|Publication number||US7920669 B2|
|Application number||US 12/010,920|
|Publication date||Apr 5, 2011|
|Filing date||Jan 31, 2008|
|Priority date||Jul 25, 2007|
|Also published as||US20090028287|
|Publication number||010920, 12010920, US 7920669 B2, US 7920669B2, US-B2-7920669, US7920669 B2, US7920669B2|
|Inventors||Bernhard Krauβ, Fernando Vega-Higuera|
|Original Assignee||Siemens Aktiengesellschaft|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (21), Non-Patent Citations (16), Classifications (11), Legal Events (2)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
This non-provisional U.S. patent application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119(e) to provisional application No. 60/961,944 filed on Jul. 25, 2007, the entire contents of which are hereby incorporated herein by reference.
In conventional methods of X-ray imaging, attenuation depends on the type of body tissue scanned and the average energy level of the X-ray beam. The average energy level of the X-ray beam may be adjusted via an X-ray tube's energy setting. An X-ray tube's energy setting is measured in kilovolts (kV).
Conventionally, computed tomography (CT) imaging may be performed using a single energy level (referred to as single energy CT imaging) or dual energy levels (referred to as dual energy imaging). Dual energy images may be acquired using two or more scans of different energies during a single procedure or using one or more energy sources.
In conventional dual energy CT imaging, dual image data (e.g., two image data sets or two images) is sometimes referred to as volume data and is obtained using two different energy levels (e.g., 80 kV and 140 kV). Dual image data may be obtained concurrently, simultaneously or sequentially. If two different energy levels are used to acquire dual energy images, each of the two sets of image data may have different attenuation characteristics. The difference in attenuation levels allows for classification of elemental chemical compositions of imaged tissues. In other words, dual-energy CT enables contributions of different X-ray attenuation processes or materials in the CT image to be separated. As a result, standard dual-energy tissue classification techniques perform a so called material analysis or decomposition. The resulting material maps may then be used to perform explicit segmentation of anatomical structures such as osseous tissue in the case of bone removal. In this conventional method of segmentation, however, information about tissue classes included in the scan must be known beforehand in order to choose the appropriate material analysis algorithms.
As an alternative to explicit classification methods, direct volume rendering (DVR) with two dimensional transfer functions (2DTFs) may be used to explore volume data. Direct volume rendering is well known to those of skill in the art, and refers to electronic rendering of a medical image directly from data sets to thereby display visualizations of target regions of the body using multi-dimensional 3D or 4D or more dimensional data. The visualizations may include color as well as internal structures.
DVR does not require the use of intermediate graphic constructs, but may use mathematical models to classify certain structures and may use graphic constructs. Transfer function refers to a mathematical conversion of volume data to color and opacity values used to generate image data.
Conventional 2DTFs are based on data intensities and gradient magnitude for CT data acquired using a single energy level. However, conventional 2DTFs are limited by the intrinsic amount of information that a particular single-energy CT scan provides. More generally, the ability to differentiate tissue classes is restricted by the behavior of x-ray attenuations under one energy level.
Example embodiments use interactive multi-dimensional transfer functions (MDTFs) based on intensities of multiple energy volumes or data sets (e.g., dual-energy volumes). Editing tools for corresponding MDTFs are coupled with direct volume rendering (DVR) modules for improved visualization and implicit classification of tissues within source data. Additionally, graphics processing unit (GPU) implementation allows interactive adjustment of image parameters such as mixing coefficients, filter settings or the like. Example embodiments provide a framework for interactive exploration of tissue classes in multi-energy scans without preprocessing steps such as explicit material classification.
According to example embodiments source data may include at least two volumes resulting from a multi-energy (e.g., dual energy) scan in which, for example, a first energy level (e.g., about 80 kV) and a second energy level (e.g., about 140 kV) are applied. As a result of the multi-energy scan, source slices are composed of two volumes of identical resolution and voxel size. To display information about tissues contained in the multi-energy dataset, a multi-dimensional histogram is generated.
Example embodiments may also provide automatic histogram partition to create an overview of tissue classes inside the dual-energy data. In addition, example embodiments provide user driven dual-energy implicit tissue classification with DVR and interactive adjustment of the dual-energy transfer function, and GPU based computation of dual-energy mixed images.
