|Publication number||US7851239 B2|
|Application number||US 12/133,813|
|Publication date||Dec 14, 2010|
|Priority date||Jun 5, 2008|
|Also published as||CN102046516A, EP2297026A2, US8358458, US20090305010, US20110051224, WO2009149213A2, WO2009149213A3|
|Publication number||12133813, 133813, US 7851239 B2, US 7851239B2, US-B2-7851239, US7851239 B2, US7851239B2|
|Inventors||James Randolph Webster, Thanh Nghia Tu, Xiaoming Yan, Wonsuk Chung|
|Original Assignee||Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc.|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (55), Non-Patent Citations (12), Referenced by (1), Classifications (13), Legal Events (3)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
Embodiments relate to methods of selecting deposition conditions of a sacrificial layer comprising amorphous silicon such that the sacrificial layer can provide enhanced surface roughness to an overlaying layer. Other embodiments relate to an unreleased microelectromechanical systems device that includes an interface between the sacrificial layer and the overlaying metal layer having a surface roughness that is effective to reduce stiction between the metal layer and the optical stack after removal of the sacrificial layer to form a cavity.
2. Description of the Related Art
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) include micro mechanical elements, actuators, and electronics. Micromechanical elements may be created using deposition, etching, and/or other micromachining processes that etch away parts of substrates and/or deposited material layers or that add layers to form electrical and electromechanical devices. One type of MEMS device is called an interferometric modulator. As used herein, the term interferometric modulator or interferometric light modulator refers to a device that selectively absorbs and/or reflects light using the principles of optical interference. In certain embodiments, an interferometric modulator may comprise a pair of conductive plates, one or both of which may be transparent and/or reflective in whole or part and capable of relative motion upon application of an appropriate electrical signal. In a particular embodiment, one plate may comprise a stationary layer deposited on a substrate and the other plate may comprise a metallic membrane separated from the stationary layer by an air gap. As described herein in more detail, the position of one plate in relation to another can change the optical interference of light incident on the interferometric modulator. Such devices have a wide range of applications, and it would be beneficial in the art to utilize and/or modify the characteristics of these types of devices so that their features can be exploited in improving existing products and creating new products that have not yet been developed.
The system, method, and devices of the invention each have several aspects, no single one of which is solely responsible for its desirable attributes. Without limiting the scope of this invention, its more prominent features will now be discussed briefly. After considering this discussion, and particularly after reading the section entitled “Detailed Description of Preferred Embodiments” one will understand how the features of this invention provide advantages over other display devices.
One aspect provides a method of manufacturing a MEMS device that includes selecting deposition conditions having a deposition temperature that is less than or equal to about 250° C. For example, the deposition temperature can range from about 150° C. to about 250° C. The method can further include depositing a sacrificial layer that includes amorphous silicon over an optical stack under the selected deposition conditions.
Another aspect provides an unreleased MEMS substrate that includes an optical stack, a sacrificial layer, and a metal layer overlaying and forming an interface with the sacrificial layer. The sacrificial layer can include amorphous silicon. The interface of the sacrificial layer and the metal layer includes a surface roughness that is effective to reduce stiction between the metal layer and the optical stack after removal of the sacrificial layer to form a cavity.
These and other embodiments are described in greater detail below.
The Figures are not drawn to scale.
The following detailed description is directed to certain specific embodiments of the invention. However, the invention can be embodied in a multitude of different ways. In this description, reference is made to the drawings wherein like parts are designated with like numerals throughout. As will be apparent from the following description, the embodiments may be implemented in any device that is configured to display an image, whether in motion (e.g., video) or stationary (e.g., still image), and whether textual or pictorial. More particularly, it is contemplated that the embodiments may be implemented in or associated with a variety of electronic devices such as, but not limited to, mobile telephones, wireless devices, personal data assistants (PDAs), hand-held or portable computers, GPS receivers/navigators, cameras, MP3 players, camcorders, game consoles, wrist watches, clocks, calculators, television monitors, flat panel displays, computer monitors, auto displays (e.g., odometer display, etc.), cockpit controls and/or displays, display of camera views (e.g., display of a rear view camera in a vehicle), electronic photographs, electronic billboards or signs, projectors, architectural structures, packaging, and aesthetic structures (e.g., display of images on a piece of jewelry). MEMS devices of similar structure to those described herein can also be used in non-display applications such as in electronic switching devices.
Described herein are controllable processes for depositing an amorphous silicon sacrificial layer at a low temperature in the manufacture of a MEMS device. The amorphous silicon sacrificial layer exhibits excellent adhesion to other common MEMS device materials, e.g., metals and dielectrics, excellent reproducibility of surface roughness, which can be transferred to an overlying layer, and enhanced performance in gas-phase release processes. The moveable layer of the MEMS device made in accordance with the methods described herein has a surface roughness that is effective to reduce stiction between the metal layer and the optical stack after removal of the sacrificial layer.
