|Publication number||US7847789 B2|
|Application number||US 10/994,385|
|Publication date||Dec 7, 2010|
|Filing date||Nov 23, 2004|
|Priority date||Nov 23, 2004|
|Also published as||CA2527476A1, CA2527476C, CN1797305A, CN1797305B, EP1659481A2, EP1659481A3, US20060109252|
|Publication number||10994385, 994385, US 7847789 B2, US 7847789B2, US-B2-7847789, US7847789 B2, US7847789B2|
|Inventors||Alexander J. Kolmykov-Zotov, Emily K. Rimas-Ribikauskas, Matt Lerner, Reed Townsend, Steven P. Dodge, Leroy B. Keely|
|Original Assignee||Microsoft Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (23), Referenced by (50), Classifications (8), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aspects of the present invention are directed generally to management of stylus-based input versus non-stylus-based input to a touch-sensitive device, and in particular to reducing the effect of unintentional non-stylus-based input to a touch-sensitive device.
Touch-sensitive surfaces are rapidly becoming more common in computing devices. They are very convenient as they allow a user to make natural gestures familiar to the user in other contexts, such as by entering handwriting using a stylus. Many of these devices also allow input to be provided by non-stylus objects, such as a user's fingertip. The term touch-sensitive surface or device will be used herein to refer to such surfaces or devices that are configured to detect the touch of a stylus and/or a non-stylus object. While generally a convenient feature, a disadvantage to this dual sensitivity to both a stylus and a non-stylus object such as the user's finger is that it is likely that the user will, from time to time, unintentionally touch the touch-sensitive surface with the user's finger, hand, etc., while handling the device or writing on the device using a stylus. For example, while using the stylus to write, the user may rest his or her hand on the touch-sensitive surface, and/or brush the hand against the surface. This may also happen while the user is holding or otherwise handling the device.
There is therefore a need to address this problem inherent to touch-sensitive devices sensitive to both stylus-based input and non-stylus-based input.
Aspects of the present invention address the above problem by reducing the number of false positive touch inputs made by a non-stylus object such as the user's finger or hand. When the stylus is located proximate to the touch-sensitive surface, the sensitivity and/or responsiveness of the surface to non-stylus input is disabled, reduced, or otherwise modified. For example, non-stylus inputs may be ignored while the stylus is within a proximity zone defined near the touch-sensitive surface. As another example, the threshold size, pressure, capacitance, and/or shape required for a non-stylus input to be successfully accepted may depend upon whether the stylus is within or outside the proximity zone. This aspect of the invention may further be generalized to operate with other input methods. For example, the opposite may be true such that, in certain situations, it may be appropriate to ignore stylus inputs while a non-stylus object is within the proximity zone. Thus, throughout this disclosure the concept of a stylus and a non-stylus object may be reversed and still be within the scope of this invention. Or, another type of input, such as a voice input to a microphone, may cause a stylus input or a non-stylus input to be ignored.
Further aspects of the present invention are directed to adjusting the threshold requirements of a non-stylus input depending upon where on the touch-sensitive surface the input is made. For example, non-stylus inputs made on or near a user-selectable displayed object, such as a displayed button, may be easier to make (i.e., have lower threshold requirements) than such inputs made in an area away from any displayed object. Or, for example, non-stylus inputs made in an area where they are not expected, such as a defined inking area, is more likely to be interpreted as an unintentional touch and therefore more likely to be ignored.
Still further aspects of the present invention are directed to calibrating various sensitivity thresholds for non-stylus input, as well as the size and/or shape of the proximity zone.
These and other aspects of the invention will be apparent upon consideration of the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments.
The foregoing summary of the invention, as well as the following detailed description of illustrative embodiments, is better understood when read in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which are included by way of example, and not by way of limitation with regard to the claimed invention.
Aspects of the present invention may be used in connection with a computing device such as the computer 100 illustratively shown in
The system memory 130 includes computer storage media in the form of volatile and/or nonvolatile memory such as read only memory (ROM) 131 and random access memory (RAM) 132. A basic input/output system 133 (BIOS), containing the basic routines that help to transfer information between elements within computer 110, such as during start-up, is typically stored in the ROM 131. The RAM 132 typically contains data and/or program modules that are immediately accessible to and/or presently being operated on by processing unit 120. The computer 100 may also store and/or execute an operating system 134, one or more application programs 135, other program modules 136, and/or program data 137. The computer 100 may further include other removable/non-removable, volatile/nonvolatile computer storage media. By way of example only,
A user may enter commands and information into the computer 100 through input devices such as a touch-sensitive device 165, or a keyboard 162 and/or a pointing device 161, commonly referred to as a mouse, trackball, or touch pad. Other input devices (not shown) may include a microphone, joystick, game pad, satellite dish, scanner, or the like. These and other input devices are often connected to the processing unit 120 through a user input interface 160 that is coupled to the system bus 121, but may be coupled via other interface and bus structures such as a parallel port, a game port, or a universal serial bus (USB). A monitor 191 or other type of display device is also connected to the system bus 121 via an interface such as a video interface 190. The computer 100 may further include other peripheral output devices such as speakers 197 and printer 196, which may be connected to the system bus 121 via an output peripheral interface 195.
