|Publication number||US7849321 B2|
|Application number||US 11/466,697|
|Publication date||Dec 7, 2010|
|Filing date||Aug 23, 2006|
|Priority date||Aug 23, 2006|
|Also published as||EP1898334A2, EP1898334A3, EP1898334B1, US20080072045|
|Publication number||11466697, 466697, US 7849321 B2, US 7849321B2, US-B2-7849321, US7849321 B2, US7849321B2|
|Inventors||Len L. Mizrah|
|Original Assignee||Authernative, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (52), Non-Patent Citations (13), Referenced by (7), Classifications (11), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The invention relates generally to user authentication systems for computer and network security access control systems employing virtual reference grids of data; and more particularly authentication systems and methods based on a random partial shared secret recognition with low entropy leakage of user credentials per an authentication session and high resilience against guessing attacks.
2. Description of Related Art
Random Partial Shared Secret Recognition (RPSSR) System
A Random Partial Shared Secret Recognition (RPSSR) system is described in my prior U.S. Pat. No. 7,073,067, entitled Authentication System and Method Based Upon Random Partial Digitized Path Recognition. In a RPSSR system, the server, having obtained from a client a user name or similar credential to initiate an authentication session, presents an authentication challenge (a clue) to the client requiring client to enter a session-specific subset of a shared secret as an authentication response corresponding with the shared secret through a cognitive association. A correct authentication response to the server leads to a successful authentication event. Otherwise, the authentication process fails.
A RPSSR system is based on a One Time Authentication Challenge (OTAC) that is generated and sent from the server to the client during each authentication session, and on a One Time Authentication Response (OTAR) that is generated by the client corresponding to the OTAC through a cognitive association with a shared secret, and then sent back to the server. Security of the RPSSR authentication credential (one or more shared secrets) depends on the security of both the OTAC and OTAR components.
Credential's Combinatorial Capacity and Entropy Leakage
There are two types of attacks against “what user knows”-based authentication credentials. Attacks of the first type occur without prior collection by an intruder of a user's login information, and include guessing or computer-processing attacks at the entry devices or system “access points”. Clearly, the higher the combinatorial capacity of the user credential, the less chance of success for these attacks. Also, there are system level defenses against this type of attacks described below. The second type of attacks occurs with prior collection of data combined with reengineering. Credential related information can be gathered, analyzed, and processed by an intruder over an interval including more than one user login session, gradually leading to a complete credential disclosure. This process is called an entropy leakage, because during each user authentication session being monitored, part of a shared secret “leaks” to the intruder.
Various attacks available at and/or after the credential entry event gather information due to entropy leakage. Examples of entropy leakage attack techniques include key logging software, videotaping, “shoulder surfing”, brute force, etc.
Typically, entropy leakage occurs as a result of information loss at and/or after a shared secret entry event. However, there are guessing attacks which may lead to entropy leakage even without any legitimate credential entry event. These guessing attacks are especially dangerous if supported by a computer-processing power. Conventional system level protection against guessing attacks is provided by limiting the number of unsuccessful credential entry events and by limiting the login time, and causing an account lock out if the limits are exceeded.
Conventional security methods used to prevent entropy leakage, include:
An RPSSR-based authentication system provides security against entropy leakage by enabling an interactive client-server session where a user, having provided the user's name or user's ID to the server, is challenged to enter a random session-specific subset of a graphical path. An intruder, having detected just a random challenge and a random subset of a credential, would have difficulties reengineering the entire shared secret.
Nonetheless, recording challenges and respective responses of a particular user over a number of authentication sessions could provide sufficient data to a dedicated intruder to reengineer the user's credential. Therefore, it is desirable to further improve security of an authentication system based on a random partial shared secret recognition by reducing entropy leakage while doing so in a manner that remains practical for a large-scale adoption.