At least one example embodiment provides a method for generating a volume visualization image based on multi-energy computed tomography data. In this method, the image is rendered based on a multi-dimensional graphical representation of the computed tomography data. The computed tomography data includes at least two different energy image data sets, wherein the multi-dimensional graphical representation representing intensity values of each of the at least two different energy image data sets.
Another example embodiment provides a method for generating a volume visualization image based on multi-energy computed tomography data. According to this method, the image is generated based on a multi-dimensional transfer function representing selected regions of the computed tomography data. The multi-dimensional transfer function is generated independent of previous tissue classifications associated with the computed tomography data.
Another example embodiment provides a method for generating a volume visualization image based on multi-energy computed tomography data. In this method, the image is generated based on a selected portion of a multi-dimensional graphical representation of the computed tomography data. Each dimension of the multi-dimensional graphical representation is an intensity value associated with one of a plurality of energy levels. At least two of the plurality of energy levels are different.
Another example embodiment provides an apparatus including a graphics processing unit. The graphics processing unit renders an image based on a multi-dimensional graphical representation of computed tomography data. The computed tomography data includes at least two different energy image data sets, and the multi-dimensional graphical representation represents intensity values of each of the at least two different energy image data sets.
Another example embodiment provides an apparatus including a graphics processing unit configured to generate an image based on a multi-dimensional transfer function representing computed tomography data. The multi-dimensional transfer function is generated independent of tissue classifications associated with the computed tomography data.
Another example embodiment provides an apparatus including a graphics processing unit configured to generate an image based on a selected portion of a multi-dimensional graphical representation of computed tomography data. Each dimension of the multi-dimensional graphical representation is an intensity value associated with one of a plurality of energy levels, and at least two of the plurality of energy levels being different.
According to at least some example embodiments, image parameters associated with the image are interactively adjusted to visualize a desired portion of the image. The image parameters include at least one of mixing coefficients and filter settings. A multi-dimensional transfer function is generated based on the multi-dimensional graphical representation. For example, the multi-dimensional transfer function may be generated by selecting a portion of the multi-dimensional graphical representation using a template widget, and computing a transfer function based on the selected portion of the multi-dimensional graphical representation.
According to at least some example embodiments, the at least two image data sets include a first energy image set and a second energy image set, and each of the first and second energy image sets including a plurality of voxels. An image intensity pair for each of the plurality of voxels is identified and the multi-dimensional graphical representation is generated based on the image intensity pair associated with each of the plurality of voxels. The image intensity pairs include a first energy intensity value and second energy intensity value.
The multi-dimensional graphical representation may be generated by calculating, for each image intensity pair, a number of voxels having the same image intensity pair, and assigning colors to the multi-dimensional graphical representation based on the calculated number of voxels for each image intensity pair. The colors are assigned to the multi-dimensional graphical representation based on the calculated number of voxels and a plurality of threshold values.
According to example embodiments, a first image data is obtained using X-rays having a first X-ray energy level and a second image data is obtained using X-rays having a second X-ray energy level. The rendering step renders the image based on the first and second image data.
According to example embodiments, apparatuses may further include a CT unit useable to obtain first image data based on X-rays emitted at a first energy level, and obtain second image data based on X-rays emitted at a second energy level. The image is rendered based on the first and second image data.
The graphics processing unit may further include an editing module to interactively adjust image parameters associated with the image to visualize a desired portion of the image. The editing module may also select a portion of the multi-dimensional graphical representation using a template widget, and the graphics processing unit computes the transfer function based on the selected portion of the multi-dimensional graphical representation.
In example embodiments, the editing tool may also be configured to interactively adjust the generated image by selecting a different portion of the graphical representation of the computed tomography data. In addition, the editing tool may be configured to select a portion of the multi-dimensional graphical representation of the computed tomography data based on desired tissue classifications for evaluation. The selecting of the portion of the multi-dimensional graphical changes the generated image in real-time.
The graphics processing unit further includes a histogram generation module to identify an image intensity pair for each of the plurality of voxels and generate the multi-dimensional graphical representation based on the image intensity pair associated with each of the plurality of voxels. The image intensity pair includes a first energy intensity value and second energy intensity value.
The histogram generation module is further configured to calculate, for each image intensity pair, a number of voxels having the same image intensity pair, and assign colors to the multi-dimensional graphical representation based on the calculated number of voxels for each image intensity pair.
The patent or application file contains at least one drawing executed in color. Copies of this patent or patent application publication with color drawing(s) will be provided by the Office upon request and payment of the necessary fee.