In some aspects, a touch-sensitive device 165 and accompanying pen or stylus 166 are provided in order to digitally capture freehand input. Although a direct connection between the touch-sensitive device 165 and the user input interface 160 is shown, in practice, the touch-sensitive device 165 may be coupled to the processing unit 120 directly, via parallel port or another interface, or via the system bus 121 by any technique, either wired or wirelessly. The stylus 166 may further have other sensing systems for determining strokes of electronic ink including, e.g., accelerometers and magnetometers. In addition, the touch pad may be sensitive to non-stylus mechanical input, such as input from a user's finger. Touch-sensitive devices that are sensitive to stylus input and/or to human touch input are known.
The computer 100 may operate in a networked environment using logical connections to one or more remote computers, such as a remote computer 180. The remote computer 180 may be a personal computer (such as a desktop computer, a laptop computer, or a tablet-style computer), a handheld computer (e.g., a personal digital assistant), a server, a router, a network PC, a peer device, or other common network node, and typically includes many or all of the elements described above relative to the computer 100, although only a memory storage device 181 has been illustrated in
When used in a LAN networking environment, the computer 100 is connected to the LAN 171 through a network interface or adapter 170. When used in a WAN networking environment, the computer 100 typically includes a modem 172 or other means for establishing communications over the WAN 173, such as the Internet. The modem 172, which may be internal or external, may be connected to the system bus 121 via the user input interface 160 or other appropriate mechanism.
As discussed, the touch-sensitive device 156 may be a device separate from or part of and integrated with the computer 100. In addition, any or all of the features, subsystems, and functions discussed in connection with
The sensing portion 202 may be sensitive to, and able to distinguish between stylus and non-stylus input. To accomplish this, various different sensing technologies may be utilized for each of portions 203 and 204. For example, the stylus-sensitive portion 203 may be an electromagnetic digitizer that senses the stylus 166 but not non-stylus objects such as a human finger or hand, and the non-stylus sensitive portion 204 may be a capacitive touchpad that is sensitive to the moisture content of an object such as human skin but is not sensitive to the stylus 166 (assuming that the stylus 166 is configured so as not to be detectable by capacitive touchpad technology). Other touch-sensitive and/or hover-sensitive technologies include optical sensing such as pressure-sensitive touch digitizers that utilize two optically transparent conductive layers separated by a non-conductive liquid or air space, radar sensing, and sonic beam sensing. Again, such sensing/locating technologies are well known.
Each of the portions 203 and 204 may generate its own signal depending upon what that portion senses. In particular, the stylus-sensitive portion 203 may generate a first signal that depends upon the position of the stylus 166 relative to the stylus-sensing portion 203, and the human-touch sensitive portion 204 may generate a second signal that depends upon the position, pressure, capacitance, and/or surface area of touch (such as by a human hand, finger, or other body part) relative to the human-touch sensitive portion 204. Many touch-sensitive devices 165 use capacitance and/or surface area to determine pressure. The touch sensitive device 165 may output the first and second signals separately or as a single combined signal.
The touch-sensitive device 165 may further have or be integrated with a display 208. The display 208 may be aligned such that input provided to the sensing portion 202 results in appropriate visual feedback on the display 208. Such a configuration is commonly used in tablet-style computers and touch-sensitive displays in general. The display may be any type of display such as a cathode ray tube (CRT) display or a liquid-crystal display (LCD). Although the touch-sensitive device 165 is shown in a horizontal position, suitable for tablet-style computers, the touch-sensitive device 165 may be oriented in any position. For example, the touch-sensitive device 165 may be the display for a laptop or desktop computer.
Distance D may be of a sufficiently small distance such that stylus and/or non-stylus x,y hover coordinates may still be measured and/or reported by the touch-sensitive device 165 within the proximity zone 207. The x,y location over which the stylus 166 is hovering may be used, for example, as a factor in determining whether a non-stylus input should be ignored. Or, distance D may be of a large enough distance such that the x,y hover coordinate of the stylus 166 or a non-stylus object may not be reliably measurable in certain portions of the proximity zone 207, even though the presence of the stylus 166 or the non-stylus object within the proximity zone 207 is still detectable.
