US 783599 A
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No. 783,599-, PATENTED FEB. 28, i905. J. WARRINGTON & H. C. MARMON. RUNNING GEAR FOR MOTOR VEHICLES.
APPLIOATION FILED MAR.. 24, 1904.
3 SHEETS-SHEET l.
SWW/wmf Jesse Warrington and award C Marmon f /v/ @Hoz/nw No. 783,599. PATENTE-D FEB. 28. 1905. J. WARRINGTON & H. C. MARMON. RUNNING GEAR FOR MOTOR VEHICLES.
APPLICATION FILED MAR. 24., 1904.
3 SHEETS-SHEET 2.
gton and Marmon bl'ozMe/la/ Jesse Warrin Howard C. 32W
mw s fm.-- mw @H www L No'. 783,599. RATRNIRD IRR. 2R, IOO5. I. WARRINGTON & II. O, MARMON.
RUNNING GEAR IOR MOTOR VEHICLES.
' APPLICATION FILED MAE. 24, 1904.
UNITED STATES Patented February 28, 1905.
JESSE IARRINGTON AND HOWARD O. MARMON, OF INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, ASSIGNORS TO NORDYKE & MARMON COMPANY, OF INDIANAPOLIS, INDIANA, A CORPORATION OF INDIANA.-
RUNNING-GEAR FOR MOTOR-VEHICLES- SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. I783,599, dated February 28, 1905.
Application filed March 24:, 1904. Serial No. 199,712.
1'0 all whom, it' may concern:
Be it known that we,JEssE WARRINGTON and HOWARD C. MARMON, citizens of the United States, residing at Indianapolis, in the county of Marion and State of Indiana, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Running-Gear for Motor-Vehicles, of which the following is a specification.
M otor-vehicles, as is well known, are heavy and embody a considerable amount of ma-` chinery. Such vehicles are frequently required to run over rough roads, so that the' wheels encounter different (and constantly differing) surfaces as the vehicle progresses. It is of great importance, therefore, that the construction be such as to permit the necessary relative vertical movement of the wheels in respect to each other without throwing undue strain upon the machinery. 'It is also highly desirable that the movement in question shall not unduly tip the vehicle-body carrying the passengers.
The objects and purposes of this invention will be apparent from the statements just' "made, and the leading' features of said invention consist of such an arrangement of the motor-carrying frame in respect to the driving-axle that the driving-shaft lvmay extend longitudinally thereof toward the motor to which it is connected and by which it is driven and the frame be also pivotally connected to the driving-axle structure, thus permitting a movement of the driving-axle departing from the horizontal without affecting the corresponding position of the motor-carrying frame and motor.
The invention further consists in the embodiment, in a vehicle running-gear, of two frames, each supported at three points, (one of said frames being' the motor-carrying frame above referred to,) oner of said frames beingl supported at two points at one end and at a single point at the other, while the other frame is supported at two points at that end where the lirst frame is supported at one point only and at a single point at the other end.
Referring' to the accompanying drawings, which are made a part hereof, and on which um, 1n-w lmi,...b-J` similar reference characters indicate similar parts, Figure 1 is a side elevation of amotorvehicle embodying our said invention, the body, seat. and machinery-inclosing casing being indicated by means of dotted lines; Fig. 2, a top or plan View, on asomewhat enlarged scale, of the running-gear, omitting' much of the mechanism of the automobile, but with the location of the driving-shaft and also of the rear axle indicated by dotted lines; Fig. 3, a side elevation of substantially the saine parts shown in Fig. 2, but with the wheels and ends of the axle broken away as seen when looking in the direction indicated by the arrows from the dotted line 3 3 in Fig. 2; Fig. 4, a substantially central vertical sectional view as seen from the point indicated by the dotted line 4 4 in Fig. 2, the general position of that part of the main shaft not shown being indicated by means of dotted lines; Fig. 5, a transverse vertical sectional View as seen when looking in the direction indicated by the arrows from the dotted line 5 5 in Fig. 2, and Fig. 6 a detail View as seen when looking in the direction indicated by the arrows from the dotted lines 6 6 in Fig. 2.