One interferometric modulator display embodiment comprising an interferometric MEMS display element is illustrated in
The depicted portion of the pixel array in
The optical stacks 16 a and 16 b (collectively referred to as optical stack 16), as referenced herein, typically comprise several fused layers, which can include an electrode layer, such as indium tin oxide (ITO), a partially reflective layer, such as chromium, and a transparent dielectric. The optical stack 16 is thus electrically conductive, partially transparent, and partially reflective, and may be fabricated, for example, by depositing one or more of the above layers onto a transparent substrate 20. The partially reflective layer can be formed from a variety of materials that are partially reflective such as various metals, semiconductors, and dielectrics. The partially reflective layer can be formed of one or more layers of materials, and each of the layers can be formed of a single material or a combination of materials.
In some embodiments, the layers of the optical stack 16 are patterned into parallel strips, and may form row electrodes in a display device as described further below. The movable reflective layers 14 a, 14 b may be formed as a series of parallel strips of a deposited metal layer or layers (orthogonal to the row electrodes of 16 a, 16 b) deposited on top of posts 18 and an intervening sacrificial material deposited between the posts 18. When the sacrificial material is etched away, the movable reflective layers 14 a, 14 b are separated from the optical stacks 16 a, 16 b by a defined gap 19. A highly conductive and reflective material such as aluminum may be used for the reflective layers 14, and these strips may form column electrodes in a display device.
With no applied voltage, the gap 19 remains between the movable reflective layer 14 a and optical stack 16 a, with the movable reflective layer 14 a in a mechanically relaxed state, as illustrated by the pixel 12 a in
In one embodiment, the processor 21 is also configured to communicate with an array driver 22. In one embodiment, the array driver 22 includes a row driver circuit 24 and a column driver circuit 26 that provide signals to a display array or panel 30. The cross section of the array illustrated in
In typical applications, a display frame may be created by asserting the set of column electrodes in accordance with the desired set of actuated pixels in the first row. A row pulse is then applied to the row 1 electrode, actuating the pixels corresponding to the asserted column lines. The asserted set of column electrodes is then changed to correspond to the desired set of actuated pixels in the second row. A pulse is then applied to the row 2 electrode, actuating the appropriate pixels in row 2 in accordance with the asserted column electrodes. The row 1 pixels are unaffected by the row 2 pulse, and remain in the state they were set to during the row 1 pulse. This may be repeated for the entire series of rows in a sequential fashion to produce the frame. Generally, the frames are refreshed and/or updated with new display data by continually repeating this process at some desired number of frames per second. A wide variety of protocols for driving row and column electrodes of pixel arrays to produce display frames are also well known and may be used in conjunction with the present invention.
The display device 40 includes a housing 41, a display 30, an antenna 43, a speaker 45, an input device 48, and a microphone 46. The housing 41 is generally formed from any of a variety of manufacturing processes as are well known to those of skill in the art, including injection molding and vacuum forming. In addition, the housing 41 may be made from any of a variety of materials, including, but not limited to, plastic, metal, glass, rubber, and ceramic, or a combination thereof. In one embodiment, the housing 41 includes removable portions (not shown) that may be interchanged with other removable portions of different color, or containing different logos, pictures, or symbols.
The display 30 of exemplary display device 40 may be any of a variety of displays, including a bi-stable display, as described herein. In other embodiments, the display 30 includes a flat-panel display, such as plasma, EL, OLED, STN LCD, or TFT LCD as described above, or a non-flat-panel display, such as a CRT or other tube device, as is well known to those of skill in the art. However, for purposes of describing the present embodiment, the display 30 includes an interferometric modulator display, as described herein.
The components of one embodiment of exemplary display device 40 are schematically illustrated in
The network interface 27 includes the antenna 43 and the transceiver 47 so that the exemplary display device 40 can communicate with one or more devices over a network. In one embodiment, the network interface 27 may also have some processing capabilities to relieve requirements of the processor 21. The antenna 43 is any antenna known to those of skill in the art for transmitting and receiving signals. In one embodiment, the antenna transmits and receives RF signals according to the IEEE 802.11 standard, including IEEE 802.11(a), (b), or (g). In another embodiment, the antenna transmits and receives RF signals according to the BLUETOOTH standard. In the case of a cellular telephone, the antenna is designed to receive CDMA, GSM, AMPS, or other known signals that are used to communicate within a wireless cell phone network. The transceiver 47 pre-processes the signals received from the antenna 43 so that they may be received by and further manipulated by the processor 21. The transceiver 47 also processes signals received from the processor 21 so that they may be transmitted from the exemplary display device 40 via the antenna 43.
In an alternative embodiment, the transceiver 47 can be replaced by a receiver. In yet another alternative embodiment, network interface 27 can be replaced by an image source, which can store or generate image data to be sent to the processor 21. For example, the image source can be a digital video disc (DVD) or a hard-disc drive that contains image data, or a software module that generates image data.
