|
|Application number||US 11/998,179|
|Publication date||Nov 9, 2010|
|Filing date||Nov 28, 2007|
|Priority date||Nov 28, 2007|
|Also published as||US20090135046|
|Publication number||11998179, 998179, US 7830299 B2, US 7830299B2, US-B2-7830299, US7830299 B2, US7830299B2|
|Inventors||Daniel W. Steele, Frank S. Rotondo, Jeffrey L. Houck|
|Original Assignee||Lockheed Martin Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (41), Referenced by (9), Classifications (9), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This invention relates to radar systems and more particularly to a parametric radar employed for manmade device detection.
There have been many threats against various facilities and human rights promulgated by terrorists or other groups intent on destroying property and killing people in order to impart panic and terror in today's society. Many of these threats and attempts at disruption employ man made devices, which devices can be placed in a small vehicle or hidden in conventional places. Such threat enabling devices may be activated by means of remote control or various other mechanisms, and explode at will. It is often difficult to detect or otherwise discriminate such man made devices from their environment by conventional means. The detection and location of these man made devices is of great importance in mitigating many kinds of threats.
Small threats are typically very difficult to detect since they are of low radar cross-section, may be slow moving, or perhaps static, and may be situated in an environment of clutter interference. For example, of importance is the detection of electronic hardware or circuits associated with small classes of weapons and unmanned vehicles. This is especially true in the detection of small UAV systems. In such circumstances, conventional radars that depend upon primary (or direct mirror-like) radio reflections of their transmitted wave forms are relatively non-effective detectors of man made devices and of such threats. In a conventional radar system, increasing the illuminating signal power and correspondingly the energy returned from such objects within a radar beam to achieve improved transmission/range or improved detection sensitivity does not fundamentally improve an object's signal to clutter signal ratio and thus it's detectability under clutter dominated conditions (note that in this instance both the signal power of the object and it's background clutter power will be raised by the same degree and that this does not increase the object's signal to background clutter power ratio that is fundamental for increased detectability). Increased radar receiver gain yields the same, no net detection value result under clutter dominated conditions. Thus, by providing greater transmitted radar illumination power and/or greater receiver gain, one does not change the object's signal to clutter signal ratio. Moreover, Doppler discrimination is of limited value in the discrimination of slow moving or static objects of interest within a background of clutter having similar behavior. It is understood that if one has a non-moving object then Doppler radar is ineffective in detecting the object.
In combination with the above-noted problems the additional challenge of detecting weak signals from relatively small objects within a large background of interfering signal energy is extremely difficult utilizing conventional radar systems. Secondary radars or transponders are typically employed to detect and track the above-noted types in like environments. However, these objects must be technically cooperative or friendly in the sense of operating active transponding electronics designed for such applications. Thus, as one can ascertain, one can track a small vehicle by conventional radars if the vehicle contains a suitable transponder, and therefore is capable of returning a signal which can be detected as distinct from background signals. However, non-cooperative targets would not use such transponders. For example, a terrorist utilizing a small vehicle or having a man made destructive device on the vehicle would not incorporate or use such transponders.
In order to solve the above-noted problems a parametric radar system utilizes radio energy analogous to that associated with conventional radars. However, the system is designed to ignore or otherwise not receive or process primary or directly reflected energy from objects.
A parametric radar (PR) system transmits radar signals, which signals are designed to promote the production of anomalous RF energy within electronic devices contained in a threat vehicle or other device/object. Such radar transmitted signals may be referred to as probe signals. Probe signals can be directed to impinge upon the threat object and due to electronic non-linearities therein causing such electronics to produce target anomalous response signals, which response signals are returned to the radar and which are processed by the processing circuitry in the radar system to provide output signals indicative of the nature and location of the threat target. The PR system anticipates the effects that the probe signals will produce due to known classes of nonlinear effects and thereby optimizes the receiver and detection of such objects while rejecting signals of non-interest from other passive reflections at primary radar signal frequencies. The signals from the PR radar pulses which generate the TAR (Target Anomalous Response) signals or return energy that is manufactured within a targeted electronic object by its associated device non-linearities and by related RF convolution mixing and harmonic distortion. These signals can be at a PR radar signal harmonic and/or at radar signal cross-product frequencies.