Example embodiments will become more apparent by describing in detail the example embodiments shown in the attached drawings in which:
Various example embodiments will now be described more fully with reference to the accompanying drawings in which only some example embodiments are shown. Specific structural and functional details disclosed herein are merely representative for purposes of describing example embodiments. The present invention, however, may be embodied in many alternate forms and should not be construed as limited to only the example embodiments set forth herein.
Accordingly, while example embodiments of the invention are capable of various modifications and alternative forms, embodiments thereof are shown by way of example in the drawings and will herein be described in detail. It should be understood, however, that there is no intent to limit example embodiments of the present invention to the particular forms disclosed. On the contrary, example embodiments are to cover all modifications, equivalents, and alternatives falling within the scope of the invention. Like numbers refer to like elements throughout the description of the figures.
It will be understood that, although the terms first, second, etc. may be used herein to describe various elements, these elements should not be limited by these terms. These terms are only used to distinguish one element from another. For example, a first element could be termed a second element, and, similarly, a second element could be termed a first element, without departing from the scope of example embodiments of the present invention. As used herein, the term “and/or,” includes any and all combinations of one or more of the associated listed items.
It will be understood that when an element is referred to as being “connected,” or “coupled,” to another element, it can be directly connected or coupled to the other element or intervening elements may be present. In contrast, when an element is referred to as being “directly connected,” or “directly coupled,” to another element, there are no intervening elements present. Other words used to describe the relationship between elements should be interpreted in a like fashion (e.g., “between,” versus “directly between,” “adjacent,” versus “directly adjacent,” etc.).
The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of example embodiments of the invention. As used herein, the singular forms “a,” “an,” and “the,” are intended to include the plural forms as well, unless the context clearly indicates otherwise. It will be further understood that the terms “comprises,” “comprising,” “includes,” and/or “including,” when used herein, specify the presence of stated features, integers, steps, operations, elements, and/or components, but do not preclude the presence or addition of one or more other features, integers, steps, operations, elements, components, and/or groups thereof.
It should also be noted that in some alternative implementations, the functions/acts noted may occur out of the order noted in the figures. For example, two figures shown in succession may in fact be executed substantially concurrently or may sometimes be executed in the reverse order, depending upon the functionality/acts involved.
Although not required, example embodiments will be described in the general context of computer-executable instructions, such as program modules, being executed by one or more computer processors or CPUs, or one or more graphics processing units (GPUs). Generally, program modules include routines, programs, objects, components, data structures, etc. that perform particular tasks or implement particular abstract data types. The program modules discussed herein may be implemented using existing hardware in existing post-processing workstations. More generally, the program modules discussed herein may be run on post-processing workstations, which may receive input data from one or more CT units (e.g., dual-energy CT units). However, these post-processing workstations may or may not be part of (e.g., integrated with) the CT unit itself.
Example embodiments may also be practiced in distributed computing environments where tasks are performed by remote processing devices that are linked. In a distributed computing environment, program modules may be located in both local and remote memory storage devices.
The acts and symbolic representations of operations described herein may be performed by one or more processors, such as a graphics processing unit (GPU) or the like, unless indicated otherwise. As such, it will be understood that such acts and operations, which are at times referred to as being computer-executed, include the manipulation by the processor of electrical signals representing data in a structured form. This manipulation transforms the data or maintains it at locations in the memory system of the computer, which reconfigures or otherwise alters the operation of the computer in a manner well understood by those skilled in the art.
The data structures where data is maintained are physical locations of the memory that have particular properties defined by the format of the data. However, while example embodiments are described in the foregoing context, it is not meant to be limiting as those of skill in the art will appreciate that various acts and operations described hereinafter may also be implemented in hardware.
Example embodiments provide methods, systems and computer readable mediums (e.g., computer program products) for combining a plurality of image data sets obtained using a plurality of energy levels to generate improved image visualization. As described herein, image information, image data and image data set may be used interchangeably, and may refer to image data used to generate and display a corresponding image to a user. Image, on the other hand, may refer to the image displayed to the user.
Example embodiments provide systems, methods and computer readable mediums for interactive exploration of multi-energy data based on direct volume rendering (DVR) with graphics processing units (GPUs). A multi-dimensional graphical representation (e.g., histogram) of source (e.g., computed tomography) may be displayed (or visualized) such that a user may visually identify tissue classes in the source data. Moreover, a multi-dimensional transfer function (MDTF) editor, editing tool or editing module allows interactive exploration of tissue classes with real time feedback on the corresponding DVR. Thereby, interactive implicit tissue classification with dual energy data is possible.