Processor 21 generally controls the overall operation of the exemplary display device 40. The processor 21 receives data, such as compressed image data from the network interface 27 or an image source, and processes the data into raw image data or into a format that is readily processed into raw image data. The processor 21 then sends the processed data to the driver controller 29 or to frame buffer 28 for storage. Raw data typically refers to the information that identifies the image characteristics at each location within an image. For example, such image characteristics can include color, saturation, and gray-scale level.
In one embodiment, the processor 21 includes a microcontroller, CPU, or logic unit to control operation of the exemplary display device 40. Conditioning hardware 52 generally includes amplifiers and filters for transmitting signals to the speaker 45, and for receiving signals from the microphone 46. Conditioning hardware 52 may be discrete components within the exemplary display device 40, or may be incorporated within the processor 21 or other components.
The driver controller 29 takes the raw image data generated by the processor 21 either directly from the processor 21 or from the frame buffer 28 and reformats the raw image data appropriately for high speed transmission to the array driver 22. Specifically, the driver controller 29 reformats the raw image data into a data flow having a raster-like format, such that it has a time order suitable for scanning across the display array 30. Then the driver controller 29 sends the formatted information to the array driver 22. Although a driver controller 29, such as a LCD controller, is often associated with the system processor 21 as a stand-alone Integrated Circuit (IC), such controllers may be implemented in many ways. They may be embedded in the processor 21 as hardware, embedded in the processor 21 as software, or fully integrated in hardware with the array driver 22.
Typically, the array driver 22 receives the formatted information from the driver controller 29 and reformats the video data into a parallel set of waveforms that are applied many times per second to the hundreds and sometimes thousands of leads coming from the display's x-y matrix of pixels.
In one embodiment, the driver controller 29, array driver 22, and display array 30 are appropriate for any of the types of displays described herein. For example, in one embodiment, driver controller 29 is a conventional display controller or a bi-stable display controller (e.g., an interferometric modulator controller). In another embodiment, array driver 22 is a conventional driver or a bi-stable display driver (e.g., an interferometric modulator display). In one embodiment, a driver controller 29 is integrated with the array driver 22. Such an embodiment is common in highly integrated systems such as cellular phones, watches, and other small area displays. In yet another embodiment, display array 30 is a typical display array or a bi-stable display array (e.g., a display including an array of interferometric modulators).
The input device 48 allows a user to control the operation of the exemplary display device 40. In one embodiment, input device 48 includes a keypad, such as a QWERTY keyboard or a telephone keypad, a button, a switch, a touch-sensitive screen, or a pressure- or heat-sensitive membrane. In one embodiment, the microphone 46 is an input device for the exemplary display device 40. When the microphone 46 is used to input data to the device, voice commands may be provided by a user for controlling operations of the exemplary display device 40.
Power supply 50 can include a variety of energy storage devices as are well known in the art. For example, in one embodiment, power supply 50 is a rechargeable battery, such as a nickel-cadmium battery or a lithium ion battery. In another embodiment, power supply 50 is a renewable energy source, a capacitor, or a solar cell including a plastic solar cell, and solar-cell paint. In another embodiment, power supply 50 is configured to receive power from a wall outlet.
In some embodiments, control programmability resides, as described above, in a driver controller which can be located in several places in the electronic display system. In some embodiments, control programmability resides in the array driver 22. Those of skill in the art will recognize that the above-described optimizations may be implemented in any number of hardware and/or software components and in various configurations.
The details of the structure of interferometric modulators that operate in accordance with the principles set forth above may vary widely. For example,
In embodiments such as those shown in
The interferometric modulators described above may be manufactured using any suitable manufacturing techniques known in the art for making MEMS devices. For example, the various material layers making up the interferometric modulators may be sequentially deposited onto a transparent substrate with appropriate patterning and etching steps conducted between deposition steps. In some embodiments, multiple layers may be deposited during interferometric modulator manufacturing without any etching steps between the deposition steps. For example, the movable reflective layer described above may comprise a composite structure having two or more layers.
The process 800 illustrated in
The process 800 illustrated in
The process 800 illustrated in
The process 800 illustrated in
Stiction can be one of the most important reliability issues in MEMS devices in general and interferometric modulators in particular. “Stiction,” as used herein, refers to a tendency of a movable layer in an actuated position to stick to a stationary layer in a microelectromechanical system. The adhesion forces that are present in stiction become more significant when decreasing device dimensions. This is because the restoring forces that counteract the adhesion forces also decrease with decreasing device sizes. Accordingly, there is a need to provide a solution to the stiction problem in microelectromechanical systems.
Stiction can be influenced by the roughness of the surfaces that come into contact, e.g., the surface roughnesses of the moveable layer and/or the stationary layer. Generally, in the manufacture of a MEMS device, the moveable layer is initially formed over a sacrificial material, and then the sacrificial layer is subsequently removed to form a cavity such that the moveable layer can be actuated to contact the stationary layer. Before its removal, the surface roughness properties of the sacrificial layer can be directly transferred to a layer (e.g., the moveable layer) subsequently formed thereon. Therefore, by using novel methods to provide increased surface roughness to the sacrificial layer, one can reduce the stiction between a moveable layer and a stationary layer in a MEMS device.