An interactive method for authentication of a client is described based on two shared secrets, including a first shared secret in the form of an ordered path on the frame of reference, and a second shared secret in the form of locations on the frame of reference at which a challenge identifying a random set of locations on the ordered path is to be displayed. An instance of the frame of reference comprises characters, which members of a character set such as the digits 0 to 9, arranged in a random or other irregular pattern, where each character is positioned at a location on the frame of reference. The characters used in the instance of the frame of reference are changed from session to session. There are many more locations in the frame of reference than there are characters in the character set. For example, a representative frame of reference comprises a 10 by 10 grid including 100 pre-defined locations populated using digits 0 to 9. Therefore, all or most of the characters are used more than once in every instance of the frame of reference. The arrangement can be generally characterized as characters from a character set positioned in a number N of pre-defined locations on the frame of reference, the character set including M possible characters, where 2M is less than N, so that each of the M possible characters can used in more than one of the pre-defined locations in said instance.
Authentication requires that a user enter the characters in an order specified in the challenge displayed in the displayed instance of the frame of reference found in the locations pointed to by the challenge on the ordered path. Because the characters occur more than once on the frame of reference, entry of a character reveals very little information about the first and second shared secrets. The user is able to enter the required characters by recognition of the random set on the ordered path in the first shared secret, identified by characters in second shared secret locations. Thus, a secret challenge identifying the random set of locations on the ordered path is embedded within the displayed instance of the graphical representation of the frame of reference.
An ordered path on the frame of reference includes a plurality of pre-defined locations on the frame of reference having an order. A secret challenge, embedded within the graphical representation of the frame of reference, identifies a set of the plurality of pre-defined locations on the ordered path. The set of locations pointed to by the challenge may consist of fewer locations than there are on the ordered path, the same number of locations, or a larger number of locations. Locations on the ordered path may be used more than once in the challenge. The ordered path and the locations of characters of the secret challenge on the frame of reference are set out in advance as shared secrets between the client and the authentication server.
In an embodiment described herein, the secret challenge comprises characters at a pre-defined subset of the plurality of pre-defined locations along the full ordered path, and is therefore embedded in the full path. For one example which is described herein, the full ordered path includes 10 locations on a frame of reference consisting of a 10×10 grid of locations. An instance of a graphical representation of the 10×10 grid is presented to the client with characters positioned at the locations on the grid. The secret challenge in this example comprises characters at the first six locations of the 10 locations along the ordered path. Of course, other types and sizes of frame of reference can be utilized with the technology described herein.
Because the client knows that the secret challenge can be found in the instance of the frame of reference, such as at a pre-defined subset of the locations on the ordered path, the client is able to enter an authentication response. However, the secret authentication challenge is veiled within the graphical representation of the frame of reference, limiting entropy leakage using the technology. Because intruders will not know the plurality of pre-defined locations at which the characters of the challenge are positioned, information about the secret credentials is difficult to discover and entropy leakage is therefore reduced. An embodiment of the system described herein is referred to as a random partial digitized path recognition system with a secret challenge (RPDPR-SC).
An authentication server is described which embodies the authentication techniques described above. In addition, the technology herein implemented using computer software can be embodied by a machine readable data storage medium.
Other aspects and advantages of the technology described herein are set out below in the drawings and the detailed description which follows.
FIGS. F5A-1 to 5E-1 provide various examples depicted by arrows with continuous paths having ten field positions along the path for online user account set up in support of the RPDPR-SC authentication process during the login sessions according to the present invention.
FIGS. 5A-2-5E-2 provide a secret graphical ordered path selection grid and various examples depicted by digits and shadowed grid fields with continuous paths having ten field positions for online user account set up in support of the RPDPR-SC authentication process during the login sessions according to the present invention.
A detailed description of the embodiments of the present invention is provided with reference to
RPDPR-SC Authentication Factor Basic Data Flow Communication Set Up
To set up access, a pre-authentication session 1040 is executed by the client subsystem 1010 and the server subsystem 1030. In the pre-authentication session 1040, a user account is set up in the server subsystem 1030 including a data set associated with each client including first and second shared secrets and a client identifier. The user name and the first shared secret in the form of a graphical ordered path (referred to as the full ordered path) is selected by the user and stored in server subsystem 1030. The full ordered path is represented by a data structure including an ordered set of data fields associated with the data set for the client stored in the server subsystem. In the ordered set of data fields, the data fields have a position in the set (according to the order) and have respective field contents. For the RPDPR-SC system being described, the field contents include coordinates of a first plurality of pre-defined locations on a frame of reference characterizing a directed, ordered path on the frame of reference. The position in the data set corresponds to a location on the directed, ordered path, identified by coordinates on the frame of reference. The position in the data set therefore indicates to the client who knows the first shared secret, coordinates on the frame of reference of locations on the full ordered path.
