|Publication number||US7877517 B2|
|Application number||US 11/270,007|
|Publication date||Jan 25, 2011|
|Filing date||Nov 9, 2005|
|Priority date||Nov 9, 2005|
|Also published as||CN1968254A, CN1968254B, US8001277, US20070104113, US20070104118|
|Publication number||11270007, 270007, US 7877517 B2, US 7877517B2, US-B2-7877517, US7877517 B2, US7877517B2|
|Inventors||Cataldo Mega, Sundar Veliah|
|Original Assignee||International Business Machines Corporation|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (10), Non-Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (1), Classifications (13), Legal Events (4)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1. Field of the Invention
The present invention relates to a method, system, and program for determining whether to compress data transmitted over a network.
2. Description of the Related Art
Enterprises collect and archive large amounts of information in content repositories, also known as content management systems. Such content management systems provide for the scalable and efficient delivery of content to users at client workstations. Such systems facilitate the data transfer from shared network file systems, such as web servers, libraries, etc.
Content management systems may compress data being transmitted over a network to reduce the network transmission time and improve the delivery speed. Typically, the content delivery policies comprise a static system configuration that either transmits all data compressed or uncompressed, depending on a centrally administered compression setting. Such static compression settings apply to all client workstations to which data is transmitted regardless of the network conditions and compression computational processing capabilities that exist during runtime. Moreover, different compression technologies may require different amounts of computational resources and have different compression benefits, i.e., compression ratios.
Accordingly, there is a need in the art for improved techniques to determine how to deploy compression technologies when transmitting data over a network.
Provided are a method, system and program for determining whether to compress data transmitted over a network. A determination is made of compression performance for a compression algorithm to use to compress data to transmit to a target node over a network and of network performance of the network. The determined compression performance and the network performance are used to determine whether to compress the data. The data is compressed in response to determining to compress the data and the compressed data is transmitted to the target node over the network in response to compressing the data. The data is transmitted to the target node uncompressed in response to determining not to compress the data.
In a further embodiment, data is transmitted on the network to the target node to determine the network performance and compression performance is maintained for different compression algorithms and nodes. The determined compression performance is based on the compression performance when using the compression algorithm at the target node and a source node compressing and transmitting the data to the target node.
In a further embodiment, the compression performance for the target node comprises a decompression performance and the determined compression performance comprises an average of the compression performance for the source node and the decompression computational cost.
In a further embodiment, the determined compression performance comprises a minimum of the compression performance for the compression algorithm executed at the target node and the source node.
In a further embodiment, the compression performance for different compression algorithms are calculated by the nodes during node operations to provide node specific compression performance. The source node broadcasts the calculated compression performance for different compression algorithms to additional nodes in the network for the additional nodes to use when determining whether to compress data.
In a further embodiment, using the determined compression performance and the network performance to determine whether to compress the data comprises comparing the compression performance to an equation including the network performance. The compression performance has to exceed a result of the equation including the network performance to indicate to compress the data, wherein a magnitude of the equation increases correlates to the network performance.
In a further embodiment, a determination is made of a compression ratio (CR) resulting when the compression algorithm compresses the data to transmit. The determined CR is used along with the determined compression and network performance to determine whether to compress the data.
In a further embodiment, using the determined compression performance, network performance and CR to determine whether to compress the data comprises comparing the compression performance to an equation including the network performance and CR. The compression performance has to exceed a result of the equation including the network performance and CR to indicate to compress the data.
In a further embodiment, a magnitude of the result of the equation is directly related to a magnitude of the network performance and inversely related to a magnitude of the compression ratio.
In a further embodiment, the equation comprises 2*NTR/(1−CR).
In a further embodiment, the source node maintains a first data structure indicating the network performance to different nodes in the network, a second data structure including compression performance at nodes in the network for different compression algorithms; a third data structure maintaining a compression ratio for different compression algorithms, and a fourth data structure indicating compression algorithms to use for different data types. A determination is made of a data type of the data to transmit. The compression algorithm comprises the compression algorithm indicated in the fourth data structure for the determined data type, the network performance comprises the network performance for the target node indicated in the first data structure, the compression performance comprises the compression performance for the target node and the compression algorithm indicated in the second data structure, and the compression ratio comprises the compression ratio indicated in the third data structure for the compression algorithm.
In a further embodiment, the compression performance comprises a compression throughput rate in bytes per second and wherein the network performance comprises a network throughput rate in bytes per second.
In determining whether to compress data to transfer to another node, the data transfer program 16 may utilize the following tables in the memory 12, including a network performance table 22 providing information on the network performance (e.g., a network throughput rate in megabytes per second (MBps)) with respect to different nodes in the network 4; a compression performance table 24 providing the compression and decompression computational performance (e.g., compression/decompression throughput rate in MBps) of nodes in the network 4; a compression ratio (CR) table 26 providing the different compression ratios realized for the different available compression algorithms 20, where the compression ratio comprises the compressed object size divided by the original object size; and a data type table 28 indicating the compression algorithms 20 to use for different data types.
For each available compression algorithm 20, the calibration program 18 compresses and decompresses (at block 158) test data to determine the compression and decompression performance, respectively, for the compression algorithm 20. The compression performance entry 70 for the node being tested and the compression algorithm 78 is updated (at block 160) to include the newly determined compression and decompression performance in fields 78 and 80, respectively. The calibration program 18 broadcasts (at block 162) the determined compression and decompression performance for the tested compression algorithms 20 to network nodes. The network nodes that provide access to storage, e.g., nodes 6 a, 6 c, may be the nodes that save this data. In this way, by dynamically determining the computational performance of the compression algorithms during runtime, the performance data is based on the current load and situation at the node and, thus, is more accurate.