As described herein, “tissue” refers to blood, cells, bone and the like. “Distinct or different tissue” or “distinct or different material” refers to tissue or material with dissimilar density or other structural or physical characteristics. For example, in medical images, different or distinct tissue or material can refer to tissue having biophysical characteristics different from other (local) tissue. Thus, a blood vessel and spongy bone may have overlapping intensity, but are distinct tissue. In another example, a contrast agent may make tissue have a different density or appearance from blood or other tissue during imaging.
As further described herein, “visualization” refers to presentation or display of medical images to a user (e.g., doctor, clinician, radiologist, etc.) for viewing. The visualization may be in a flat 2-D and/or in 2-D what appears to be 3-D images on a display, data representing features with different visual characteristics such as with differing intensity, opacity, color, texture and the like. The images as presented by the visualization do not have to be the same as the original construct (e.g., they do not have to be the same 2-D slices from the imaging modality).
Although example embodiments will be discussed with regard to being implemented in conjunction with a CT unit and post-processing workstation, example embodiments or at least a portion thereof discussed herein may be implemented on any suitable computer. Such a computer may be completely separate from or integrated with a CT system and/or CT unit. In one example, the methods described herein may be implemented on a conventional personal computer or laptop on which the CT data may be loaded.
Two or more of the energy sources 220-1-220-N may have different X-ray energy levels. In one example embodiment, the CT scanner 22 may include two energy sources 220-1 and 220-2. However, example embodiments are not limited thereto. Because the manner in which dual-energy image data is obtained is well-known, a detailed discussion will be omitted.
The obtained dual energy data may include a plurality of image data sets, each of which may be obtained using a different X-ray energy level. For example purposes, methods according to example embodiments will be described herein with regard to two image data sets obtained using two different X-ray energy sources 220-1 and 220-2 emitting different X-ray energy levels (e.g., about 80 kV and about 140 kV). The energy levels will be referred to herein as first and second energy levels, and the data sets will sometimes be referred to as first energy image data and second energy image data.
In example embodiments described herein, the first and second energy levels may be different. For example, the first energy level may be a lower energy level, such as about 80 kV, whereas the second energy level may be a higher energy level, for example, about 140 kV. Collectively, the first energy image data and the second energy image data may sometimes be referred to as source data.
Within each of the first energy image data and the second energy image data, source slices are composed of two volumes of the same or substantially the same resolution and voxel size. For example, each source slice is composed of voxels generated using the first energy image data and voxels generated using the second energy image data. Each voxel of a slice of source data may sometimes be referred to as a dual-energy voxel.
After being obtained, the dual energy data is loaded onto (e.g., sent to) a post-processing workstation 24. Hereinafter, the post-processing workstation will be referred to as a computer 24. The computer 24 may include a graphics card or graphics processing unit (GPU) 241 capable of generating images based on the dual energy data using direct volume rendering (DVR). As shown in
Still referring to
As briefly described above, in
A method for generating a multi-dimensional histogram (e.g., the histogram shown in
For example, if the intensity pair (i80, i140) for a dual-voxel v1 is (200 HU, 250 HU), then a hit is registered for intensity pair (200,250). The intensity pairs and hits are discussed herein as discrete values. Intensity for voxels may be quantized in order to compute the corresponding histogram.
Still referring to
Similarly, intensity pairs (i80, i140) registering a number of hits between a lower bound THLGREEN and an upper bound THUGREEN may be assigned the color green.
In another example, intensity pairs (i80, i140) registering a number of hits between a lower bound THLBLUE and an upper bound THUBLUE may be assigned the color blue.
The upper and lower bounds of the threshold ranges may be determined based on tissue classes and predicted intensity values for given tissue classes. The colors may be associated with the threshold ranges by histogram generation module 244, with or without human operator intervention. A particular number of hits associated with different types of tissue may be known by the user or programmed into the histogram generation module 244.
The histogram generation module 244 determines which range the number of hits falls into and assigns a color as discussed above. This determination and assignment may be performed using a simple lookup table stored in graphics memory 246.
According to example embodiments, the ranges of values associated with each threshold range may overlap. Accordingly, one or more colors may be associated with each intensity pair, and the resultant histogram may show blended combinations of colors, not merely discrete colors. The ranges of values associated with different colors (e.g., red, green, blue, etc.) may overlap, but also may include different values. For example, the ranges of values associated with different colors (e.g., red, green, blue, etc.) may only partially overlap.