Also, as a part of the pre-authentication session 1040, the user chooses in addition to the shared full path, a second shared secret comprising an ordered set of coordinates of a second plurality of pre-defined locations on the frame of reference to be used for a secret authentication challenge. In an embodiment described herein, the second plurality of pre-defined locations defines sub-path that consists of a subset of a full path. The sub-path is used to carry an authentication challenge that is built into a displayed instance of the frame of reference, by positioning characters at locations in the sub-path pointing to or suggesting the partial subset of the full path and can be referred to as a built-into-the-path challenge. Though any combination of locations on the frame of reference can be chosen as the second shared secret for use in forming a built-into-the-graphical interface challenge, the embodiment being described is a sub-path coinciding with the full graphical ordered path (for an easy cognitive association) but shorter (in other words, having fewer locations on the frame of reference) than the full graphical ordered path. The number of locations in the second shared secret defines the combinatorial capacity of the authentication challenge and influences the security of the RPDPR-SC authentication factor. Therefore, a certain minimum number of locations in the second shared secret can be mandated by the system administrator with online account set Up policies. Thus, in one preferred RPDPR-SC embodiment, the user account information, user name and ordered set of data fields (identifying the locations on the full path) along with a subset of ordered set of data fields (identifying the locations on the sub-path) for carrying the authentication challenge are stored in a secure server database, along with such other information needed or desirable for utilization during an authentication session. In some embodiments, information supporting additional authentication factors is stored in the database.
To gain access to protected network destination 1060, client subsystem 1010 and server subsystem 1030 execute authentication session 1050 that includes a client-server interactive communication protocol based on RPDPR-SC. A more detailed description of the embodiment of authentication session 1050 is provided with reference to
RPDPR-SC Authentication Protocol
According to one basic flow, an authentication session is initiated when the user tries to reach a protected network destination (block 2010). The protected network destination redirects the attempted access by sending a data communication to the authentication server, or the attempted access is otherwise detected as a data communication at the authentication server 1030. In one example where the user is attempting access using an Internet browser, a communication interface is returned to the user's browser using data communications according to a protocol like HTTP, where the interface includes a graphical user interface and links to authentication server 1030 (block 2020). The communication interface may be returned through redirection, for example, by the authentication server or another network resource. Through the graphical user interface, the server prompts the user to enter a user name into a field in the graphical user interface (block 2030). The user enters the user name, which is returned by a data communication to the authentication server (block 2040). If the user name is valid, then the authentication server composes an instance of a graphical representation of the frame of reference with characters positioned at the pre-defined locations on the frame of reference in a manner that is randomized or otherwise intended to be unique to the current authentication session. Within the graphical representation, a one time authentication challenge OTAC is presented, by populating locations on the second plurality of pre-defined locations identified by the second shared secret, with characters that identify for example a subset of the full path, along with an express or implied request to enter a one time authentication response OTAR (block 2050). The OTAR consists of characters in order, found in the locations pointed to by the characters positioned in the subset of the full path. The OTAC is veiled by the characters in the frame of reference, which includes many more locations than there are characters in the character set used to populate the frame of reference, so that there can be more than one instance of each character. Typically, each instance of the graphical representation of the frame of reference will include many instances of each character in the character set. However, for some algorithms used for composing the graphical representation, such randomly populating the field, it is possible a particular character in the characters set appears only once or not at all. In any event, the locations of the challenge are not apparent to an intruder. Furthermore, entry of characters for the OTAR does not identify positions on the full path, because each character is normally positioned in more than one location on the frame of reference.