For example, anomalous energy at harmonic and/or cross-product frequencies can be manufactured within an electronic object by device/component nonlinearities and related RF convolution (mixing). Signal energy derived from such anomalous responses can be engineered to occur at other than normal primary radar frequencies or be otherwise separable from energy directly reflected from objects within the radar beam. The type and degree of separation anticipated as a response from the probe signal drives detection parameters within the PR radar that in turn uniquely tag objects of interest while rejecting energies from most passive or non-electronic objects. This energy rejection mechanism thereby eliminates the majority of clutter interference associated with non-electronic objects. In a conventional radar system, increasing the signal power illuminating and therefore energy returned from objects within a radar beam, either through improved transmission or improved receive sensitivity (greater radar illumination power, gain) does nothing to effect a fundamental change in returned object signal to clutter signal ratio. Both signal and clutter scale together in a linear fashion result in no net first order improvement in the radar's ability to discriminate the desired object from clutter. Increased illumination in a PR system on the other hand, promotes significant signal nonlinearities within electronic objects being illuminated and attendant potentials for higher returned power at harmonic and cross-product frequencies. The class of anomalous response is referred to as the Target Anomalous Response (TAR). This of course has been discussed in conjunction with
Thus, the signal to clutter (or “signal to noise”) power ratio at TAR associated cross-product frequencies increases as the illumination power increases. The effect is non-linear and can be dramatic at high illumination power such as to clearly delineate slow moving or static electronic objects of interest from surrounding reflections originating from inanimate objects such as trees, animals or other non-electronic objects. Given that the transmitted direction of probe signals is known and/or received TAR direction is determinable using conventional radar techniques, one can define the bearing angle to the target. Given that the probe signal is modulated analogously to a conventional radar (e.g. pulsed radar) one can utilize the round trip time from probe signal transmission to reception of the TAR as a ranging measurement as in normal radar processing. Thus PR can determine a target's location.
One possible class of probe signal useful within a PR system is one containing two (or more) carriers, separated by a known frequency (or frequencies), both generated simultaneous within the envelope of the transmitted signal. Referring to
Referring now to
In operation, probe signals having waveforms 111, 112 as shown in
Referring now to
As one can see, the outputs TAR1 to TARN of filter bank 42 are directed to the input of processing circuit 45. The processor circuit 45 enables determination and selection of potential TAR component frequencies according to the received and filtered RF signal data and has an output which is directly input to signal integration circuit or module 47 which provides as an output the received signals to module 49 for subsequent detection and tracking (
As one can ascertain, electronic objects come in a variety of forms, with differing attributes and resulting susceptibilities to PR probe signals and detection. Most electronic devices however, can be generally described as having the ability to couple RF energy to and from free space, whether directly in the form of a discrete antenna or indirectly as a consequence of interconnections and enclosures. One particularly important class of electronic object that is germane to detection by the present PR system and which would be included in unmanned vehicles and other threats is the radio receiver. Radio receivers are necessary command and control links critical to threat function. As such, radio receivers are attached to an external antenna optimized for the receipt of weak radio signals over operational frequency ranges. Antennas provide an ideal means by which PR probe signals can enter and create suitable TAR within radio receiver electronics at designed receive frequencies and/or otherwise susceptible ones (harmonically related, image related . . . etc.). Additionally, if the probe signal spectrum is dynamically changed or swept across the frequency band associated with known threats susceptibilities, the system may be able to optimize the probability of detecting threat receivers and locating them in range and bearing. Once detected, the specific probe signal frequency versus TAR frequency and amplitude responses can be captured as a record. This record of TAR signature susceptibilities may in addition be used to effectively fingerprint and/or identify and track particular threats.
