Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS7872403 B2
Publication typeGrant
Application numberUS 12/254,921
Publication dateJan 18, 2011
Filing dateOct 21, 2008
Priority dateOct 23, 2007
Fee statusPaid
Also published asUS20090100656
Publication number12254921, 254921, US 7872403 B2, US 7872403B2, US-B2-7872403, US7872403 B2, US7872403B2
InventorsXiaoxing Wang
Original AssigneeSeiko Epson Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method for manufacturing piezoelectric film element, and piezoelectric film element
US 7872403 B2
Abstract
A method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element includes foursteps. The first is to form a bottom electrode on a Si substrate. The second is to form a seed layer with a layered perovskite structure on the bottom electrode. The third is to form a Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 based piezoelectric film on the seed layer. The final step is to form an top electrode on the piezoelectric film.
Images(4)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(8)
1. A method of manufacturing a piezoelectric film element comprising the steps of:
(a) forming a bottom electrode on a Si substrate;
(b) forming a seed layer having a layered perovskite structure on the bottom electrode;
wherein a composition of the seed layer is expressed by a general formula Bi1-x Prx Ti3O12, wherein x in the formula is a number between 0.1 and 0.7;
(c) forming a Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 based piezoelectric film on the seed layer;
(d) forming a top electrode on the piezoelectric film.
2. A method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element according to claim 1, wherein the piezoelectric film is formed by a sol-gel spin coating method or a sol-gel dipping method.
3. A method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element according to claim 2, wherein the sol-gel liquid includes at least one of polymers selected from polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyacrylic acid, polyethylene glycol, and polyvinyl alcohol.
4. A method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element according to claim 3, wherein the average molecular weight of the polymer is between 300,000 and 1,500,000.
5. A method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element according to claim 3, wherein the sol-gel liquid contains the polymer by 0.5-5 weight %.
6. A piezoelectric film element comprising:
a bottom electrode;
a seed layer formed on the bottom electrode having a composition expressed by a general formula Bi1-x Prx Ti3O12, wherein x in the formula is a number between 0.1 and 0.7;
a Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 based piezoelectric film formed on the seed layer a top electrode layer formed on the piezoelectric film.
7. A piezoelectric element according to claim 6, wherein the bottom electrode is composed of iridium.
8. A piezoelectric film element according to claim 6, wherein the top electrode is composed of platinum.
Description

The entire disclosure of Japanese Patent Application No. 2007-274651, filed Oct. 23, 2007 is expressly incorporated by reference herein.

BACKGROUND

1. Technical Field

The present invention relates to methods for manufacturing piezoelectric film elements, and piezoelectric film elements.

2. Related Art

As a piezoelectric material used for ink jet recording heads, lead zirconate titanate (hereafter referred to as “PZT”) has been most widely used because of its excellent piezoelectric characteristic (see Japanese Laid-open Patent Applications JP-A-2004-296679 and JP-A-2004-159309, for example). However, in recent years, piezoelectric materials that do not contain lead have been desired in place of PZT, because lead would elute when lead-containing wastes are exposed to acid rain or the like, and cause serious harm to the environment.

Recently, layered ferroelectrics containing bismuth have been reported as piezoelectric materials that do not contain lead and have excellent piezoelectric characteristic (see Japanese Laid-open Patent Applications JP-A-2005-255424, for example). Such ferroelectrics have a structure in which bismuth oxide layers and perovskite layers are alternately laminated, and those of the ferroelectrics with TiO6 octahedron layers that form the perovskite layers in a number of 1-5 are known.

However, it is necessary to control the crystal orientation of the ferroelectric film in order to enhance its piezoelectric characteristic.

SUMMARY

In accordance with an advantage of some aspects of the invention, a piezoelectric film element that does not contain lead, and has high Curie temperature and excellent piezoelectric characteristic, and a method for manufacturing such a piezoelectric film element can be provided.

A method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element in accordance with an embodiment of the invention includes the steps of: forming a bottom electrode on a base substrate; forming a seed layer having a layered perovskite structure on the bottom electrode; forming a piezoelectric film composed of Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 on the seed layer; and forming an top electrode on the piezoelectric film.

According to the present embodiment of the invention, the Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 based piezoelectric film is formed on the seed layer having a layered perovskite structure, whereby it can be oriented in an a/b axis or an a-axis. As a result, the Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 based piezoelectric film with excellent piezoelectric characteristic can be obtained.

In the method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element in accordance with the present embodiment, the composition of the seed layer can be expressed by a general formula Bi1-x Prx Ti3O12 (x in the formula is between 0.1 and 0.7).