With reference to
Adhesion forces may arise from several mechanisms including, for example, capillary forces, van der Waals interactions, chemical bonds and trapped charges. Adhesion forces due to all of these mechanisms, in varying degrees, depend on the contact area and surface separation between the various movable and stationary layers when in the actuated state. Embodiments provide methods of manufacturing MEMS devices with increased moveable layer surface roughness, thereby resulting in lower adhesion forces and more favorable performance due to less stiction.
Described herein is a method of manufacturing a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) device. In an embodiment, the method comprises selecting deposition conditions that comprise a deposition temperature that is less than or equal to about 250° C. and depositing a sacrificial layer over an optical stack under the selected deposition conditions, wherein, the sacrificial layer comprises amorphous silicon.
The process 900 continues at step 910 with selecting deposition conditions for the sacrificial layer 104. The selected deposition conditions can comprise any deposition technique useful in forming the sacrificial layer at a low temperature, e.g., less than or equal to about 250° C. For example, the deposition technique can be selected from chemical vapor deposition (CVD), PECVD, and evaporation deposition. A sacrificial layer comprising amorphous silicon having desirable roughness can be formed using PECVD technique.
The selected deposition conditions 910 can include use of one or more gases, e.g. feed gases, which facilitate the formation of the amorphous silicon layer 104. In an embodiment, the selected deposition conditions 910 comprise providing a feed gas. In an embodiment, the feed gas comprises silane. One or more silane feed gases can be used in any combination. In an embodiment, the one or more silane gases are selected from SiH4, SiHCl3, SiH2Cl2, and SiH3Cl. The amorphous silicon layer is formed from the silane feed gases.
Other gases can also be included while depositing the amorphous silicon sacrificial layer. For example, a non-reactive gas, e.g., a carrier gas, can be included with the silane in the feed gas. Inclusion of non-reactive gases in the feed gas tends to reduce the mobility of the silane feed gas and decrease the conformal coverage of the amorphous silicon film. Examples of non-reactive gases useful in the deposition of the sacrificial layer include helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and combinations thereof. In an embodiment, the feed gas further comprises a non-reactive gas selected from helium and argon. The inclusion of non-reactive gas aids in providing a sacrificial layer with increased surface roughness. Preferably, the ratio of silane to non-reactive gas is in the range of about 1:10 to about 10:1. In an embodiment, the ratio of silane to non-reactive gas is in the range of about 1:10 to about 1:1. In an embodiment, the ratio of silane to non-reactive gas is in the range of about 1:8 to about 1:4.
The amorphous silicon can also be deposited in the presence of hydrogen, which is normally undesirable in MEMS device manufacturing. Non-reactive gases, such as helium and argon, may be used to displace hydrogen gas during the reaction. However, the expenses typically incurred in eliminating hydrogen from the reaction can be avoided because hydrogen is not as adverse to the formation of amorphous silicon at low temperature as it is to the formation of other sacrificial layers used in MEMS devices. In an embodiment, the feed gas further comprises hydrogen.
The amorphous silicon deposited at a low temperature, e.g., less than or equal to about 250° C., has a high surface roughness as compared to a sacrificial layer not formed under the selected deposition conditions described herein. Preferably, the selection of the deposition conditions is carried out such that the surface 105 of the sacrificial layer 104, as deposited, has a surface roughness that is greater than about 1.0 nm RMS. For example, one of ordinary skill in the art, guided by the disclosure herein, can utilize routine experimentation to select the deposition conditions so that the surface 105 of the sacrificial layer 104, as deposited, has a surface roughness that is greater than about 1.5 nm RMS. In an embodiment, the deposition conditions are selected so that the surface 105 of the sacrificial layer 104, as deposited, has a surface roughness that is greater than about 1.8 nm RMS.
The low deposition temperature used during formation of the sacrificial layer is advantageous for many reasons. At lower deposition temperatures, the sacrificial silicon is inhibited from forming in an organized columnar structure, and thus, an amorphous silicon film is formed as the sacrificial layer 104. Also, higher deposition rates desired for mass production of MEMS devices can be achieved, in part, because of the efficiencies that are present in using a low temperature process. In an embodiment, the deposition temperature is less than or equal to about 250° C., including each temperature value within that range. For example, the deposition temperature can be in the range of about 150° C. to about 250° C. In an embodiment, the deposition temperature is in the range of about 150° C. to about 200° C. In an embodiment, the deposition temperature is in the range of about 200° C. to about 250° C. In an embodiment, the deposition temperature is in the range of about 175° C. to about 225° C.