Another important class of electronic object for PR detection and localization is the radio transmitter. Note that transmitter bearing is often the only localization parameter determinable by conventional radio location devices; thus the addition of a PR ranging function is significant. This and the ability to dual utilize radar assets for both passive & active localization provide significant advantages to the use of PR. Radio transmitters are associated with key threat communications equipment required to relay sensor data, provide status and acknowledge commands. They are often associated with corresponding receivers and their transceiver architecture, such as a cell phone or other transceiver arrangements. Transmitters alone, whether they are actively transmitting through an antenna or simply connected to an antenna can generate TAR effects like those previously discussed for receivers. However, when one examines an actively transmitting system, there is an additional attribute of interest. The relatively high levels of RF power associated with final stages of the transmitter can act in the role of a local oscillator, mixer and modulator. Mixing between the signal to be transmitted (acting as a local oscillator) with an incoming probe signal provides an opportunity for the generation of significant amounts of TAR. The TAR generated will be the convolution of the spectrum of the “native” threat transmitter spectrum and the spectrum of the incoming probe signal. As a result, newly generated TAR will have spectral components that exceed the product of both spectrums. Given that high levels of TAR are generated that are outside the native threat transmission spectrum, broad amplitude/energy detection techniques in the TAR band may be sufficient to ensure detection and localization. Localization can be performed by measuring round-trip delay to derive range and PR beam steering to derive bearing.
It is possible to provide a means to achieve additional sensitivity in the detection of threat transmitter generated TAR signals. This can be performed while also providing rejection of the generally strong transmitter signal itself, by processing PR receive signals within a TAR signal matched correlator. The objective is to apply correlation gain to TAR components while suppressing noise, components of the transmitter signal and those components associated with primary reflections of the PR probe signal itself.
It is important to derive a suitable TAR correlation reference signal in the face of a spectrally dynamic, data modulation driven threat object transmitter spectrum. In order to accomplish this, the PR system provides a receiver processor function that generates a baseline TAR or TAR reference signal (synthesized TAR Reference signal) by first filtering the un-TARed threat object transmitter signal components from the received signals that include both PR Probe and TAR signals. This is illustrated with reference to the receiver of
In any event, the probe signal replica 57 is obtained from mixer 44 b of
Typical of signal correlators, sets of overlapping time sampled data records are independently generated for both TAR received signals and for the new reference signal. A subsequent multiplication, signal time sample by respective reference time sample, followed by integration over a given record length of the resulting products produces a single correlation time sample for each correlated record. Correlation in this manner can result in a TAR signal matched filter gain proportional to the record length processed. Thus the correlation approach as previously discussed is able to use knowledge of the threat transmission itself, which in the case of a modulated threat transmission may be spectrally dynamic, in conjunction with stored knowledge of the probe signal and its anticipated effects upon the threat transmission, to synthesize a correlation reference signal and perform related correlations in search of localization information. This correlation process provides ranging, important in the localization of the source of a given threat transmission. The above techniques are applicable in the localization of both ends of a communications link e.g. both the unmanned threat itself and of manned threats employed in the control and data processing ends of its communications link.
One may gain high strategic value in implementing the above described technique. Command and control assets include ground control stations, airborne control stations and possibly intermediate relay stations which can be manned or unmanned stations.
In another area of PR application one can employ a bi-static radar technique to advantage. An example of this would be the use of an airborne PR as an illuminator for both air and surface searches, while employing a remotely located TAR receiver, that may be in local proximity to potential threats. This, for example, can be employed in
A PR Probe spectrum can be generated as a composite of two separate radars and transmission signals working cooperatively, with individual spectral components assigned to each of the radars. In one configuration, two relatively simple radars, one airborne and one terrestrial, for example, can cooperatively illuminate common search volumes to detect & localize potential PR responses.