In the construction selected for illustrating this invention the rear and front axles 2l and 22 are supported, respectively, by the usual ground-wheels 23 and 24. Upon the rear axle 2l are the springs 25 and 26, and upon the front axle 22 arev the springs 27 and 28.
' lhe rear axle 2l preferably has a casing 2O by which it is inclosed, the central portion of which is enlarged sufficiently to receive the main driving-gear, as shown in Fig. Ll, and which also has a tubular extension 19, which ensheathes themain driving-shaft 18 for a considerable portion of its length. This whole structure is rendered very rigid by means of supported by a single pivot, as 34, which rests in a bearing' carried by a second frame. Said second frame is shown as of a triangular form and extends back in a downwardly-inclined direction toward the axle 21. This frame is shown as composed of side bars 41 (which ineline toward each other as they approach the axle 21, near which they are strongly connected by bars 42 to the tubular casing 19) and of suitable cross-bars 43, 44, 45, and 46, the latter of' which is attached to the ends of the bars 41 by means of links 47 and preferably stay-rods 48.
The construction embodying the links 47 (just mentioned) permits the slight relative movement in use between the two principal frames incident to the yielding' of the springs Without throwing undue strain upon any of the parts. The frame last described is supported at two points 51 and 52 (near that end which supports the frame 31 by means of the single pivot 34) upon the spring's 27 and 28. At its other end this frame is supported centrally upon the sleeve or casing 19, this point of support being a pivotal one, whereby a rocking'.
movement of the whole frame about the main driving-shaft is permitted, and as said sleeve or casing is, in effect, a part of the casing' 20, which surrounds and is carried by the axle 21, said frame is, in effect, pivotally supported at this end from said axle.
The frame 31 carries the body and casing portions of the vehicle. 'lhe frame which cmbodies the bars 41 carries the motor and g'earing. rlhe motor is located at a point near where the latter frame is supported by the springs 27 and 28, and consequently while the motor is spring-supported its support is largely independent of the spring's by which the body or riding portion of the vehicle and frame l31 is mainly supported. The motor is therefore largely relieved from the sudden shocks occasioned by contact of the vehicle-wheels with obstruction in the roadway over which the vehicle is passing; but the body in which the passengers are seated is not thereby subjected to any great extent tothe v1brations'occasioned by the heavy Weight of the motor and its connected mechanism being' thrown upon the riding-springs; but the most important result of' this mechanism is the freeing ofthe mechanism from strains occasioned by the passing of the wheels over unequal surfaces. As the frame 31 is pivoted at each of its supportingpoints 32, 33, and 34, it is obvious that while the raising of one of the wheels 23 in respect to the other Will tip the frame 31 bodily it will place upon it no wrenching strain, as it is supported at the other end only by the single pivot 34. 1t is equally obvious 'that the raising of one of the wheels 24 in respect to the other will have little or no effect of' any kind upon the frame 31. rlhe raising of one of the wheels 24 in respect to the other will of course tip the frame 41 46 and with it the motor and mechanism carried thereby; but as said frame is pivotally mounted at the other end and as the axis of the driving-shaft is coincident with the axis of the pivotal support it is obvious that no wrenching of the mechanism can be occasioned by this movement.
The pivot 34 is in the same vertical plane as the driving-shaftof the machine. Its axial line, however, is somewhat above that of said driving shaft and passes approximately through the center of gravity of the motor. The vibrations of the motor caused by the impulse-strokes are around a defined point that is approximately the center of gravity of the motor. By thus having' the axis of the relative rotation of' the two frames pass through this point the vibrations of the motor due to its explosion-strokes are not communicated to the body-carrying frame. The positioning of said pivot somewhat above said shaft is therefore in the interest of equable steady motion of the moving parts.