For instance, in one embodiment and for one particular authentication session, an instance of a graphical representation of the frame of reference consists of a 10 by 10 grid of locations, where a random character (where the characters are digits, letters or other characters that can be used to suggest an order) is positioned at each location in the grid. For a particular instance of the grid, the character positioned at each location is session specific, so that the instance is used for only one authentication session. In a representative example, consider a full path including ten data fields storing coordinates of ten locations on the frame of reference, with the starting location for the full path in position 1 and a random character being the digit 3, next consecutive location in position 2 and a random character being the digit 8, next consecutive location in position 3 and a random character being the digit 5, next consecutive location in position 4 and a random character being the digit 2, next consecutive location in position 5 and a random character being the digit 7, next consecutive location in position 6 and a random character being the digit 9, next consecutive location in position 7 and a random character being the digit 8, next consecutive location in position 8 and a random character being the digit 1, next consecutive location in position 9 and a random character being the digit 4, and the last location at the full graphical ordered path in position 10 which is presented with digit 0 and a random character being the digit 6. Hence, the full ordered path is presented in this example as the following sequence of characters in the pre-defined locations along the secret full ordered path: “3, 8, 5, 2, 7, 9, 8, 1, 4, 6”. Assume for this example that the second shared secret consists of coordinates of the first six locations along the full path. Then, according to the example above, the one time authentication challenge OTAC consists of the six characters displayed at the locations corresponding to the sub-path on the instance of the grid. The OTAC therefore includes the character in position 1—equal to 3, the character in position 2—equal to 8, the character in position 3—equal to 5, the character in position 4—equal to 2, the character in position 5—equal to 7, and the character in position 6—equal to 9. Thus, a secret OTAC (3, 8, 5, 2, 7, 9) is built into the secret full path on the session specific instance of the grid.
The user is prompted to enter characters into the data entry field on the graphical user interface according to the OTAC to be returned by data communication to the servers as the OTAR. In this particular example, the first character of the challenge points to field position 3 along the path, where the displayed random character is the digit 5. Hence, the user enters 5 into the data entry field by either using a keyboard, or clicking on any field on the grid having the session-only random digital content equal to 5. Then, the second character of the challenge points to field position 8 along the path, where the displayed random character is the digit 1. Hence, the user enters 1 into the data entry field. Going the same way across remaining points in the sub-path 3, 4, 5, and 6, one can derive a random session-only one time authentication response OTAR “5 1 7 8 8 4”. The user completes entering input field values that correspond to this OTAR using the graphical user interface and sends the OTAR to the authentication server (block 2060). If the input data matches the field content derived at the server for the very same path, challenge and the random session-only characters in the array, then successful authentication is signaled. The successful authentication signal is sent to the user via, for example the graphical user interface, to the protected network destination and/or to other resources (such as authorization and accounting systems) that need to know that the authentication session has succeeded. Ultimately, network connection to the protected network destination requested by the client is allowed (block 2070).
Despite the use of a static shape and direction for the full path on a grid as a client-server first shared secret and the use of a static shape and direction for the sub-path as a second shared secret for an authentication challenge, the characters displayed in the respective fields in the grid are session-only and random, being generated by server 1030 for one authentication session only and for one instance of the graphical representation of the grid. If the user commits an act or omission that closes the graphical representation of the grid, without entering an OTAR, server 1030 is notified. If the authentication session is continued, the server 1030 generates and sends to the client during the same authentication session another random session-only instance of the grid with different random content. So, with each subsequent grid instantiation by the user, new session specific content is provided.
Graphical User Interface for RPDPR-SC Authentication Factor
Operation mode menu 3050 is included and when it is indicated, it causes a drop-down menu of operation mode buttons including login session operation mode button 3070, account set up operation mode button 3080, path reset operation mode button 3090, authentication challenge built into the path reset operation mode button 3100, user personal information (a set of personalized security questions not disclosing user's personally identifiable information) reset button 3110, and user account information reset button 3120. Stoplight icon 3030 is included in screen 3010. Stoplight icon 3020 is red before the user name is entered (either by indicating LOGIN button 3060, or hitting the “Enter” key on the user's keyboard), is yellow during client-server communications while the client is waiting for verification of the user name, and turns green when user name is accepted. Also included in screen 3010 is session timer icon 3030 indicating session elapsed time for the login session. The system administrator can set parameters in the server that terminate the login process or any other selected by user operation mode session in menu 3050. If the timer expires (session time can have different time limits for various operation modes), or otherwise react to timer expiry.