A communication backchannel link 330 may be established between radars 300′ and 300′ to coordinate certain information such as GPS data, scheduling of the fixed terrestrial platform transmission times, and global position of the target volume, for example. Through this synchronization (shown schematically as module 340) the transmit pulses from each of the waveforms 111, 112 of
To further enhance effectiveness the spectrum of the PR formed convolution (TAR emulation) can be further tailored to exclude all but optimal spectral components of the anticipated TAR. Thus, the output from the convolution circuit and an output from the processing circuit is directed to the correlator. This basically provides correlation gain to the TAR components while further suppresses the main components of the transmitter signal and those components associated with primary reflections of the PR probe signal itself. Repeated correlations are performed between the PR derived reference and incoming signals to provide a signal/correlation time record upon which to base threshold detections. The threshold detection occurs in module 49 which after the above-noted steps provides a signal indicative of the particular type of threat as described above, which threat is located within the threat area.
It would be apparent to those skilled in the art that there are many modifications which will be deemed to be obvious and are encompassed within the spirit and scope of the claims appended hereto.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3028596 *||Jun 30, 1958||Apr 3, 1962||Gen Motors Corp||Radiometer technique for classifying materials|
|US3599211 *||Dec 16, 1968||Aug 10, 1971||Aerojet General Co||Radiometry system|
|US3707672 *||Jun 2, 1971||Dec 26, 1972||Westinghouse Electric Corp||Weapon detector utilizing the pulsed field technique to detect weapons on the basis of weapons thickness|
|US3911435 *||Jun 1, 1971||Oct 7, 1975||Mardon Austin||Dual frequency radiometer|
|US4031545 *||Sep 8, 1975||Jun 21, 1977||American Science & Engineering, Inc.||Radiant energy alarm system|
|US4035797 *||Nov 14, 1975||Jul 12, 1977||General Motors Corporation||Polarized radar system for providing target identification and discrimination|
|US4053891 *||May 24, 1967||Oct 11, 1977||Lockheed Electronics Company||Radar object detector using non-linearities|
|US4951058 *||Sep 11, 1989||Aug 21, 1990||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Method for remote detection of electronic bomb fuze|
|US5073782 *||Dec 19, 1988||Dec 17, 1991||Millitech Corporation||Contraband detection system|
|US5177445 *||Oct 31, 1989||Jan 5, 1993||Zetetic International Limited||Method and apparatus for detecting and locating a selected non-metallic material in a detection region|
|US5191343 *||Feb 10, 1992||Mar 2, 1993||United Technologies Corporation||Radar target signature detector|
|US5227800 *||Sep 24, 1991||Jul 13, 1993||Millitech Corporation||Contraband detection system|
|US5381153 *||Jan 21, 1994||Jan 10, 1995||Fujitsu Limited||Portable FM-CW radar device with frequency conversion by first and second frequencies|
|US5552705 *||Jun 1, 1995||Sep 3, 1996||Keller; George V.||Non-obtrusive weapon detection system and method for discriminating between a concealed weapon and other metal objects|
|US5598152 *||Dec 29, 1994||Jan 28, 1997||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Navy||Mine sweeping system for magnetic and non-magnetic mines|
|US6057765 *||Oct 7, 1998||May 2, 2000||Research Electronics International||Non-linear junction detector|
|US6163259 *||Jun 4, 1999||Dec 19, 2000||Research Electronics International||Pulse transmitting non-linear junction detector|
|US6243036 *||Jul 2, 1999||Jun 5, 2001||Macaleese Companies, Inc.||Signal processing for object detection system|
|US6359582 *||Sep 16, 1997||Mar 19, 2002||The Macaleese Companies, Inc.||Concealed weapons detection system|
|US6480141 *||Mar 13, 2001||Nov 12, 2002||Sandia Corporation||Detection of contraband using microwave radiation|
|US6765527 *||Jan 31, 2002||Jul 20, 2004||The Johns Hopkins University||System and method of radar detection of non-linear interfaces|
|US6897777 *||Feb 11, 2002||May 24, 2005||Audiotel International Limited||Non-linear junction detector|