In the method for manufacturing a piezoelectric element in accordance with the present embodiment, the piezoelectric film may be formed by a sol-gel spin coating method or a sol-gel dipping method.

In the method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element in accordance with the present embodiment, the sol-gel liquid may include at least one of polymers selected from polyvinyl pyrrolidone, polyacrylic acid, polyethylene glycol, and polyvinyl alcohol.

In the method for manufacturing a piezoelectric element in accordance with the present embodiment, the average molecular weight of the polymer may be 300,000-1,500,000.

In the method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element in accordance with the present embodiment, the sol-gel liquid may contain the polymer by 0.5-5 weight %.

A piezoelectric film element in accordance with an embodiment of the invention includes: a bottom electrode; a seed layer formed on the bottom electrode with the composition expressed by a general formula Bi1-x Prx Ti3O12 (x in the formula is a number between 0.1 and 0.7); a Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 based piezoelectric film formed on the seed layer; and a top electrode formed on the piezoelectric film.

In the piezoelectric element in accordance with the present embodiment, the bottom electrode may be composed of iridium.

In the piezoelectric element in accordance with the present embodiment, the top electrode may be composed of platinum.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 is a schematic cross-sectional view of a piezoelectric element in an ink jet recording head in a manufacturing step in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the piezoelectric element in an ink jet recording head in a manufacturing step in accordance with the embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 3 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the piezoelectric element in an ink jet recording head in a manufacturing step in accordance with the embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 4 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the piezoelectric element in an ink jet recording head in a manufacturing step in accordance with the embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 5 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the piezoelectric element in an ink jet recording head in a manufacturing step in accordance with the embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 6 is a schematic cross-sectional view of the piezoelectric element in an ink jet recording head in a manufacturing step in accordance with the embodiment of the invention.

FIG. 7 is P-E hysteresis loop of Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 based film in the a/b axis orientation.

FIG. 8 is strain-field hysteresis loops of Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 based film in the a/b axis orientation.

DESCRIPTION OF EXEMPLARY EMBODIMENTS

Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to the accompanying drawings.

A piezoelectric film in accordance with an embodiment of the invention may be formed by a sol-gel spin coating method or a sol-gel dipping method. Firstly, a method for preparing the sol-gel liquid is described.

1. Preparation of Sol-Gel Liquid

The sol-gel liquid may be prepared by mixing organometallic compounds, partial hydrolysates thereof and/or polycondensates thereof containing the metals at a desired molar ratio, and then dissolving or dispersing the mixture using an organic solvent such as alcohol. The organometallic compounds to be used may preferably be stable in a solution state.

The organometallic compounds that are usable in the present embodiment may be those that can generate metal oxides originated from the organometallic compounds through hydrolysis or oxidation, and may be selected from alkoxides, organometallic complexes and organic acid salts of the metals.

A method for preparing a sol-gel liquid of Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 (hereafter also referred to as “BiTBBTi”) is concretely described below.

(1) An organometallic compound containing Ba, an organometallic compound containing Bi, and an organometallic compound containing Ti are mixed together at a desired metal molar ratio, and then the mixture is dissolved or dispersed using an organic solvent such as alcohol to form an alkoxide solution.

As the organometallic compound containing Ba, for example, alkoxide compounds (such as Ba ethoxide and so on), and barium carbonate may be used.

As the organometallic compound containing Bi, for example, alkoxide compounds (Bi trimethoxide, Bi ethoxide, Bi tripropoxide, and the like), bismuth oxide, bismuth nitrate, bismuth chloride, and bismuth hydroxide may be used.

As the organometallic compound containing Ti, for example, alkoxide compounds (such as Ti tetraisopropoxide and so on), acetate, and octil salt may be used.

As the organic solvent, for example, alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, n-butanol and isopropanol and so on; ketones, such asacetones and methyl ethyl ketone and so on; ethers, such as dimethyl ether and diethyl ether and so on; cycloalkans, such as cyclohexane and cyclohekisanol and so on; aromatic compounds, such as benzene, toluene, xylene and so on; carboxylic acids; esters; and tetorahidorofran may be used. By using alcohols as the solvent, metal alkoxides can be dissolved well.

(2) When hydrolysis and polycondensation are to be carried out, an appropriate amount of water is added to the alkoxide solution described above, and an acid or an alkaline is added as catalysis, whereby the sol-gel liquid of BiTBBTi can be prepared.