In the construction so far described and which we have adopted in carrying' out our invention, the frames 31 and 41 being' mounted principally upon the vehicle-springs and vthere being' no direct connection between the frames and the axles on account of the heavy strains which obstructions sometimes occasion,
we have found it best to provide pivoted braces running from an intermediate point on the frame to near the ends of the axles to assist said axles in resisting such strains. In carrying' out this we provide the downwardly-extending' struts 61. which are attached about midway to the sides of the frame 31. From these struts we extend the brace-rods 62 rearwardly to the axles 21, to which they are secured, as indicated, and we also extend from the same struts the rods 63 forward to the axle 22, to which they are secured, as indicated. '.lhese brace-rods are so arranged (as shown inthe drawings) that the vertical movement of the frame 3l upon the springs 25 26 is compensated for, so that there is a continuous equal bearing upon said rods at all times, and by this means the necessary direct connection between the axles is provided for without depending' wholly upon the connections to the springs by which the frames are attached and uniform distances between the corresponding ends of the two axles is maintained, which is quite desirable, especially in high-speed machinesthat is, the distances between the axles, while varying slightly, are always made to vary equally throughout their lengths` so that their parallel relation remains unaffected.
Having thus fully described our said invention, what we claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is-
1. The combination, in a running-gear for vehicles, of' the axles, suitable springs carried IIS thereby, and two frames supported at two y or near the other end, the supporting-points ofthe two frames being arranged reversely with respect to each other, each of said frames being spring-supported at the end having two points of support, and one of said frames having its single point of support carried from the spring-supported end of the other frame.
'2. rlhe combination, in a running-gear for Vehicles, of the vehicle-axles, suitable springs carried by said axles, one frame carried by two spring-mounted points of support from one of said vehicle-axles, another frame likewise carried from two spring-mounted points of support from the other of said vehicleaxles, and each of said frames carried by one point of support from the axle opposite to that upon which it is carried by two points of support.
3. The combination, in a running-gear for vehicles, of two axles each carrying two springs, two frames, one of which is supported by a suitable point of support from each of the two springs upon one of the axles, and the other of which is carried by a suitable point of support from each of the two springs on the other axle, said first-mentioned frame being also supported by a single point of support carried from the opposite axle, and the second frame being carried by a single point of support upon the opposite end of the firstmcntioned framen v 1i. rlhe combination, in a running-gear for vehicles; of a frame supported from the springs of the front axle and extending back in a downwardly-inclined direction toward the rear axle where it is pivotally supported at a single point of support upon a structure carried by said rear axle, said frame being provided with bearings for the main driving-shaft by means of which said rear axle is driven, a second frame supported by the springs carried by the rear axle and extending forward in a substantially ,horizontal direction, and supported at the other end by a single pivotal point of support from the tirst-meutioned frame, said last-mentioned frame being adapted to carry the bed and seats of the vehicle, and said lirstmentioned frame being adapted to carry the motor and driving mechanism.
5. The combination, in a ruiming-gear for vehicles, of a main frame carried at two points of support by the springs carried by one axle, and pivotally mounted on the sheath or casing containing the main driving-shaft which drives the other axle, and having at its extreme forward end a cross-bar connected thereto by means of links; and a second frame mounted by two points of support upon the springs carried by the other axle at one end, and by a pivotal connection upon the link-carried cross-bar of the first-mentioned frame at the other end.
6. The combination, in a running-gear for vehicles, of two frames each supported at two points at or near one end and at one/point at or near the other end, the duplicate supporting-points of each being at that end where the single supporting-point of the other is located, and one of the frameshaving its single point of support carried rigidly from one of the axles, while the other has its single point of support carried from the first-mentioned frame at the end where it is spring-supported.
7. The combination, in a running-gear for vehicles, of two axles each carrying two springs, two frames, one of which is supported by a suitable point of support from each of the two springs carried by one of the axles, and the other of which is carried by a suitable point of support from cach of the two springs carried by the other axle, and each of said frames having a single point of support from the opposite axle, and brace-rods ruiming' from each of the axles directly to one of said frames, whereby uniform distances between the corresponding ends of the axles are maintained notwithstanding the variations caused by the vibration of the springs.
8. The combination, in a running-gear for vehicles, wherein there are two separate frames, each spring-mounted, of the axles, said frames, and brace-rods running from the axles directly to a stationary connection with one of said frames.