The data transfer program 16 further determines (at block 212) a compression performance value based on the determined compression performance information in the compression performance table 24 for the source and target nodes. For instance the compression performance value may comprise the minimum of the determined compression performances for the source and target nodes, the average of the compression performances for the source and target nodes, or the average of the compression and decompression performance for the source and target nodes, respectively. The data transfer program 16 then determines (at block 214) a result of an equation using the determined network performance and compression ratio. In one embodiment, the magnitude of the result of the equation may be directly related to a magnitude of the network performance and inversely related to a magnitude of the compression ratio. For instance, in one embodiment, the equation may comprise 2*NTR/(1−CR), where NTR is the network throughput rate in MBps and CR is the compression ratio. In an alternative embodiment, the equation may be based on the network throughput rate, wherein the result of the equation increases and decreases as the network throughput rate increases or decreases, respectively.
If (at block 216) the determined compression performance value for the data subject to compression is greater than the result of the equation, then the data transfer program 16 compresses (at block 218) the data to transmit to the target node using the determined compression algorithm 20 and transmits (at block 220) the compressed data to the target node. Otherwise, if (at block 216) the compression performance value is less than the equation result, then the uncompressed data is transmitted (at block 222) to the target node.
In this way, as the network performance decreases, then compression is more likely to be used because the compression performance requirement threshold is lower, i.e., compression is more likely to be optimal in a degraded network environment. Further, as the compression ratio increases, the compression performance requirement is lower because of the increased benefits of compression due to the higher compression ratio.
The described operations may be implemented as a method, apparatus or article of manufacture using standard programming and/or engineering techniques to produce software, firmware, hardware, or any combination thereof. The described operations may be implemented as code maintained in a “computer readable medium”, where a processor may read and execute the code from the computer readable medium. A computer readable medium may comprise media such as magnetic storage medium (e.g., hard disk drives, floppy disks, tape, etc.), optical storage (CD-ROMs, DVDs, optical disks, etc.), volatile and non-volatile memory devices (e.g., EEPROMs, ROMs, PROMs, RAMs, DRAMs, SRAMs, Flash Memory, firmware, programmable logic, etc.), etc. The code implementing the described operations may further be implemented in hardware logic (e.g., an integrated circuit chip, Programmable Gate Array (PGA), Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), etc.). Still further, the code implementing the described operations may be implemented in “transmission signals”, where transmission signals may propagate through space or through a transmission media, such as an optical fiber, copper wire, etc. The transmission signals in which the code or logic is encoded may further comprise a wireless signal, satellite transmission, radio waves, infrared signals, Bluetooth, etc. The transmission signals in which the code or logic is encoded is capable of being transmitted by a transmitting station and received by a receiving station, where the code or logic encoded in the transmission signal may be decoded and stored in hardware or a computer readable medium at the receiving and transmitting stations or devices. An “article of manufacture” comprises computer readable medium, hardware logic, and/or transmission signals in which code may be implemented. Of course, those skilled in the art will recognize that many modifications may be made to this configuration without departing from the scope of the present invention, and that the article of manufacture may comprise suitable information bearing medium known in the art.
The terms “an embodiment”, “embodiment”, “embodiments”, “the embodiment”, “the embodiments”, “one or more embodiments”, “some embodiments”, and “one embodiment” mean “one or more (but not all) embodiments of the present invention(s)” unless expressly specified otherwise.
The terms “including”, “comprising”, “having” and variations thereof mean “including but not limited to”, unless expressly specified otherwise.
The enumerated listing of items does not imply that any or all of the items are mutually exclusive, unless expressly specified otherwise.
The terms “a”, “an” and “the” mean “one or more”, unless expressly specified otherwise.
A description of an embodiment with several components in communication with each other does not imply that all such components are required. On the contrary a variety of optional components are described to illustrate the wide variety of possible embodiments of the present invention.
Further, although process steps, method steps, algorithms or the like may be described in a sequential order, such processes, methods and algorithms may be configured to work in alternate orders. In other words, any sequence or order of steps that may be described does not necessarily indicate a requirement that the steps be performed in that order. The steps of processes described herein may be performed in any order practical. Further, some steps may be performed simultaneously.
When a single device or article is described herein, it will be readily apparent that more than one device/article (whether or not they cooperate) may be used in place of a single device/article. Similarly, where more than one device or article is described herein (whether or not they cooperate), it will be readily apparent that a single device/article or a different number of devices/articles may be used in place of the described more than one device or article.
The functionality and/or the features of a device may be alternatively embodied by one or more other devices which are not explicitly described as having such functionality/features. Thus, other embodiments of the present invention need not include the device itself.
The illustrated operations of
The foregoing description of various embodiments of the invention has been presented for the purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed. Many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. It is intended that the scope of the invention be limited not by this detailed description, but rather by the claims appended hereto. The above specification, examples and data provide a complete description of the manufacture and use of the composition of the invention. Since many embodiments of the invention can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention, the invention resides in the claims hereinafter appended.
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|U.S. Classification||709/247, 709/232|
|Cooperative Classification||H04L69/04, H04L12/2602, H04L43/00, H04L41/509, H04L43/0894, H04W28/06, H04L43/0888|
|European Classification||H04L29/06C5, H04L12/26M, H04L43/00|
|Apr 12, 2006||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MEGA, CATALDO;VELIAH, SUNDAR;REEL/FRAME:017740/0782;SIGNING DATES FROM 20051021 TO 20051024
Owner name: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION, NEW Y
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:MEGA, CATALDO;VELIAH, SUNDAR;SIGNING DATES FROM 20051021TO 20051024;REEL/FRAME:017740/0782
|Sep 5, 2014||REMI||Maintenance fee reminder mailed|
|Jan 25, 2015||LAPS||Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees|
|Mar 17, 2015||FP||Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee|
Effective date: 20150125