(3) In addition to the additive described above, at least one of polymers selected from polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyacrylic acid, polyethylene glycol, and polyvinyl alcohol may be added to the sol-gel liquid of BiTBBTi in accordance with the present embodiment. Generally, defects called microcracks may be generated during the formation of a BiTBBTi piezoelectric film. By adding the polymer described above to the sol-gel liquid, generation of microcracks can be controlled.

The average molecular weight of the polymer described above may preferably be 300,000-1,500,000, and more preferably 500,000-1,000,000. When the average molecular weight of the polymer is within the range described above, generation of microcracks can be effectively suppressed. When the average molecular weight of the polymer exceeds 1,500,000, the viscosity of the sol-gel liquid becomes too high, which makes the sol-gel liquid difficult to be coated on the seed layer. On the other hand, when the average molecular weight of the polymer is less than 300,000, the effect of suppressing the microcracks diminishes.

The addition amount of the polymer may preferably be 0.5-5 wt % of the weight of the sol-gel liquid. When the amount of the polymer to be added is within the aforementioned range, generation of microcracks can be effectively suppressed. When the amount of the polymer to be added exceeds 5 weight %, the viscosity of the sol-gel liquid becomes too high, which makes the sol-gel liquid difficult to be coated on the seed layer. On the other hand, when the amount of the polymer to be added is less than 0.5 wt %, generation of microcracks may not be controlled.

2. Method For Manufacturing Piezoelectric Film Element

A method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element in the present invention includes the steps of:

(a) forming a bottom electrode on a Si substrate

(b) forming a seed layer with a layered perovskite structure on the bottom electrode

(c) forming a Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 piezoelectric film on the seed layer

(d) forming an upper electrode on the piezoelectric layer

The method for manufacturing a piezoelectric film element in accordance with the embodiment is concretely described below. FIGS. 1-6 are schematic cross-sectional views of a piezoelectric film element in an ink jet recording head in the manufacturing process in accordance with an embodiment of the invention.

(1) First, a pressure chamber substrate 10 is prepared. As the pressure chamber substrate 10, for example, a silicon single crystal substrate having a thickness of 200 μm is used.

Next, as shown in FIG. 1, a vibration plate 20 is formed on the pressure chamber substrate 10. As a method of forming the vibration plate 20, a known method, for example, a method of forming a silicon dioxide layer by thermal oxidation, a CVD (chemical vapor deposition) method, or the like may be used.

As the material for the vibration plate 20, for example, silicon dioxide and zirconium oxide may be used. The vibration plate 20 may be in a two-layer structure having a film of silicon dioxide in a thickness of about 1000 nm and a film of titanium in a thickness of about 400 nm.

In the present embodiment, members including the pressure chamber substrate 10 and the vibration plate 20 are referred to as a Si substrate.

(2) As shown in FIG. 2, a bottom electrode 32 is formed on the vibration plate 20. The bottom electrode 32 may be formed by a known method, for example, a sol-gel method, a laser ablation method, a sputter method, a MOCVD method or the like. As the material for the bottom electrode 32, for example, platinum, iridium, titanium or the like having conductivity may be used. The bottom electrode 32 may be in a two-layer structure having a platinum layer and an iridium layer, and its thickness of may be about 200 nm. However, a single platinum or a single iridium electrode may be used instead.

(3) As shown in FIG. 3, a seed layer 34 is formed on the bottom electrode 32. The seed layer 34 is composed of compound with a layered perovskite structure, and its crystal orientation may preferably be in an a b axis or an a-axis, and more preferably be in an a-axis. As a result, the crystal orientation of the piezoelectric layer 36 formed on the seed layer 34 can be oriented in an a/b axis or an a-axis.

The seed layer 34 may be formed by a known method, such as, a sol-gel spin coating method or the like. When a spin coating method is applied, the rotation speed may be 500 rpm initially, and then increased to 1000-2000 rpm to prevent coating irregularity.

As the material for the seed layer 34, a composition expressed by a general formula Bi1-xPrx Ti3O12 may be used. It is noted that the value x in the formula may preferably be a number between 0.1 and 0.7, and more preferably between 0.1 and 0.5. When the value x is within the aforementioned range, the piezoelectric film formed on the seed layer can more readily be oriented in an a/b-axis or an a-axis. When the value x exceeds 0.7, the formation of the piezoelectric film n an a/b-axis or an a-axis orientation may become difficult.