9. The combination, in a running-gear for motor-driven vehicles, of a frame separate from the body-frame and extending out radially from the driven axle of the vehicle, amotor mounted on said frame, a shaft also mounted on said frame and extending in a straight line from said motor toward said axle (the axes of said shaft and said axle intersecting), a pivotal bearing having its axis coincident with that of said shaft by which that end of said frame nearest said axle is supported, and a structure carried by said axle embodying said bearing. t
10. 'lhe combination, in a running-gear for motor-driven vehicles, of a frame extending out radially from the driven axle of the vehicle and supported at the other end fronithe opposite axle, a motor mounted on said frame, ashaft also mounted on said frame and extending from said motor toward said axle` powertransmission devices connecting said shaft and said axle, a structure carried by the axle cxtending out toward said motor, and a pivotal bearing uniting said structure and the frame carrying' said motor, whereby said axle is permitted movement departing from horizontal position without affecting the corresponding position of the frame and the motor carried thereby.
1l, The combination, in a running-gear for vehicles, of the vehicle-axles, suitable springs carried by said axles, one frame carried by two spring-mounted points of support from one of said vehicle-axles, another frame likewise carried at two spring-mounted points of support from the other vehicle-axle, one of said frames IOO carried by one point of support Vfrom'the axle opposite to that upon which it is carried by two points of support, and the other frame carried by a suitable support from the axle from which the one frame is carried by two points of support. Y
12. A running-gear for motor-vehicles consisting et' a driving-axle structure, a motorfrarne pivoted upon said axle structure on an axis substantially at right angles thereto, a driving-shaft extending in substantially the same direction as said motor-frame, connections between the driving-shaft and the driving-axle, a motor carried by said traine and connected to and driving said shaft, and a second axle structure supporting said frame.
13. The combination, in a running-gear for vehicles, of a frame su pported at two points ot' support from one axle structure and at one pivotal point of support from the other axle structure, the last-named structure embodying the driving-axle, a d riving-shaft mounted on said frame,power-transmission devices connecting' said shaft to said driving-axle, and a motor mounted on said frame and connected to and driving said shaft.
14. In a motor-vehicle, a ruiming-gear consisting of a driving-axle structure, a motorcarrying frame, a single pivotal connection between said motor-carrying frame and said driving-axle structure substantially at right angles to said structure. a second axle structure upon which said motor-carrying frame is in part supported, a dri\f'ing-shait extending longitudinally of said motor-carrying frame and having its axis coincident with the pivotal axis of said frame, and a motor niounted on said motor-frame and connected to and driving said shalt and through said shaft said driving-axle.
15. In a motor-vehicle, a running-gearconsisting of a driving-axle structure, a motor- AFrame, a pivotal connection between said motor-frame and said driving-axle structure substantially at right angles to said structure, a second axle structure upon which said motorframe is in part supported, a driving shaft having' its axis coincident with the pivotal axis of said frame, a motor mounted on said moaxle of the Vehicle and supported at the other end from said other axle, a motor mounted on said frame, a shaft also mounted on said frame and extending from said motor toward the driving-axle, power-transmission devices connecting said shaft and said driving-axle, a structure carried b v the driving-axle, and a pivotal bearing uniting' said structure and the motor-carrying' frame whereby said drivingaxle is permitted movement departing' from horizontal position without affecting the corresponding position ot' the frame and the Inotor carried thereby.
17. A running-gear for motor-Vehicles consisting ot' a driving-axle structure, a motorearrying frame pivoted on said axle structure on an axis substantially at right angles thereto, a motor mounted on said motor-carrying frame, driving connections between the motor and driving axlepermitting freedom of movement o't' the motor-carrying vframe about its pivot` and a second axle structure supporting said frame. i
18. A running-gear for motor-vehicles consisting of a driving-axle structure, a motorcarrying frame pivoted on said axle structure so as to swing thereon on an axissnbstantially at right angles thereto, a motor mounted on said motor-carrying frame, driving' connections between the motor and driving-axle permitting' freedom ol" movement of the motorcarrying 'frame about its pivot, and a second axle structure supporting said trarne.
In witness whereof we have hereunto set our hands and seals, at Indianapolis, Indiana, this 22d day of March, A. D. 190-1.
JESSE VARRINGTON. s] HOVARD C. MARMON. LL. s]
CHESTER BRADFORD, JAMES A. fALsiL