Once the deposition conditions have been selected, the process 900 in
The process 900 of
Before removal of the sacrificial layer, the layers shown in
The interface 107 has a roughness that is approximately the same as that of the rough surface 105 of the sacrificial layer 104 before formation of the overlying layer 106. Such roughness is obtained by selecting the appropriate deposition conditions to form the sacrificial layer as described herein. In an embodiment, the interface has a roughness that is greater than about 1.0 nm RMS. In an embodiment, the interface has a roughness that is greater than about 1.5 nm RMS. In an embodiment, the interface has a roughness that is greater than about 1.8 nm RMS. As shown in
The process 900 continues at step 930 where at least a portion of the sacrificial layer is removed (e.g., by etching) to form a cavity. One or more support structures or posts (not shown in
The removal of the sacrificial layers can be accomplished, for example, by exposure to an etchant such as XeF2, F2 or HF alone, or in combination. In an embodiment, the etchant comprises XeF2. In an embodiment, substantially the entire sacrificial layer 104 is removed in the etching process. In an embodiment, the cavity 110 is an interferometric cavity between an optical stack 102 (comprising an electrically conductive layer and the dielectric layer) and the overlying metal layer 106, which is a movable conductive layer as discussed above. After formation of the cavity 110, the resulting MEMS device, e.g., the interferometric modulator, is in a “released” state.
Once the overlying metal layer 106 has been released, the surface 109 of the metal layer 106 then has a surface roughness that is effective to reduce stiction between the overlying metal layer 106 and the optical stack 102. For example, the surface roughness of the metal layer can be greater than about 1.0 nm RMS. In an embodiment, the surface roughness of the metal layer is greater than about 1.5 nm RMS. In an embodiment, the surface roughness of the metal layer is greater than about 1.8 nm RMS.
In some embodiments, the process 900 may include additional steps, e.g., steps used in manufacturing an interferometric modulator, and the steps may be rearranged from the illustrations of
In an embodiment, the method of manufacturing a MEMS device further comprises forming a support structure to support the overlying metal layer over the optical stack after removal of the sacrificial layer to form a cavity. In an embodiment, forming the support structure comprises removing at least a portion of the sacrificial material to form an aperture. In an embodiment, the method comprises filling the aperture with a support material as described above.
Deposition conditions can be adjusted during the course of depositing amorphous silicon onto the optical stack. For example, the feed gas can be doped with an additional reactant gas that alters the morphology of the silicon during the course of its deposition. Examples of reactants include N2, N2O, NH3, NF3, O2, and combinations thereof. Adding a reactant, as described herein, to the feed gas during deposition forms one or more of a silicon oxide, a silicon nitride, a silicon oxynitride, and amorphous silicon. In an embodiment, the selected deposition conditions comprise varying the amount of the reactant in the feed gas during the depositing of the sacrificial layer such that the sacrificial layer comprises a compositionally heterogeneous material. In an embodiment, the feed gas further comprises N2O.
While adhesion of amorphous silicon to the optical stack without using a reactant in the feed gas is often acceptable, an advantage provided by the introduction of a reactant to the feed gas is that the resulting deposited layer has greater adhesion to the optical stack than without reactant. Improving adhesion to the optical stack, however, may reduce the surface roughness of the sacrificial material. In order to maintain the improved surface roughness as described above in
In reference to
The size of the lower region 204 a and the upper region 204 b represented in
The step 925 of forming an overlying layer 206 over the sacrificial layer 204 can then be performed to form an interface 207 such that the surface roughness of the interface 207 is as described above with regard to
For each of the amorphous silicon depositions, a partially fabricated interferometric modulator substrate was positioned within a process chamber of a PECVD deposition system. The PECVD system was configured as two parallel plates, an upper plate and a lower plate, contained inside a vacuum chamber. The upper plate resembled a showerhead for supplying gases and the lower plate was a heated wafer platen.
Each substrate used to form the samples was previously deposited with several patterned metal and dielectric thin-film layers comprising optical absorber, bottom electrode, and insulator stacks. The wafer platen was heated to a temperature between 150° C. and 250° C. and maintained during the deposition process. After a substrate was introduced into the chamber, the chamber was immediately evacuated to a base pressure of approximately 50 mTorr. Precursor, diluents, and doping gases in a predetermined mixture, described below for each, were then flowed into the chamber through the upper plate shower head electrode while the substrate's temperature and the chamber preset pressure were stabilized.
After a period of about thirty seconds, once the pressure stabilized, plasma was struck using a RF power supply connected to the showerhead. The platen supporting the wafer was either grounded or connected to a lower frequency bias. After the preset power was applied through the shower head, the plasma was controlled and maintained using an external RF matching network which monitored and tuned the RF current and reflected power. Hence, in-situ monitoring of the deposition process was achieved by tracking the RF current, gas flow, substrate temperature, and chamber pressure parameters. Using the energy from the plasma, precursor gas molecules were broken up into reactive radicals and species and transported onto the surface of the substrate. Precursor species reacted with each other to form stable molecules on the wafer's surface, which nucleated together into islands, which later merged into a solid continuous sacrificial layer.
When incorporating a reactant gas, the reactant was introduced into the feed gas by adjusting the process gas constituents and ratios. Large amounts of reactant gas could create residue during the etch release process. However, the amount of reactant gas incorporated into the film can be controlled by monitoring the refractive index of the film layer, since the amount of reactant inside the film tends to affect the refractive index. Thus, the reactant gas is provided in an amount such that the refractive index of the amorphous silicon remains above 3.3.