The thickness of the seed layer may be 50 nm-200 nm. The seed layer is a layer for controlling the crystal orientation of a piezoelectric film to be formed thereon, and therefore it is desired to be as thin as possible. It may preferably be in a thickness in the aforementioned range.

(4) As shown in FIG. 4, a piezoelectric film 36 is formed on the seed layer 34.

As the material for the piezoelectric film 36, the BiTBBTi sol-gel liquid described above is used.

As a method for coating the piezoelectric film 36, the sol-gel liquid may be coated using a spin coating method or a dipping method. As the spin coating method or the dipping method, a generally practical method may be used. When a spin coating method is applied, the rotation speed may be, for example, 500 rpm initially, and then increased to 1000-2000 rpm to avoid coating irregularity (sol-gel liquid coating step).

After coating the sol-gel liquid on the seed layer 34, a heat treatment at the temperatures, for example, 10° C. higher than the boiling point of the solvent used in the sol-gel liquid is conducted using a hot plate or the like under the air atmosphere (drying heat treatment).

Then, in order to decompose and remove ligands of the organometallic compounds used in the sol-gel liquid, a heat treatment is performed in an air atmosphere using a hot plate or the like, for example, at temperatures of about 400° C.-600° C. (degrease heat treatment).

The sol-gel liquid coating step, the drying heat treatment step, and the degrease heat treatment step may appropriately be repeated to get the desired film thickness.

Then, an annealing step for crystallization of the piezoelectric layer 36, is conducted. The annealing may be conducted by, for example, RTA (Rapid Thermal Annealing), in an oxygen atmosphere at temperature 650° C.-800° C.

The thickness of the piezoelectric film may be, for example, 800-1500 nm. When the thickness of the piezoelectric film is within the aforementioned range, the piezoelectric films have good piezoelectric properties.

As the piezoelectric film 36 is formed on the seed layer 34, its crystal orientation can be aligned in an a/b axis or an a-axis. The crystal structure of the piezoelectric film 36 is in a superlattice structure in which Bi4Ti3O12 layers with the number of TiO6 octahedrons in the perovskite layer being three, and BaBi4Ti4O15 layers with the number of TiO6 octahedrons being four are alternately laminated. The superlattice structure is believed to be helpful to enhance the strain.

Furthermore, the Curie temperature of BiTBBTi is between the Curie temperature 675° C. of Bi4Ti3O12 and the Curie temperature 410° C. of BaBi4Ti4O15, which is adjacent to about 460° C. at which no any practical problem is given.

As shown in FIG. 5, a top electrode 38 is formed on the piezoelectric film 36. The top electrode 38 may be formed using platinum or the like by a DC sputter method.

As shown in FIG. 6, the seed layer 34, the piezoelectric film 36 and the top electrode 38 are processed in a predetermined shape, thereby forming piezoelectric elements 30. More specifically, resist is spin-coated on the top electrode 38, and the resist is patterned through exposing and developing at areas aligned with positions where pressure chambers are to be formed. By using the remaining resist layer as a mask, unnecessary portions of the seed layer 34, the piezoelectric film 36 and the top electrode 38 are removed by ion milling, dry etching or the like. By the steps described above, the piezoelectric elements 30 are formed.

On the other hand, portions of the pressure chamber substrate 10 where pressure chambers 12 are to be formed are removed by ion milling, dry etching or the like, thereby forming the pressure chambers 12.

In a manner described above, an ink jet recording head equipped with the piezoelectric elements in accordance with the present embodiment is fabricated.

3. Piezoelectric Element

A piezoelectric element in accordance with an embodiment of the invention consists of a bottom electrode, a seed layer formed on the bottom electrode with a composition expressed by a general formula Bi1-x Prx Ti3O12 (x in the formula is a number between 0.1 and 0.7), a Bi4Ti3O12—BaBi4Ti4O15 piezoelectric film formed on the seed layer, and an top electrode formed on the piezoelectric film.

The piezoelectric element described above contains a lead-free BiTBBTi piezoelectric film with the crystal orientation aligned in an a/b-axis or an a-axis, which therefore provides significant piezoelectric characteristic that can match with PZT. Also, the Curie temperature of BiTBBTi is as high as about 460.degree. C., which ensures that the lead-free piezoelectric element can work even at the higher temperature than PZT element.

It is noted that the material and method for forming the bottom electrode and the top electrode may be the same as those described above.

Ferroelectric properties of BiTBBTi film oriented in an a/b axis were measured and the result thereof is shown below.