As shown, the side boundaries of the proximity zone 207 may taper toward the touch-sensitive device 165 near the edges of the touch-sensitive surface 205. This may be a natural physical effect caused by the boundaries of the touch-sensitive surface 205 and the particular characteristics of the electric, magnetic, optical, and/or sonic field (for example) used by the touch-sensitive device 165. However, any boundaries for the proximity zone may be defined. For example, the upper boundary 206 of the proximity zone 207 need not be planar as shown but may have a varying topography that depends upon the relative location over the touch-sensitive surface 205.
Alternatively, the proximity zone 207 may not be defined by particular boundaries but instead as the space in which the mere presence of the stylus 166 would be detected by the touch-sensitive device 165. This may be useful where the touch-sensitive device 165 is able to detect the presence, but not the distance, of the hovering stylus 166 within a certain range from the touch-sensitive surface 205. As yet another alternative, the stylus 166 may transmit a signal into and through the user's hand such that the capacitive touch signal from the hand is modified. In such a case, the touch-sensitive device 165 may be configured to detect, based on that signal in the hand, whether the user is holding the stylus 166 while the hand is touching the touch-sensitive surface 205.
To determine whether the stylus 166 is within or outside the proximity zone 207, the position and/or proximity of a smaller representative portion of the stylus 166 may be measured. For example, determining whether the stylus 166 is within or outside the proximity zone 207 may equate to determining whether a tip 201 of the stylus 166 is within or outside of the proximity zone 207.
The position of the stylus 166 relative to the touch-sensitive surface 205 may determine which types of input may be provided to the touch-sensitive device 165 and/or the computer 100.
When non-stylus input is ignored, the effect of such input is different from what the effect would have been had such input not been ignored. For instance, ignored input may simply have no effect on the user interface experience, as though the input never occurred. As an example, a particular function that would ordinarily be performed in response to a stylus or non-stylus input, such as dragging a displayed object or moving a displayed pointer (e.g., via a sliding gesture of the stylus 166 or a non-stylus object across the touch-sensitive surface 205), selecting an object (e.g., via a tap of the stylus 166 or a non-stylus object against the touch-sensitive surface 205). However, the function may not be performed, or a different function may be performed, in response to that same gesture by a non-stylus object if the stylus 166 is within the proximity zone 207 while the non-stylus gesture is being made. The reasoning behind this is that such a non-stylus gesture is likely to be unintentional or have a different purpose. Ignored input may be indicated to the user via a feedback mechanism, e.g., a displayed icon or message, or an audible sound.
As will be discussed later in connection with
Non-Stylus Input Profile Analysis
Additional or alternate factors may be used to determine whether non-stylus input should be ignored or filtered. Referring to
To take advantage of this predictability of hand contact, the touch-sensitive device 165 or the computer 100 may store one or more sample hand contact profiles to be compared with the actual measured hand contact profile 702. For example, a plurality of variations on the shown hand contact profile 702 may be stored. If there is a match (which may be an approximate match), then it may be assumed, and determined, that the user is about to write or is writing with the stylus 166. In response to determining this, any non-stylus user input may be ignored or specially filtered while hand contact with the touch-sensitive surface 205 continues.
An example of how hand, or other non-stylus object, contact profile analysis may be used in conjunction with stylus proximity detection is explained with reference to the illustrative flowchart of
If it is determined that the time period has passed, then in step 804 the touch-sensitive device 165 or the computer 100 may determined whether the non-stylus input has a pressure that exceeds a threshold pressure P1. Threshold pressure P1 may be set to any value as desired. The lower the value of P1, the easier it is for a user to apply a non-stylus input while the stylus 166 is outside the proximity zone 207. Threshold pressure P1 may be user-defined or software defined. The pressure of an input, whether stylus-based or non-stylus-based, may be determined in any of a number of ways. For instance, pressure may be directly measured or may be indirectly measured as a function of input surface area (e.g., the harder a finger is pressed against the touch-sensitive surface 205, the greater the area of contact), dwell time, and/or capacitance.
Next, in step 805, the touch-sensitive device 165 or the computer 100 may determine whether the non-stylus input is of a shape and/or size that meets certain requirements. For example, the non-stylus input may be compared with one or more pre-stored profiles (such as profile 702) to determine whether there is a match (or approximate match). As previously discussed, it may be desirable to ignore certain non-stylus inputs such as those that appear to be associated with the side of a user's palm that is expected to occur during normal writing activities or while the user is carrying the touch-sensitive device 165 and unintentionally touching the touch-sensitive surface 205. Rotation and/or size differences between the pre-stored profiles and the actual non-stylus input may be accounted for and normalized for comparison purposes. If it is determined that the non-stylus input is of a shape and/or size that is appropriate for accepting as non-stylus input, then the non-stylus input may be accepted in step 806 and used as input to the active software application or the operating system as appropriate for the current contextual use of the computer 100. Thus, the vertical flowchart path from step 801 to step 806 has been described. Other branches of the flowchart will now be described as well.