After the feed gas is doped with reactant and an amorphous silicon region is formed at a thickness less than several hundred angstroms, flow of the reactant gas into the process gas mixture was halted. The upper region of amorphous silicon film is deposited until the final overall a-Si layer thickness is achieved.
A standard PVD molybdenum sacrificial layer commonly used in the art was formed (comparative example 1). A second comparative example of standard high-temperature amorphous silicon was also formed. Comparative example 2 was formed at a temperature of 350° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 110 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) and He at a flow rate of 2000 sccm.
Example 3 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 200° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 120 sccm. Example 4 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 200° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 40 sccm and He at a flow rate of 500 sccm. Example 5 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 200° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 60 sccm and He at a flow rate of 1500 sccm. Example 6 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 200° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 60 sccm and He at a flow rate of 500 sccm. Example 7 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 200° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 80 sccm and He at a flow rate of 500 sccm.
Example 8 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 200° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 80 sccm, He at a flow rate of 500 sccm, and N2O at a flow rate of 10 sccm. Example 9 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 200° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 100 sccm, He at a flow rate of 500 sccm, and N2O at a flow rate of 10 sccm.
Examples 10 and 11 were each created with compositionally distinct upper and lower regions. The lower region of Example 10 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 150° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 60 sccm, He at a flow rate of 1500 sccm, and N2O at a flow rate of 10 sccm. The upper region of Example 10 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 180° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 80 sccm and He at a flow rate of 500 sccm. The lower region of Example 11 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 180° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 80 sccm, He at a flow rate of 500 sccm, and N2O at a flow rate of 20 sccm. The upper region of Example 11 was amorphous silicon formed at a temperature of 180° C. while flowing SiH4 at a flow rate of 80 sccm and He at a flow rate of 500 sccm.
Each of the examples was measured for the RMS surface roughness. Some of the examples were formed into MEMS devices and the time to stiction was measured. The results are given below in Table 1.
(min) @ 1.8 Va
Comp. Example 1
Comp. Example 2
As shown in Table 1, the surface roughness of the amorphous silicon sacrificial layers deposited at low-temperature, e.g., below about 250° C., was much higher than that of typical amorphous silicon sample deposited at higher temperature. The addition of the non-reactive gas, e.g., helium, provided higher surface roughness than without (Example 3). Additionally, the roughness values were similar to, and in some cases, higher than the roughness values for the molybdenum sacrificial layer. The amorphous silicon layers formed at low temperatures having an upper region formed without reactant gases (Examples 5 and 7) show superior time to stiction values for the MEMS device.
It should be noted that the embodiments described above are applicable to an interferometric modulator structure viewed from the opposite side, compared to that shown in
The above-described modifications may be utilized to provide a more robust design and fabrication. Additionally, while the above aspects have been described in terms of selected embodiments of the interferometric modulator, one of skill in the art will appreciate that many different embodiments of interferometric modulators may benefit from the above aspects. Of course, as will be appreciated by one of skill in the art, additional alternative embodiments of the interferometric modulator can also be employed. The various layers of interferometric modulators can be made from a wide variety of conductive and non-conductive materials that are generally well known in the art of semi-conductor and electro-mechanical device fabrication.
In addition, the embodiments, although described with respect to an interferometric modulator, are applicable more generally to other MEMS devices, particularly electrostatic MEMS with electrodes capable of relative movement, and can prevent stiction in an actuated or collapsed position.
While the above detailed description has shown, described, and pointed out novel features of the invention as applied to various embodiments, it will be understood that various omissions, substitutions, and changes in the form and details of the device or process illustrated may be made by those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. As will be recognized, the present invention may be embodied within a form that does not provide all of the features and benefits set forth herein, as some features may be used or practiced separately from others.