Selecting a Full Graphical Ordered Path on a Grid at User Account Set Up
The ordered paths shown in
Also, all of the representative ordered paths have the same number of locations (or fields). Using the same number of locations (or fields) on each graphical path facilitates the execution of the RPDPR-SC authentication algorithm. In alternative, lengths of the ordered paths can vary from client to client.
Other embodiments of the invention use ordered paths that are non-continuous, such as described in reference to
One Time Authentication Challenge as a Static Shape and Direction Sub-Path of the Full Graphical Ordered Path Having a Dynamic Digital Content
By indicating button 8050 marked with the black triangle, drop-down menu 8060 is displayed. The drop-down menu can be closed by clicking inside the menu on the upper left field with the black triangle mark, or anywhere outside of the menu. Drop-down menu 8060 comprises an instance of graphical representation of the frame of reference, such as a reference grid in this example, with characters randomly or pseudo-randomly positioned in the pre-defined locations. The reference grid includes the frame of reference, such as shown in
User 8080 at terminal 8070 is presented with GUI 8010 in the browser or in the login screen of user's desktop or laptop, having instantiated grid 8060. The User 8080 knows a share secret full ordered path (including positions 1, 2, . . . , 0 in this example) and sub-path (including positions 1, 2, . . . , 6 in this example) represented by grid 8090 in
Then, indicating LOGIN button 3060, OTAR 8040 is sent to server 1030, which compares it with calculated one at the server. Stoplight 8020 turns meanwhile from red to yellow. If the comparison is successful, a positive authentication signal is sent to the user's GUI 8010 and other sub-systems that may need to know this information. Stoplight 8020 turns from yellow to green. Otherwise, the error message is sent to user 8080 in GUI 8010 that OTAR is incorrect and should be reentered. Stoplight 8020 turns from yellow to red.
There are several unique capabilities in RPDPR-SC authentication factor to outline here:
1. Unlike the RPDPR authentication factor described in my prior patent referred to above, where the field content on a grid was irrelevant to the OTAR, but rather used only to veil the actual field locations (fields with specific coordinates on a grid to be indicated), RPDPR-SC authentication factor's OTAR is content driven only—it is irrelevant how the character is input that is used to create OTAR, as long as the content is correct. This change allows hiding the actual shared secrets in RPDPR-SC authentication factor—the path and the challenge built into the path. Indeed, one does not reveal locations related to them, because any arbitrary locations with the right content can be clicked on, or the data can be entered with a keyboard, eliminating entropy leakage during an authentication session, that might otherwise occur in a RPDPR system by just recording/observing the locations processed by the user to generate the OTAR.
2. The combinatorial capacity of the OTAR is scalable with the length of the sub-path used to deliver the authentication challenge—each location in a sub-path leads to one digit in OTAR. Preferred embodiment challenges in
The server subsystem 1030 includes network server resources 1007, an account management utility 1008 for the user accounts subject of the authentication process, and a platform 1009 including a processing unit, memory, disk space and other data processing resources. Core program 1013 supporting the authentication process is included in the server subsystem 1030. The core program may be implemented using Java or .NET object-oriented technology for examples. Also, a server database (or a directory service, such as LDAP) and database connector 1012 is included. Finally, an interface 1011 to communication media for server LAN/WAN communication lines 1020 is provided. In some embodiments, the server and server data are implemented with security features to protect user account information files from intruders.
While the present invention is disclosed by reference to the preferred embodiments and examples detailed above, it is to be understood that these examples are intended in an illustrative rather than in a limiting sense. It is contemplated that modifications and combinations will readily occur to those skilled in the art, which modifications and combinations will be within the spirit of the invention and the scope of the following claims.
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|US8301897 *||Aug 23, 2006||Oct 30, 2012||Cisco Technology, Inc.||Challenge-based authentication protocol|
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|U.S. Classification||713/182, 726/5, 713/168, 713/171, 726/6, 713/169|
|Cooperative Classification||G06F21/83, G06F21/36|
|European Classification||G06F21/36, G06F21/83|
|Aug 23, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: AUTHERNATIVE, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:MIZRAH, LEN L.;REEL/FRAME:018162/0173
Effective date: 20060812
|Jun 9, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4