Referring back to the example histogram shown in
In general, according to example embodiments, colors, but not opacities, are assigned, for pixels in the histogram according to the number of hits of particular histogram positions.
The histogram (e.g., as shown in
In another example embodiment, a multi-dimensional histogram image may be generated using a standard segmentation algorithm such as split and merge, and then assigning different colors to individual regions of the 2DTF created over the histogram.
Using the editing tool 240 and input device 26 (e.g., a mouse, keyboard, etc.), the user may select different portions of the multi-dimensional histogram using an interactive template widget. The selecting of different portions of the histogram results in generation of a transfer function for the widget, which is suitable for generating an image using direct volume rendering (DVR).
Referring back to
The generated transfer function may be stored as one-dimensional and/or two-dimensional RGBA textures in graphics memory 246 and provided to the DVR module 248. As is well-known in the art, RGBA refers to a 4-dimensional array storing red, green and blue intensities and opacity, which is referred to as an alpha value. In example embodiments, the transfer function may be stored in the graphics memory 246, and obtained by the DVR module 248 via a read operation. The transfer function may be obtained by rendering user created (or template widgets) on a graphics memory buffer. This memory buffer is used as a source for the RGBA texture. The RGBA texture serves as a look-up table for tissue classification. According to example embodiments, the look-up table may constitute the transfer function.
At step S108, the DVR module 248 generates an image using direct volume rendering (DVR) based on the generated transfer function. The image is displayed to the user via display 242. The DVR module 248 may perform volume rendering using standard volume slicing using dual energy data for texturing view aligned polygons. Because methods for generating DVR images based on multi-dimensional transfer functions obtained from multi-dimensional histograms (e.g., the above-described volume rendering) is well-known in the art, a detailed discussion will be omitted for the sake of brevity. Although a volume slicing bricker approach is described above, other algorithms such as GPU based ray casting may also be used in connection with example embodiments.
According to example embodiments, the above-discussed methods (e.g., including generating the mixed image, noise filtering, tissue classification and local illumination) may be computed in real-time in a shader program such as shown in
In more detail, as shown in
At step S110, the user decides if the image generated is acceptable. If the user determines that the image is acceptable, the process terminates. However, if the user determines that the image is unacceptable, the user may interactively adjust the DVR image in real-time using input device 26. For example, the user may make real-time fine adjustments to the image by moving the above widget relatively slightly using a mouse input device. On the other hand, the user may view an entirely different tissue class by selecting a different portion of the histogram. For example, if the user desires to view Osseous tissue, the user may select the portion of the histogram labeled “Osseous Tissue.”
The user may interactively adjust the displayed image using the editing tool and the input device 26. For example, the user may move the above-discussed template widget throughout the multi-dimensional histogram and the DVR image may be modified in response to the movement in real-time. The editing tool allows the user to interactively and adaptively adjust the transfer function used in generating the DVR image by selecting different portions of the multi-dimensional histogram.
According to example embodiments, different portions of the multi-dimensional histogram may be selected by interactively moving a transfer function template widget over a target region in the multi-dimensional histogram as shown, for example, in
In addition to the above-discussed adjustments, the user may interactively adjust image parameters such as mixing coefficients and filter settings used in blending dual-energy data to generate a mixed energy image. In one example, a mixing co-efficient may be the alpha (α) factor in the following equation used in generating mixed dual-energy images:
M=I 80 α+I 140(1−α).
In the above equation, M represents the mixed energy image, I80 represents first energy image data (e.g., 80 kV image data) and I140 represents second energy image data (e.g., 140 kV image data).
According to at least some example embodiments, the multi-dimensional transfer function may be generated independent of previous tissue classifications associated with the computed tomography data in that information about tissue classes included in the scan does not need to be known beforehand and/or tissue classifications may be interactively adjusted on-the-fly in real-time using template widgets.
A more specific example of this interactive adjustment will be described in more detail below with regard to
As an alternative to assigning colors directly to the multi-dimensional transfer function, a combined single dimension transfer function/multi-dimensional transfer function (e.g., 1DTF/2DTF) approach may be applied. In this example embodiment, colors and opacities may be assigned by adjusting a single-dimensional transfer function for the mixed image. The editing tool is used for creating a binary mask that is then applied to determine visibility of voxels in the visualization as shown in
Example embodiments may also be implemented, in software, for example, as any suitable computer program. For example, a program in accordance with one or more example embodiments of the present invention may be a computer program product causing a computer to execute one or more of the example methods described herein: a method for determining a parameter in a system for implementing a future clinical study.