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US5061049||Sep 13, 1990||Oct 29, 1991||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Spatial light modulator and method|
|US5096279||Nov 26, 1990||Mar 17, 1992||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Spatial light modulator and method|
|US5331454||Jan 16, 1992||Jul 19, 1994||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Low reset voltage process for DMD|
|US5411769||Sep 29, 1993||May 2, 1995||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Method of producing micromechanical devices|
|US5459610||May 20, 1993||Oct 17, 1995||The Board Of Trustees Of The Leland Stanford, Junior University||Deformable grating apparatus for modulating a light beam and including means for obviating stiction between grating elements and underlying substrate|
|US5578976||Jun 22, 1995||Nov 26, 1996||Rockwell International Corporation||Micro electromechanical RF switch|
|US5602671||Feb 4, 1994||Feb 11, 1997||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Low surface energy passivation layer for micromechanical devices|
|US5610438||Mar 8, 1995||Mar 11, 1997||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Micro-mechanical device with non-evaporable getter|
|US5665997||Mar 31, 1994||Sep 9, 1997||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Grated landing area to eliminate sticking of micro-mechanical devices|
|US5824608||Jun 27, 1996||Oct 20, 1998||Nippondenso Co., Ltd.||Semiconductor physical-quantity sensor and method for manufacturing same|
|US5978127||Sep 9, 1997||Nov 2, 1999||Zilog, Inc.||Light phase grating device|
|US6040937||Jul 31, 1996||Mar 21, 2000||Etalon, Inc.||Interferometric modulation|
|US6046840||Sep 24, 1998||Apr 4, 2000||Reflectivity, Inc.||Double substrate reflective spatial light modulator with self-limiting micro-mechanical elements|
|US6099132||Jun 7, 1995||Aug 8, 2000||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Manufacture method for micromechanical devices|
|US6172797||Nov 9, 1999||Jan 9, 2001||Reflectivity, Inc.||Double substrate reflective spatial light modulator with self-limiting micro-mechanical elements|
|US6608268||Feb 5, 2002||Aug 19, 2003||Memtronics, A Division Of Cogent Solutions, Inc.||Proximity micro-electro-mechanical system|
|US6624944||Mar 26, 1997||Sep 23, 2003||Texas Instruments Incorporated||Fluorinated coating for an optical element|
|US6635919||Aug 17, 2000||Oct 21, 2003||Texas Instruments Incorporated||High Q-large tuning range micro-electro mechanical system (MEMS) varactor for broadband applications|
|US6674562||Apr 8, 1998||Jan 6, 2004||Iridigm Display Corporation||Interferometric modulation of radiation|
|US6710908||Feb 13, 2002||Mar 23, 2004||Iridigm Display Corporation||Controlling micro-electro-mechanical cavities|
|US6787968||Sep 25, 2001||Sep 7, 2004||California Institute Of Technology||Freestanding polymer MEMS structures with anti stiction|
|US6791441||May 7, 2002||Sep 14, 2004||Raytheon Company||Micro-electro-mechanical switch, and methods of making and using it|
|US6969635||Dec 3, 2001||Nov 29, 2005||Reflectivity, Inc.||Methods for depositing, releasing and packaging micro-electromechanical devices on wafer substrates|
|US7002441||Aug 9, 2004||Feb 21, 2006||Raytheon Company||Micro-electro-mechanical switch, and methods of making and using it|
|US7123216||Oct 5, 1999||Oct 17, 2006||Idc, Llc||Photonic MEMS and structures|
|US7327510||Aug 19, 2005||Feb 5, 2008||Idc, Llc||Process for modifying offset voltage characteristics of an interferometric modulator|
|US7417784||Apr 19, 2006||Aug 26, 2008||Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc.||Microelectromechanical device and method utilizing a porous surface|
|US20030214639||May 13, 2003||Nov 20, 2003||Satyadev Patel||Micromirrors with OFF-angle electrodes and stops|
|US20030231373||Jun 12, 2002||Dec 18, 2003||Eastman Kodak Compay||High-contrast display system with scanned conformal grating device|
|US20040051929||Aug 19, 2003||Mar 18, 2004||Sampsell Jeffrey Brian||Separable modulator|
|US20040100677||Nov 26, 2002||May 27, 2004||Reflectivity, Inc., A California Corporation||Spatial light modulators with light blocking/absorbing areas|
|US20040150939||Nov 20, 2003||Aug 5, 2004||Corporation For National Research Initiatives||MEMS-based variable capacitor|
|US20040217919||Apr 30, 2003||Nov 4, 2004||Arthur Piehl||Self-packaged optical interference display device having anti-stiction bumps, integral micro-lens, and reflection-absorbing layers|
|US20050012577||Aug 9, 2004||Jan 20, 2005||Raytheon Company, A Delaware Corporation||Micro-electro-mechanical switch, and methods of making and using it|
|US20050012975||Aug 2, 2004||Jan 20, 2005||George Steven M.||Al2O3 atomic layer deposition to enhance the deposition of hydrophobic or hydrophilic coatings on micro-electromechcanical devices|
|US20060024880||Jul 26, 2005||Feb 2, 2006||Clarence Chui||System and method for micro-electromechanical operation of an interferometric modulator|
|US20060067650||Aug 19, 2005||Mar 30, 2006||Clarence Chui||Method of making a reflective display device using thin film transistor production techniques|