|US6914552 *||Jun 25, 2003||Jul 5, 2005||The Regents Of The University Of California||Magneto-radar detector and method|
|US6967612 *||Oct 22, 2004||Nov 22, 2005||Gorman John D||System and method for standoff detection of human carried explosives|
|US7109910 *||Sep 8, 2003||Sep 19, 2006||L-3 Communications Cyterra Corporation||Mine detection using radar vibrometer|
|US7162285 *||Sep 19, 2003||Jan 9, 2007||Raytheon Company||Detector and method for detecting telephone-activated devices in idle state|
|US7167123 *||Nov 24, 2004||Jan 23, 2007||Safe Zone Systems, Inc.||Object detection method and apparatus|
|US7183964 *||Aug 7, 2006||Feb 27, 2007||L-3 Communications Cyterra Corporation||Mine detection using radar vibrometer|
|US7205769 *||Nov 14, 2005||Apr 17, 2007||Cos Co., Ltd.||Method and apparatus for processing a signal received by an electromagnetic prober|
|US7450052 *||May 12, 2006||Nov 11, 2008||The Macaleese Companies, Inc.||Object detection method and apparatus|
|US7512511 *||Mar 30, 2006||Mar 31, 2009||The Boeing Company||Improvised explosive device countermeasures|
|US7598898 *||Sep 13, 2006||Oct 6, 2009||Hexion Specialty Chemicals, Inc.||Method for using logging device with down-hole transceiver for operation in extreme temperatures|
|US7626400 *||Feb 14, 2006||Dec 1, 2009||Walleye Technologies, Inc.||Electromagnetic scanning imager|
|US7639178 *||Nov 4, 2005||Dec 29, 2009||Rockwell Collins, Inc.||System and method for detecting receivers|
|US20030034444 *||Jan 29, 2002||Feb 20, 2003||Chadwick George G.||Signal processing for object detection system|
|US20040041724 *||Aug 28, 2002||Mar 4, 2004||Levitan Arthur C.||Methods and apparatus for detecting concealed weapons|
|US20040095243 *||Feb 11, 2002||May 20, 2004||Holmes Steven John||Non-linear junction detector|
|US20050064922 *||Sep 19, 2003||Mar 24, 2005||Owens William R.||Detector and method for detecting telephone-activated devices in idle state|
|US20060082488 *||Oct 18, 2005||Apr 20, 2006||Nokomis, Inc.||Advanced electromagnetic location of electronic equipment|
|US20070013577 *||Jul 12, 2005||Jan 18, 2007||Itzhak Schnitzer||Radar system and method|
|US20080129581 *||Oct 11, 2005||Jun 5, 2008||Douglass Robert J||System and Method For Standoff Detection of Human Carried Explosives|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8639394 *||Dec 1, 2008||Jan 28, 2014||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Dynamic optical countermeasures for ground level threats to an aircraft|
|US9103628||Mar 14, 2013||Aug 11, 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||System, method, and computer program product for hostile fire strike indication|
|US9146251||Mar 14, 2013||Sep 29, 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||System, method, and computer program product for indicating hostile fire|
|US9196041||Mar 14, 2013||Nov 24, 2015||Lockheed Martin Corporation||System, method, and computer program product for indicating hostile fire|
|US9360370||May 12, 2015||Jun 7, 2016||Lockheed Martin Corporation||System, method, and computer program product for indicating hostile fire|
|US9395434||Apr 25, 2013||Jul 19, 2016||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Multitone harmonic radar and method of use|
|US9435882||Aug 27, 2013||Sep 6, 2016||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Method and apparatus for cognitive nonlinear radar|
|US9476973||Sep 20, 2013||Oct 25, 2016||The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The Army||Combined radar assembly with linear and nonlinear radar|
|US20110001062 *||Dec 1, 2008||Jan 6, 2011||Lockheed Martin Corporation||Dynamic optical countermeasures for ground level threats to an aircraft|
|U.S. Classification||342/22, 342/13|
|International Classification||G01S13/00, G01S7/42|
|Cooperative Classification||G01S7/414, G01S13/887, G01S13/5242|
|European Classification||G01S7/41B, G01S13/88F|
|Oct 2, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: LOCKHEED MARTIN CORPORATION, MARYLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:STEELE, DANIEL W.;ROTONDO, FRANK S.;HOUCK, JEFFREY L.;REEL/FRAME:021624/0550;SIGNING DATES FROM 20071215 TO 20080923
|May 9, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4