The computer program product may include a computer-readable medium having computer program logic or code portions embodied thereon for enabling a processor of the apparatus to perform one or more functions in accordance with one or more of the example methodologies described above. The computer program logic may thus cause the processor to perform one or more of the example methodologies, or one or more functions of a given methodology described herein.
The computer-readable medium may be a built-in medium installed inside a computer main body or removable medium arranged so that it can be separated from the computer main body. Examples of the built-in medium include, but are not limited to, rewriteable non-volatile memories, such as RAMs, ROMs, flash memories, and hard disks. Examples of a removable medium may include, but are not limited to, optical storage media such as CD-ROMs and DVDs; magneto-optical storage media such as MOs; magnetism storage media such as floppy disks (trademark), cassette tapes, and removable hard disks; media with a built-in rewriteable non-volatile memory such as memory cards; and media with a built-in ROM, such as ROM cassettes.
These programs may also be provided in the form of an externally supplied propagated signal and/or a computer data signal (e.g., wireless or terrestrial) embodied in a carrier wave. The computer data signal embodying one or more instructions or functions of an example methodology may be carried on a carrier wave for transmission and/or reception by an entity that executes the instructions or functions of the example methodology. For example, the functions or instructions of the example embodiments may be implemented by processing one or more code segments of the carrier wave, for example, in a computer, where instructions or functions may be executed for determining a parameter in a system for implementing a future clinical study, in accordance with example embodiments described herein.
Further, such programs, when recorded on computer-readable storage media, may be readily stored and distributed. The storage medium, as it is read by a computer, may enable the methods and/or apparatuses, in accordance with the example embodiments described herein.
Example embodiments being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. For example, the methods according to example embodiments of the present invention may be implemented in hardware and/or software. The hardware/software implementations may include a combination of processor(s) and article(s) of manufacture. The article(s) of manufacture may further include storage media and executable computer program(s), for example, a computer program product stored on a computer readable medium.
The executable computer program(s) may include the instructions to perform the described operations or functions. The computer executable program(s) may also be provided as part of externally supplied propagated signal(s). Such variations are not to be regarded as departure from the spirit and scope of the example embodiments, and all such modifications as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be included within the scope of the following claims.
The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the invention, and all such modifications are intended to be included within the scope of the invention.
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|10||J. Kniss et al., "Interactive Volume Rendering Using Multi-Dimensional Transfer Functions and Direct Manipulation Widgets", In Proceedings of IEEE Visualization 2001, 2001, Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute School of Computing, University of Utah.|
|11||Johnson, Thorsten R.C. et al.; "Material Differentiation by dual energy CT: initial experience"; Eur Radiol. Jun. 2007;17(6), pp. 1510-1517; Others; 2007.|
|12||M. Lell et al., "New Techniques in CT Angiography" RadioGraphics RSNA 2006, 45-62, 2006; Others.|
|13||Marc Levoy, "Display of Surfaces from Volume Data", IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 8(3), pp. 29-37, 1988. Computer Science Department, University of North Carolina Chapel Hill.|
|14||P. Engler et al., "Review of dual-energy computed tomography techniques" Materials Evaluation, vol. 48, May 1990, 623-623, ISSN 0025-5327; Others.|
|15||V. Rebuffel and J.-M. Dinten, "Dual-energy X-ray imaging: benefits and limits" Proceedings of European Conference on Non Destructive Testing, 2006; Others; pp. 589-594.|
|16||V. Rebuffel and J.-M. Dinten, "Dual-energy X-ray imaging: benefits and limits" Proceedings of European Conference on Non Destructive Testing, 2006; Others; pp. 589-594.|
|U.S. Classification||378/4, 378/5|
|Cooperative Classification||G06T15/08, A61B8/483, A61B6/482, A61B6/032|
|European Classification||G06T19/00, A61B6/48D, A61B6/03B, A61B8/48D|
|Apr 3, 2008||AS||Assignment|
Owner name: SIEMENS AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT, GERMANY
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Effective date: 20080314
|Sep 19, 2014||FPAY||Fee payment|
Year of fee payment: 4