|US20060113618||Nov 26, 2004||Jun 1, 2006||Reboa Paul F||Microelectronic device with anti-stiction coating|
|US20070041076||Aug 18, 2006||Feb 22, 2007||Fan Zhong||MEMS device having support structures configured to minimize stress-related deformation and methods for fabricating same|
|US20070249079||Apr 19, 2006||Oct 25, 2007||Teruo Sasagawa||Non-planar surface structures and process for microelectromechanical systems|
|US20080003784 *||Jun 28, 2006||Jan 3, 2008||Pan Shaoher X||Low temperature fabrication of conductive micro structures|
|US20080218843||May 13, 2008||Sep 11, 2008||Qualcomm Mems Technologies,Inc.||Microelectromechanical device and method utilizing a porous surface|
|US20080311690||Apr 2, 2008||Dec 18, 2008||Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc.||Eliminate release etch attack by interface modification in sacrificial layers|
|US20090002804||Jun 27, 2008||Jan 1, 2009||Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc.||Electromechanical device treatment with water vapor|
|CH680534A5||Title not available|
|FR2839919A1||Title not available|
|JP2000075223A||Title not available|
|JP2002355800A||Title not available|
|JP2003195189A||Title not available|
|JPH11263012A||Title not available|
|WO2003031319A2||Sep 6, 2002||Apr 17, 2003||Robert Bosch Gmbh||Micromechanical components with reduced static friction|
|WO2003046508A2||Nov 8, 2002||Jun 5, 2003||Biomicroarrays, Inc.||High surface area substrates for microarrays and methods to make same|
|WO2004000717A2||Jun 9, 2003||Dec 31, 2003||Filtronic Compound Semiconductors Limited||A micro-electromechanical variable capactitor|
|WO2005124869A1||Dec 20, 2004||Dec 29, 2005||Electronics And Telecommunications Research Institute||Micro-mechanical structure and method for manufacturing the same|
|WO2007060416A1||Nov 22, 2006||May 31, 2007||Cavendish Kinetics Limited||A micro-electromechanical device and method of making the same|
|1||Boucinha M et al., "Amorphous silicon air-gap resonators on large -area substrates," Applied Physics Letters, AIP, American Institute of Physics, Melville, NY., vo. 77, No. 6, Aug. 7, 2000, pp. 907-909.|
|2||Chen-Kuei Chung et al., "Fabrication and characterization of amorphous Si Films by PECVD for MEMS," Journal of Micromechanics & Microengineering, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, GB, vol. 15, No. 1, Jan. 1, 2005, pp. 136-142.|
|3||Ciprian Iliescu et al., "Thick and low-stress PECVD amorphous silicon for MEMS applications," Journal of Micromechanics & Microengineering, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, GB, vol. 18, No. 1, Jan. 1, 2008, p. 15024.|
|4||International Search Report issued on Jun. 30, 2010 in the corresponding PCT application No. PCT/US2009/046176.|
|5||Maboudian, et al. Critical Review: Adhesion in Surface Micromechanical Structures: J. Vac. Sci Techno. B 15(1) Jan./Feb. 1997, pp. 1-20.|
|6||Maboudian, et al., Self-assembled monolayers as anti-stiction coatings for MEMS: characteristics and recent developments, Sensors and Actuators 82 (2000) 219-223.|
|7||Matsumoto et al., Novel prevention method of stiction using silicon anodization for SOI structure, Sensors and Actuators, 72:2(153-159) Jan. 19, 1999.|
|8||Tayebi et al. "Reducing the Effects of adhesion and friction in microelectomechanical systems (MEMS) through surface roughening: Comparison Between theory and experiments" http://jap.ajp.org/jap/copyright.isp Journal of applied Physics 98, 073528 (2005).|
|9||Xactix Xetch Product Information.|
|10||Xactix Xetch X# Specifications, http:-www.xactix.com-Xtech X3specs.htm, Jan. 5, 2005.|
|11||Xactix Xetch X# Specifications, http:—www.xactix.com-Xtech X3specs.htm, Jan. 5, 2005.|
|12||Yao T-J et al., "BrF3 dry release technology for large freestanding parylene microstructures and electrostatic actuators," Sensors and Actuators, A 97-98, Elsevier Science B.V. (2002) 771-775.|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US8358458||Nov 4, 2010||Jan 22, 2013||Qualcomm Mems Technologies, Inc.||Low temperature amorphous silicon sacrificial layer for controlled adhesion in MEMS devices|
|U.S. Classification||438/29, 438/50, 257/E21.536|
|Cooperative Classification||B81C2201/0107, B81C2201/0109, B81B3/0008, Y10T428/24917, B81C2201/115, G02B26/001, B81B2201/042|
|European Classification||G02B26/00C, B81B3/00F4|
|Jun 5, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WEBSTER, JAMES RANDOLPH;TU, THANH NGHIA;YAN, XIAOMING;REEL/FRAME:021062/0527;SIGNING DATES FROM 20080602 TO 20080603
Owner name: QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WEBSTER, JAMES RANDOLPH;TU, THANH NGHIA;YAN, XIAOMING;SIGNING DATES FROM 20080602 TO 20080603;REEL/FRAME:021062/0527
|Jun 25, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WEBSTER, JAMES RANDOLPH;TU, THANH NGHIA;YAN, XIAOMING;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:021153/0365;SIGNING DATES FROM 20080613 TO 20080620
Owner name: QUALCOMM MEMS TECHNOLOGIES, INC., CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WEBSTER, JAMES RANDOLPH;TU, THANH NGHIA;YAN, XIAOMING;AND OTHERS;SIGNING DATES FROM 20080613 TO 20080620;REEL/FRAME:021153/0365
|May 28, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4