Referring back to step 804, if it is determined that the non-stylus input pressure does not exceed the threshold pressure P1, then the non-stylus input may be ignored in step 809. Also, in step 805, if it is determined that the non-stylus input is of a shape and/or size that is not appropriate for accepting as non-stylus input, then again the non-stylus input is ignored in step 809.
Referring back to steps 802 and 803, if it is determined that the stylus 166 is within the proximity zone 207 or that the time period in step 803 has passed, then the touch-sensitive device 165 or the computer 100 may determine in step 807 whether the pressure of the non-stylus input exceeds a threshold pressure P2. Threshold pressure P2 may be of any value, but preferably is of a value that is higher than P1. If it is determined that threshold pressure P2 is not exceeded, then the non-stylus input is ignored. Thus, where P1>P2, it is more difficult to unintentionally provide non-stylus input when the stylus 166 is within the proximity zone 207 as compared with when the stylus 166 is outside the proximity zone 207.
However, if the pressure of the non-stylus input exceeds the threshold pressure P2, then the touch-sensitive device 165 and/or the computer 100 may determine in step 808, as in step 805, whether the shape and/or size of the non-stylus input is appropriate for accepting as input. The factors used in the determination in step 808 may be the same as or different from the factors used in the determination in step 805.
The value of threshold pressure P2 may be determined by the user and/or automatically by software running on the computer 100. The value of threshold pressure P2 may be automatically determined in accordance with one or more factors, such as which application is in focus and receiving the input, which user is logged on to the computer 100, the physical configuration of the computer 100 (e.g., whether it is configured as a tablet-style computer, a laptop computer, or uses a touch-sensitive CRT monitor), the identity of the particular stylus 166 used, and/or any other factors. In addition, the value of threshold pressure P2 may depend upon other factors such as the configuration of the touch-sensitive device 165. For example, referring to
The physical orientation of the touch-sensitive surface 205 may be determined in accordance with one or more sensors in the touch-sensitive device 165 and/or the computer 100, such as an accelerometer chip. In other words, based on the output of such an accelerometer, the touch-sensitive device 165 and/or the computer 100 may be able to determine the particular angle at which the touch-sensitive surface 205 is oriented, or be able to determine which or a plurality of orientation modes the touch-sensitive surface 205 is in (e.g., substantially upright mode versus substantially horizontal mode). The touch-sensitive device 165 and/or the computer 100 may check for the presence of such an accelerometer or other sensor. In the absence of an accelerometer or other sensor, other mechanisms may be used to determine the orientation of the touch-sensitive surface 205. For example, a profile setting that defines the orientation may be persisted in a registry and may be set or read by a software application or the operating system running on the computer 100 and/or the touch-sensitive device 165.
Non-stylus user input may further be ignored and/or specially filtered based on other factors, such as the location of such input on the touch-sensitive surface 205. Referring to
In addition, the touch-sensitive surface/display 205 may be subdivided into a plurality of areas 905, 906, 907, where the threshold properties required to make a successful non-stylus input may be different from area to area. For example, a non-stylus input 904 made in area 905 may require less or more pressure or size than if the non-stylus input were made in area 906.
One or more boundaries of the proximity zone 207 and/or the time delay in step 803 may be set in accordance with calibration procedures. For example, referring to
In step 1005, the touch-sensitive device 165 or the computer 100 may calculate the appropriate distance D (or other parameter(s) defining the proximity zone 207) and/or the time period used in step 803. For example, distance D may be set to be, or otherwise be based on, the maximum, average, etc. distance that the tip 201 moves away from the touch-sensitive surface 205 during writing in step 1004 and/or during resting in step 1003. In some embodiments, distance D may be set to one of these above values plus an additional margin. Similarly, the time period used in step 803 may be set to be, or otherwise be based on, the maximum, average, etc. amount of time that the user removed the tip 201 away from the touch-sensitive surface 205 during the writing in step 1004. By measuring such distances during calibration, the software may create a profile used to help determine whether the user is writing and is thus resting his or her hand on the touch-sensitive surface 205.
Thus, the intelligent management of input to a touch-sensitive device has been described. While illustrative embodiments as described herein in accordance with various aspects of the present invention are shown by way of example, it will be understood that the invention is not limited to these embodiments. For example, although the steps in the illustrative flowcharts of
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|U.S. Classification||345/173, 178/18.03|
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|Sep 15, 2005||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MICROSOFT CORPORATION, WASHINGTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:KOLMYKOV-ZOTOV, ALEXANDER J.;RIMAS-RIBIKAUSKAS, EMILY K.;LERNER, MATT;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20041118 TO 20041121;REEL/FRAME:016542/0124
|May 28, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4
|Dec 9, 2014||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: MICROSOFT TECHNOLOGY LICENSING, LLC, WASHINGTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MICROSOFT CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:034543/0001
Effective date: 20141014