FIG. 7 shows P-E hysteresis loop of BiTBBTi film in an a/b axis orientation. It can be seen from FIG. 7 that the BiTBBTi film in an a/b axis orientation has excellent ferroelectric characteristic.

FIG. 8 shows the result of strain-field of BiTBBTi film in an a/b axis orientation. The piezoelectric strain was measured using a double-beam type laser displacement meter. It can be seen from FIG. 8 that the BiTBBTi film orientated in an a/b axis has a large displacement.

The piezoelectric elements described above are applicable not only to ink jet recording heads described above, but also to piezoelectric actuators, piezoelectric sensors, piezoelectric resonators, and the like.

The present invention is not limited to the embodiments described above, and many modifications can be made. For example, the invention may include compositions that are substantially the same as the compositions described in the embodiment (for example, a composition with the same function, method and result, or a composition with the same objects and result). Also, the invention includes compositions in which portions not essential in the compositions described in the embodiment are replaced with others. Also, the invention includes compositions that achieve the same functions and effects or achieve the same objects of those of the compositions described in the embodiment. Furthermore, the invention includes compositions that include publicly known technology added to the compositions described in the embodiment.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5821005Mar 8, 1996Oct 13, 1998Sharp Kabushiki KaishaFerroelectrics thin-film coated substrate and manufacture method thereof and nonvolatile memory comprising a ferroelectrics thinfilm coated substrate
US6333066 *Nov 20, 1998Dec 25, 2001Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Method for forming PZT thin film using seed layer
US7279825 *Dec 8, 2004Oct 9, 2007Canon Kabushiki KaishaDielectric thin film element, piezoelectric actuator and liquid discharge head, and method for manufacturing the same
US7312558 *Apr 1, 2005Dec 25, 2007Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.Piezoelectric element, ink jet head, angular velocity sensor, and ink jet recording apparatus
US7494601 *Feb 28, 2006Feb 24, 2009The Hong Kong Polytechnic Universitypiezoelectric ceramic composition, especially a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic composition, amount of CeO2 or CeO2-containing complex additives, which is represented by the following formula:(Na0.475K0.475Li0.05)(Nb1-xAx)O3+yCeO2+zBO2 wherein "A" represents Sb or Sb+Ta, "B" represents metals
US7766464 *Feb 21, 2008Aug 3, 2010Seiko Epson CorporationPiezoelectric element, piezoelectric actuator, ink jet recording head, ink jet printer, surface acoustic wave element, frequency filter, oscillator, electronic circuit, thin film piezoelectric resonator, and electronic apparatus
US20050218466 *Oct 26, 2004Oct 6, 2005Fujitsu LimitedThin-film lamination, and actuator device, filter device, ferroelectric memory, and optical deflection device employing the thin -film lamination
US20080123243 *Nov 28, 2007May 29, 2008Seiko Epson CorporationFerroelectric capacitor
US20080224571 *Mar 14, 2008Sep 18, 2008Seiko Epson CorporationPiezoelectric element, liquid jet head and printer
US20090160914 *Feb 23, 2009Jun 25, 2009Takamichi FujiiPiezoelectric device, process for producing the piezoelectric device, and inkjet recording head
US20090244213 *Mar 27, 2009Oct 1, 2009Seiko Epson CorporationLiquid ejecting head, liquid ejecting apparatus, and actuator
US20100147789 *Nov 12, 2009Jun 17, 2010Tdk CorporationMethod for manufacturing piezoelectric element
US20100155647 *Dec 16, 2009Jun 24, 2010Canon Kabushiki KaishaOxynitride piezoelectric material and method of producing the same
JP2004296679A Title not available
JP2005159309A Title not available
JP2005255424A Title not available
JPH08306231A Title not available
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US8919933 *Aug 26, 2010Dec 30, 2014Seiko Epson CorporationLiquid ejecting head and liquid ejecting apparatus using the same
US20110050811 *Aug 26, 2010Mar 3, 2011Seiko Epson CorporationLiquid ejecting head and liquid ejecting apparatus using the same
Classifications
U.S. Classification310/358, 252/62.9PZ, 252/62.90R
International ClassificationH01L41/187
Cooperative ClassificationH01L41/318, H01L41/319, H01L41/0815, H01L41/1878
European ClassificationH01L41/22
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jun 18, 2014FPAYFee payment
Year of fee payment: 4
Oct 21, 2008ASAssignment
Owner name: SEIKO EPSON CORPORATION, JAPAN
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:WANG, XIAOXING;REEL/FRAME:021712/0054
Effective date: 20080812